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How to Assess Management Skills

1.1 Introduction/Background

This report intends for giving an overview of the management skills required for a good manager. Possession of those qualities will certainly ensure the success of a project. There are varieties of skills; however personal, business and technical skills can be treated as most important one.

Firstly, interpersonal skills such as leadership, motivation, vision, teamwork and communication play big role in managing people and the projects.

Moreover, a manager should know about his business and the expertise required for doing business. He should have qualities such as change management, delegation, diversity, meetings skills and follow up, diplomacy, negotiating skills, budgeting skills and business assessment etc.

Further, in order to know the demand of the day, the manager should have enough technical expertise to lead the team on the right direction and evaluate the progress made. Such expertise may include integration management, scope management, time management, cost management, quality management, human resource management, communication management, risk management, procurement management, charter development management, planning management configuration management etc

The main reason for undertaking seminar report is to understand how to assess the management skills. In order to reach the answer to the stated seminar questions some objectives are stated:

¾ Identify key management skills

¾ Learn and discuss the skills

¾ Find out the method of evaluating the management skills

¾ Propose recommendations and draw a conclusion

1.2 Research method

We would analyze the secondary data in order to get better understanding of the research problem, overview the related theories and find definitions. Our sources will be books, periodicals, and internet.

2 Chapter 1

2.1 Key Management Skills

2.2 Personal Skills

The personal skills comprise of those skills

2.2.1 Leadership

The leadership is an essential skill within the modern organizations. Top management of the companies around the world invests a lot of money into training and developing leadership skills of their employees. It can be described as a never ending process of self-study, education, training and experience. So what is leadership?

'Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent'. [1]

According to Roger Lever, leadership skills are of a high importance for a successful and effective project manager. He states that nevertheless it is critical to understand all management methodologies, tools and techniques, the ability to apply all of them is more valuable. Each project lifecycle include several stages and all of them require an effective leadership skills and certain behavior of a project manager. [2]

2.2.2 Project Initiation and Scope

The first stage of every project starts with an analysis of all opportunities and threats, and developing well-structured plan with showing project costs. It is all about stating goals and objectives, understanding other's needs and interests and removing the barriers. [2]

2.2.3 Project planning.

This stage require from the project leader the organization and building the team in a democratic way so that the plan will be carefully developed, all right people will be with the right role and all timetables are set. [2]

2.2.4 Requirements and Analysis

The project manager has to conduct effective meetings, with maximum contribution of each participant and also creating positive working environment. The duties of the manager in this process include: leading changes and understanding its impacts, consulting with members for decisions to be made, so that all weak and strong points will be classified, engaging people with the vision of the project and motivating them. [2]

2.2.5 Build, Test, Delivery and Closure.

The last stage is focused on task orientation, estimating all risk and priorities. Managing testing and application of necessary changes follow deployment and closure. Assuring that all steps and decisions applied will meet the primary objectives and goals of the project and preferred stage of quality is achieved. [2]

The attributes of the project manager that is necessary for effective fulfillment of all stages stated below, can be defined as 'BE KNOW DO'. It means that first of all he has to be a professional. Secondary, know himself (his own strong and weak points), human nature (to be able to understand human needs, emotions, and how people respond to stress), and organization (to understand the system and deliver the vision and mission to all team members). The last, but not the least is do provide directions, implementations and do motivate. [1]

2.2.6 Communication

Communication is the process by which messages are interchanged by the members of the organization through using a common framework of symbols.

Dimensions of communication are following: [3]

Communication is essential for project. It allows identifying the project progress, major project decisions and milestones. Also information such as expectations, goals, needs, resources, status reports, budgets and purchase requests should be taken into account. Therefore Project manager communicates with the stakeholders that can influence on the project progress. Based on the requirements from stakeholder analysis project manager should decide:

¾ how often to interact with each stakeholder

¾ what type of information should be provided

¾ the manner

Afterwards the communication plan should be developed.[5] (See an example in Appendix #1)

* Writing style [3]

* AActive listening

Skilled listener decides every time to talk or to let someone else talk. Active listening means that listener focuses on the speaker and pays attention on his non verbal signals, clarifies the information in order to understand the message, responds to the message and paraphrase in order to summarize content and meaning. [6]

According to management trainer Madelyn Burley-Allen, there are benefits which appear right way after the listening:

¾ Respect between talker and listener

¾ Productivity increases because resolution of the problem takes less time

¾ Focusing on listening allows quieting down to talker and speaker

¾ Confidence

¾ Accuracy of the information exchanged [7]

* Presentation skills

¾ Know your audience

Project manager should snow the end receiver of the message in order to meet the needs of the audience.

¾ Know your content

Project manager should clarify all details of subjects in the presentation

¾ Be consistent

Means using appropriate format of presentations.

¾ Provide the information in clear and concise way

¾ Provide accurate information [8]

* Managing meeting (will discuss later)

2.2.7 Emotional Intelligence

One of the significant measures of leadership is emotional intelligence. According to Daniel Gorman, emotional intelligence consists of self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills.

Self-awareness is the capability of person for comprehending his or her own emotions, strengths, weaknesses, needs and drives. People with a high level of self-awareness realize that their personal characteristics influence on others. Moreover, basic criteria can be singled out. There are self-confidence, assessing you rationally and self-irony.

Self-regulation is the knack of controlling own feelings and impulses and directing them in valuable course. Therefore, this skill allows creating environment of trust and integrity. One of aspect of self-regulation is thinking before acting. In addition, managing emotions helps to cope with the changes.

Motivation is internal force of individuals that drives to achieve high personal and organizational goal. People who are motivated they set their sights on facilitating own, team's or project's progress. It should be pointed out that strongly motivated project manager has aspiration to use whole of his or her potential to attain a success and inspire team members to provoke high performance. Also, he or she indicate progress and crave for greater challenges.

Empathy is aptitude to understand and consider others feelings in the decision-making process. Nowadays it is essential issue because more companies work globally and frequency of work in the teams is rising. Different people use variety of approaches to represent ides, solutions to problem that is beneficial for the organization. So, project manager should understand the cultural with ethnic and personal differences in stakeholders, demonstrate respect and concerned, show tolerance and transmit clear messages.

Social skill is 'friendliness with a purpose' that means directing people in desirable way. Socially skilled person has wide range of acquaintances and he knows in which situation take advantage of this network. He has ability to find approach to everyone. Social skill is the integration part that put into actions the emotional intelligence. [9]

2.2.8 Team player

The team as group of people with different skills and abilities is considered to be more effective in task fulfillment than individuals. The success of each project consists of leadership qualities as a key requirement of the project manager and good team players. The ability to group together, work towards a common goal and add value to the process requires a certain level of contribution from all members. To develop a project in a highly productive and effective way, all members have to be good team players. [10]

Being a team player involves certain attitudes and approaches to teamwork, such as:

Commit to success. Each team player has to be committed to success. It is necessary that everyone wants the project to be done, the team to win and to apply personal skills and abilities to meet the goals.

Focus on objectives. It is important that everyone understand the goals and objectives of the team and their own commitment. Everything that is done must be aligning with the main goals.

Support others. Good team players always support and coach each other, share their knowledge. Moreover, considering all groups decisions, will show the interest of other people's ideas that demonstrate open mindness and respect.

Being competent. There is no doubt that an effective team player must know his own work. It is important not only have certain qualities and skills, but also ensure on going learning process.

Communicate. The high level of communication within the team is critical. All problems and misunderstanding should be discussed so that there will be nothing to distract team work. [11]

Building a highly effective team is not an easy process; it requires contribution of all its members and takes time and effort to develop skills of a good team player

2.3 Business Skills

Business (customer's business) skills and knowledge can surely add to your success as a PM. Understanding the business makes it easy to talk to the customer and understand the customer. Business skills make it easier to discuss things, especially budgeting issues, with your technical staff. Business skills surely increase the level of acceptance of your own project team members, the specialists. In this regard we must know business skills attributes which strongly affect on management functions such as change management and negotiation skills.

2.3.1 Change Management

A common definition used for change management is a set of processes that is employed to ensure that significant changes are implemented in an orderly, controlled and systematic fashion to effect organizational change.[12]

One of the goals of change management is with regards to the human aspects of overcoming resistance to change in order for organizational members to buy into change and achieve the organization's goal of an orderly and effective transformation. It's a simple fact of life that change is all around us. If there's one thing you can count on, it's that whatever business environment you're living in today (your customers' preferences, the names and nature of the competition, industry changes, access to resources, etc.) will be different tomorrow—sometimes in small ways, but often in significant ways. Because the business environment is constantly changing, managers are increasingly expected not only to foresee these new conditions well in advance of their arrival but also to deal with them effectively when they arrive. Change puts a lot of weighty expectations— and pressure—on those in charge.[13]

2.3.2 Delegation:

Delegation is a skill of which can be used either as an excuse for dumping failure onto the shoulders of subordinates, or as a dynamic tool for motivating and training your team to realize their full potential.[14]

It supports a style of management which allows your staff to use and develop their skills and knowledge to the full potential. Without delegation, you lose their full value. The objective of delegation is to get the job done by someone else. Not just the simple tasks of reading instructions and turning a lever, but also the decision making and changes which depend upon new information. With delegation, your staffs has the authority to react to situations without referring back to you.[15]

2.3.3 Diversity:

Diversity management is a strategy that is intended to foster and maintain a positive workplace environment. Usually initiated by Human Resources professionals and managed by department heads and supervisors, an effective diversity management program will promote recognition and respect for the individual differences found among a group of employees. The idea of this management style is to encourage employees to be comfortable with diversity in the workplace and develop an appreciation for differences in race, gender, background, sexual orientation or any other factors that may not be shared by everyone working in the same area of the company. Diversity management can be adapted to many different types of working environments and be integrated into many different types of management styles. Promoting recognition and acceptance of diversity among the employees can convert a hostile workplace environment into a welcoming environment where people freely communicate and support one another with any tasks associated with the job. In doing so, the implementation of a diversity management approach often makes it possible for productivity levels to increase dramatically.

One of the main advantages of a strong diversity management program is that it tends to encourage the development of latent skills and talents among employees. Individuals who may have felt unable to move forward in the company due to factors such as race, gender or sexual orientation find that these attributes are no longer issues. When this happens, employees begin to feel valued and are more willing to step outside their comfort zones and enhance their skill sets for the benefit of the departmental team, the company as a whole and for the individual.[16]

2.3.3.1

Elements of diversity:-

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Project Management-I

* Age

* Marital status

* Gender

* Education

* Ethnicity

* Geography location

* Race

* Personality type

* Physical ability

* Parental status

* Sexual Orientation

* Religious beliefs

* Physical characteristics

* Income

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2.3.4 Meetings Skills & Follow Up

Meeting an activity with a intended communication between a number of persons to make decisions together and to check execution of the decisions. Here are some advantages of making meeting like:

* Many issues easier to solve with several people than single person

* Forces you to think about and defend proposals

* Reinforces common goals and shared perceptions - team building

* Increases knowledge of other team members' work

* Can share responsibility for a decision

Meetings are very important for the work of any organisation. Good meetings are important for collective decision-making, planning and follow-up, accountability, democracy, and other practices that will help you to build a good organisation. If meetings are used in the correct way, they can help an organization to be efficient. However, like all organising tools, meetings can be used badly and end up not serving the purpose that they are supposed to. Sometimes we seem to attend too many long meetings, which discuss the same thing over and over again without seeming to move forward. Meetings can become places where conflict is played out. Some people can also see attending meetings as working for the organization instead of seeing it as a tool for getting work done. We should try to make our meetings places where we get democratic and constructive participation and involvement from our members.[4]

There are important things to know about meeting in order to get good result:

* The purpose of meeting

* Different types of meeting:

§ The general members meeting

§ Special meetings

§ Executive meetings

§ Annual General Meeting

* Planning a meeting

* How to run meeting:

§ The agenda

§ Meeting procedures

§ How to take decisions in meetings

§ How to chair the meeting

§ How to write minutes in the meeting

2.3.5 Politician

Organizations are political as well as economic entities, and you better hone your political skills to thrive in the business environment. Politician skills could sum up in comprehensiveness of politic issues regarding to managerial environmental. It helps the managers to get an effective result in dealing with politicians during communications. Briefly, knowing the politician language seems to be necessary when the managers challenging with governmental representatives.

2.3.6 Negotiation skills (scope goals and objectives)

Negotiation is an everyday activity and a group process for reaching agreement. It has these characteristics:

* Parties may have different end objectives

* Parties expect to reach an agreement

* No one party has all the information

* Unpredictable outcome

* You must be willing to walk away

Specifically, project managers, constantly, negotiate about the time plans, resources, budgets, specifications. Negotiation is necessary because project managers are dependent on other people and organizations' contribution. Theories of negotiation are:

* Win-Win

* Win-Lose

* Zero Sum

* Synergy

True negotiation ends to create real Win-Win situations.[4]

2.3.7 Budgeting skills

Budgeting skills is crucial for any successful project manager as it allows him to plan and execute the project plans with in the financial confines as set by the higher management.

A successful should be able to draft and formulate the budget required to complete the project. He/she should be able to track expenses and if the project is exceeding the budgetary requirements he/she should be able to recalculate the needs.

2.3.8 Business function

Business functions are activities or tasks that are performed together to produce pre set results as defined by the charter of the organization or scope of the project [20]

A business manager should be able to analyze the results of other processes and on the basis of those results should be able to calculate the desired results and goals.

2.3.9 Business Case Justification

Good business case justification is necessary for any project manager because it well written business cases allow good conclusions to be drawn. They also shed some light on the risks involved in a project. Project managers should understand well what the project is all about and they should be able to understand the risks, benefits, long and short term implications involved with it. Good project managers should be able to objectify the achievable business goals justify them according to his experience and knowledge and circumstances of the project [21]

2.3.10 Business Assessment

A project manager should be able to to good business assessment by understanding the current or expected capabilities of the organization and comparing it with the near of long term goals of the organization. He should be able to understand the strengths or weakness of the organization and the work force and also should understand the business culture of the organization. He should be able to come up with realistic business plans considering all involved factors and factions.

2.4 Technical Skills

We think technical skills are one of the most important skills in the management field. And now as we want to speak about technical skills we want to be more specific and focus more on the project management skills. Sometimes technical skills are the combination of your personal skills with the specific knowledge. Before knowing how to assess different type of skills we need to have a good knowledge about different aspect of each skill in account of finding an effective way for assessing it. So we have to go to different areas of knowledge in Project Management to find the exact definition of that area and skill.

According to the PMBOK we have 9 different area of knowledge in project management which we will have a short explanation in each of them. [4], [17]

2.4.1 Project Integration Management

Refer to the specific fields and processes that coordinate different components and activities in the project. Here is the place that you have to be sure different subprojects are in the proper way and also proportionate with the others.(umbrella knowledge area of project management)

Project Integration Management include of three main processes which are:

2.4.1.1

Project Plan Development:

It includes gathering the result of different planning processes and makes one consistent document as main project plan.

2.4.1.2

Project Plan Execution

Follow the project plan by doing different activities included in the main project plan.

2.4.1.3

Overall Change Control

Managing all the changes happening in the entire project and be sure each change in necessary and useful.

Studying the major processes and specially tools and techniques for doing them will help us to understand the main required skills in this area better.

For example in Project Plan Development a manager (especially project manager) besides having a good knowledge in management need to have acceptable and relevant knowledge and skills in planning and Project Management Information System (PMIS). And also he or she must have the ability to communicate and to set effective meeting and follow up to use stakeholder skills and knowledge. [18] Or in Project Plan Execution we can point out general management skills, products skills and perfect abilities in PMIS and also meetings.

Moreover in Overall Change Control the manager needs skills in changing control knowing where and when to apply them to get best efficiency and it could include changes in scope, cost, schedule, risks, standards etc.

2.4.2 Project Scope Management:

Refers to all the procedure need to done in order to be sure that the project include all necessary (not anything more or less) subprojects in order to do it successfully.

We could divide it to:

2.4.2.1

Initiation:

Always inform the organizations and companies to start the next stage of the main project

2.4.2.2

Scope Planning:

Keep the scope statement of the project up to date.

2.4.2.3

Scope Definition:

Divide the project deliverables into smaller elements.

2.4.2.4

Scope verification:

Verify acceptance of the scope by stakeholders.

2.4.2.5

Scope Change Control:

Control all the changes in the scope.

Now if we want to define some skills within this area we will say manager need to know about optimization methods, value engineering, benefit measurements, how to estimate tangible cost an benefits and to use experts ideas.

2.4.3

Project Time Management:

Where you will be sure that project will finish on time.

2.4.4 Activity Definition:

What activities and subproject must be done in order to have all the deliverable done?

2.4.4.1

Activity Sequencing:

Arrange all the activities in order.

2.4.4.2

Activity Duration Estimating:

Estimate the needed time for finishing each activity.

2.4.4.3

Schedule Development:

Studying all previous steps including activity definition and sequencing and duration estimation to provide the project schedule.

2.4.4.4

Schedule Control:

Control all the changes in the schedule.

Have some basic knowledge about Precedence, Arrow and conditional diagramming methods (PDM, ADM) and how to use top-down estimating and Monte carlo analysis method.

Knowing how to use mathematical analysis like duration compression and concepts such as Critical Path Method (CPM), Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT), Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) or how to use project management software will be some great skills.

2.4.5 Project Cost Management:

With the all processes within this area you will be ensure that the project will be finished with the approved budget.

Project Cost Management consists of:

2.4.5.1

Resource Planning:

Here we will determine all type of resource which we may need during the project, with specifying the quantity of them.

2.4.5.2

Cost Estimating:

Based on previous step we have to estimate the cost of the all resources during the project approximately.

2.4.5.3

Cost Budgeting:

Now we divide that approximate cost between different parts of the project.

2.4.5.4

Cost Control:

Include controlling all the changes to the project budget.

Again here a good manager needs to use expert's judgment, historical documentations (top-down estimation) and on the other hand bottom-top estimation (estimate the costs of each subproject in account of finding the cost of whole project)

He or she may also need to have some skills in using mathematical models or different softwares in management or in cost estimating. (computerized tools like software's may use everywhere)

2.4.6 Project Quality Management:

Within this field of management you should be ensure that project will meet all the goals which was defined on the beginning of the project. And it divides into three main processes:

2.4.6.1

Quality Planning:

What kind of quality standards we need and how to apply them.

2.4.6.2

Quality Assurance:

Make sure that project will satisfy the quality standards by analyzing the project performance till today.

2.4.6.3

Quality Control:

Always analyzing and discussing different subprojects results to be sure that they following the quality standards.

Good skills in using flowcharts (or histograms like Pareto diagram), analyzing benefits, fallowing the quality standards are advised.

2.4.7 Project Human Resource Management

All the employee must work in the most effective way of their ability and it will be organized in Human Resource Management which include of:

2.4.7.1

Organizational Planning:

Define project roles, Tasks and responsibilities.

2.4.7.2

Staff Acquisition:

Determine tasks of each individual human resource and make sure that they will finish on time.

2.4.7.3

Team Development:

Improve the team working skills to increase the project speed and quality.

Using Templates, pre-assigning and collocation can be so helpful here beside general management skills.

2.4.8 Project Communications Management

I t provides all interconnections and links between the peoples involve in the projects and also different opinions to achieve the success. Which it contains of these major processes:

2.4.8.1

Communications Planning:

Settle needs of stakeholders include what and when they need it and how they will access to it.

2.4.8.2

Information Distribution:

Provide an easy and on time access to information for stakeholder.

2.4.8.3

Performance Reporting:

Report everything such as status of different part of project, progress measurement and forecasting.

2.4.8.4

Administrative Closure:

Collect all the result to document the acceptance of the product by the sponsors or customers.

It seems that here you need good skills in general management lice communications and negotiations beside project meeting skills. He or she also needs to know how to compare the actual result with the expected results, test the result, and also how to do the earned value analysis.

2.4.9 Project Risk Management

Include all the information about the project's risks. And it will divide in these major processes:

2.4.9.1

Risk Identification

Identify which risks will we have in the project.

2.4.9.2

Risk Quantification:

Finding the probability of risks.

2.4.9.3

Risk Response Development:

Defining different ways of responses to the threats.

2.4.9.4

Risk Response Control:

Be aware of controlling all the risk response during the project. We need to do the controlling over and over.

Good abilities in making checklists, flowcharts and using insurance beside skills in interviewing are advised. Manager needs some skills in simulations, decisions tree and finding the probability of risks.

2.4.9.5

Procurement management

A manager should be able to show good procurement management skills he should be able to demonstrate good skills while procuring materials and or services for the organization and the team.

A good manager should be able to demonstrate the following qualities.

He should be able to follow company rules and regulations while procuring materials and services.

He should be able to make sounds suggestions and decisions on what materials and services to be procured at the right time for the project.

He should be familiar with local and company laws while procuring those materials and services and makes sure that he is in no violation of any law.

2.4.9.6

Charter development management

A charter shows the functions and responsibilities of how development management works in an organization. It ensures that the stakeholders understand the how services and development works in an organization and what level of services and development they should expect [19]

A successful manager should be able to draft a charter or let the team follow the general guidelines as set by the organization's rules and regulations. He must be able to track the activities of the individual team members and analyze their performance based on their adherence to the pre set guidelines.

2.4.9.7

Planning management

Planning management involves how to plan the project efficiently. A successful manager should be able to demonstrate a successful project plan and how does he/she plans to plan the whole project. He should be able to understand the details and guidelines regarding the process and should look at all possible measure to ensure a complete and detailed project plan

2.4.9.8

Configuration management

Configuration management is the management of changes involved during the project planning and implementation phase. A successful project manager should be able to track all changes made during the cycle and keep a record so that the changes many no effect the project negatively and everyone understands and is well aware of the changes made in the project. He/she should be able to understand why those changes were made and which part of the project will be affected by those changes.

Effective configuration management is necessary for any successful project as it ensures that there is no duplication of work or it does not evolve into any accident.

3 Chapter 2

3.1 Assessment Methods

Assessment is one of the important tasks needs to be done for different types of skills related to job i.e. communication skills, interpersonal skills, analytical skills and planning and organization skills. Assessments can include many things consisting of exercises depicting the real life job situations e.g. one may be asked to present a sales presentation to be evaluated for the job in a simulated environment. Additionally assessment can include different types of personality tests comprising of personality inventories, cognitive ability tests and job knowledge tests. Assessment is done by professionals or experts in a particular field who observe, rate and evaluate behaviors as required. Lately the performances are judged to find their suitability for the job. [22]

3.1.1 Biographical Data:

Biographical data is the simplest way to asses an individual. The contents may vary depending on the requirements. It may include areas such as team work skills, leadership, job knowledge and some specific technical skills e.g. expertise in a particular software, a particular mechanical/electrical tool etc, extraversion, creativity and interpersonal skills etc. Biographical data usually contain education, work experience, training and interests to predict the suitability of the candidate for a job. Sometimes it may include personal assessment, skills, individual attitude and personality. [22]

Biographical data is much easier to administer. It can be asked via paper or some computerized methods for a large number of candidates and it doesn't required experts to perform this activity. Moreover, it's cost effective and much feasible for organizations usually and its one of the successful methods for identifying right people for the job. Some disadvantages can be that individuals may represent them self in a much positive manner influencing a decision. Further, candidates may not provide sufficient information for the process. [22]

3.1.2 Cognitive ability Tests

Cognitive ability tests generally contain problems or questions to assess ability of learning quickly, reasoning, logic, comprehension reading and other mental abilities that are very necessary for a successful manager. Cognitive ability tests can be helpful in evaluating a person's aptitude or ability to resolve job related issues by giving information about ones verbal, perceptual and mathematical abilities required for a particular job. [22]

Cognitive ability tests have been proven very helpful for different organization in regards to success in training and performance. It is much helpful in predicting performance for particular jobs and it can easily be conducted on paper or computerized software and there are fewer chances that the individuals can fake their response. Some disadvantages can be that it will differ in gender and race and if not purchased from particular experts it may take quite long to develop such tests. [22]

3.1.3 Integrity Tests

Integrity tests are based on the assessment of attitudes and experiences associated with honesty, trustworthiness, dependability, reliability and pro-social behavior. The tests are formatted in such a way which clearly inquires about past experiences related to integrity and ethics OR ask questions about interests and preferences from which conclusions can be deducted about a person's future behavior in job situations. Integrity tests are very helpful to identify individuals who are expected to be involved in dishonest, inappropriate and antisocial behavior at work. [22]

Integrity tests have been very successful for many organizations. It is easy to manage, cost effective and doesn't need very skilled people to administer it. It sends a very positive message to the test take that integrity is very important for this organization. It can reduce business cost by identifying peoples who are more productive for the organization. There can be some disadvantages as individuals may fake their impression or some test taker may find it intrusive, unrelated to job and threat to privacy. [22]

3.1.4 Interviews

Interviews vary in nature depending on the requirements of the job. Generally interviews assess job knowledge, interpersonal skills, team work skills and communication skills. Good interviews normally includes a number of questions related to job knowledge, abilities, skills and other traits required for the job. Interviews are the most common way to of testing the suitability of a candidate. Interview can be conducted face to face or by telephone. [22]

Interviews are always expected and widely accepted by job applicants and it's the easiest way to exchange information two ways. Oral communication skills are much easier to measure which may be missed in written or computerized communication. The results may less likely to differ in gender and race from other types of tests. Some disadvantages can be that the results may be affected by interviewers biases and rating errors. Moreover, it may be less useful to interview a large number of candidates just for the sake interviewing which increase administrative time and can be some times quite costly to train the interviewers. Further it's quite hard to standardize the interview process. [22]

3.1.5 Job Knowledge Tests

This kind of test usually contains writing essays or questions with multiple choices to appraise knowledge of a person that are required for some particular job. Job knowledge test checks the professionalism and knowledge of a person in some specific area. Job knowledge test examples can be programming concepts, fundamental principles of accounting, statistical formulas etc.

Job Knowledge test can play an importance role in human recourse management of an organization; it can make the performance and outcomes of an organization better. It helps to hire right person for right job, identify those who need training or promotions and can reduce the human recourses costs. Job knowledge test can give reliable feedback to the test takers concerning the required training and progression.

Knowledge test should be updated according to the present need of job, which may affect the selector's decision if it is not updated. Some time it may be not suitable because the test may be for short time that is not sufficient to acquire the knowledge.

3.1.6 Personality Tests

Personality test usually based on the characteristics that are related to personal behaviors, interaction with work and organization. It includes innovation, self interest in work, positive thinking, pleasantness, ability in team, stress indulgence, self motivation and confidentiality. This kind of test can be taken to assess the individual's personal capabilities and skills for the concern job. Personality tests are important where job performance of individual need to be perform in team work or interpersonal interaction.

Personality test can be useful for the performance of organization, because when hiring can be done after personality test it means that person is eligible for the concerned job. It can decrease the business cost, as it help to hire right person for the job or which person have the ability for promotion, so organization do not need to spend extra money on hiring process. It can be taken by pen paper or may be on computer easily in large number with less amount of cost. It does not need for skill to be administered. Personality test has some draw backs as well it may include some questions that are not related to the job, if not prepared well. Individual may present him/herself in a good way in this type of test but actually he/she is not. Individual may show his expressions in positive way but he is not like that, so it will be fake for decision makers.

3.1.7 Physical Ability Test

These kinds of tests can be performed to assign some exercises or tasks to check the physical ability of an individual. These may be speed, weight and balance etc.

Physical test are useful in such environment where organization need to perform physical tasks. It can identify the individual who are not capable to perform the needed task in job. It can reduce costs as it identify the right person for job after physical test, it can decrease the level of risks for physical injuries of employees. It can reduce the insurance costs, compensation costs, medical and disability costs. Physical test give more efficient result to the selection team as there is no chance that an individual present him/herself in a fake way.

Physical ability test cannot be effective at selection time if it use once to diagnose employee's medical position, like physical disability of an individual rather than ability and skills regarding specific field related tasks. Physical test can be costly as there should be need of equipments and may be time consuming.

3.1.8 Work Samples and Simulations

These types of tests usually concentrate on assessing particular job skills/knowledge; beside these it can also appraise some more skills like organizational skill, interpersonal skills and analytic skills. Work samples & simulations normally involve execution of tasks which are similar such type of tasks that performed to evaluate the skill and capabilities levels.

This type of test is useful to provide some particular feedback, and it may provide a sensible preview of organization and job to the test takers. Work sample and simulations may not evaluate the capacity to learn new tasks rapidly. It may need some level of knowledge for job, that may need more time which is not efficient in this case because such type of test can be conducted for short time.

4 Conclusion

In our report firstly we studied project management skills including business, personal and technical skills. During our studying these management skills we found that, there are some important interconnections between them, which mean that we cannot separate them from each other. For example it is not possible to have good technical skills without having any ability in personal skills. After these we have gone through different method for assessing of management skills, there are many skills which need for assessment but these can vary according to the situation, job nature, organization type, cultural problem and type of projects etc But if we follow these assessment skills so, it should help a lot in human resources management of an organization, e.g it can reduce business costs, saves time, it can help to select right person for the job, promotion, training and skills that need for the development of an organization in projects.

Finally we think it not possible to assess all those skills with one method and a combination of them for the important project are advised.

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