Formal & Informal Groups
How do informal groups differ from the formal teams & departments that exist in an organisation.As amanager,how would you try to understand the ways informal groups impact on theeffectiveness of operational activity,and how would you influence them.To bebased Award in a hospital
Informal Groups Within an Organisation
Organisationscontain formal groups which have been put into place by the organisationalmanagement to perform specific tasks in order to further the aims of theorganisation. In addition to the formal groups, there are informal groups whichcan assume an existence in organisations as a result of the mutually sharedinterests of the individuals who are a part of the organisation. Informalgroups exist purely because of mutual interests and have no formal mandate fromthe organisation. The membership of the informal groups seeks to satisfy someneed by belonging to these groups. These needs may include needs for security,knowledge acquisition, informal attempts to shape organisational policy, family,social interaction etc.
Struggling with your management essay(s)?
Did you know that we can help you with your Formal & Informal Groups Within An Organisation and any other management essays?
We can help you! Place an order with us and you'll get:
- An exact, 100% original answer to your essay question
- From a graduate writer, qualified in your subject area
- Delivered confidentially by email, in 3 hours - 10 days (you choose)
Stop struggling and get the help you need from the UK’s favourite student support company, right now.
Learn more about our custom essay writing service, or place your order using the box below:
Leadership position in such groups is freely accorded by the group membership based on qualities that are considered to be critical for the satisfaction of the needs of the moment, with changing needs resulting in changes of leadership. Informal groups in formal organisations can be powerful and important because they have the capability of supporting or opposing organisational aims. Organisational managers should attempt to acquaint themselves with the informal groups in their areas of jurisdiction so that informal discussions with these groups may be possible and attempts may be made to change their norms if they prove to be contrary to the organisational aims. Informal groups can be found in any organisational setting including clubs, schools, health care units, industries etc.
The motives behind their formation are a part of human nature and it should not be necessary to excessively interfere in the activities of informal groups unless they are proving to be destructive. In this essay, an attempt has been made to take a look at informal groups in organisations with a special emphasis on the informal groups to be found in a hospital ward.
Organisations exist in order toperform useful functions or tasks which will generate revenues or provide aservice. In order to achieve organisational missions, teams may be establishedwithin the organisation which are organised around a set of objectives. A teamor a group is, therefore, considered to be a number of people who have beenbrought together as a result of a desire to perform some function or accomplisha set of objectives. Groups and teams are formally created in order to providea remedy for the dysfunction of bureaucratic structures that may be present inan organisation.
Segmentation in organisations results in large problems being cut into sub - problems which are then cut into even smaller problems. These problems are then allocated to sub - units or components of sub-units which offer inputs to the problems or tasks and the solution to the whole consists of these inputs. Specially created groups within organisations may horizontally cut across existing boundaries and functions existing within organisations in an attempt to take advantage of lateral linkages. A management team or group with lateral linkages can therefore be created by the corporate management in order to better manage the organisation. Such groups which have been created as a result of the design choices and the development processes in an organisation are different from the informal groups which almost always come into existence in organisations if opportunities exist.
The informal groups which can come into being within organisations can come about as a result of common interests, desire to learn and share knowledge and achieve specific objectives. These groups can also act to counter organisational function and the imposed standards of management. Standards of the informal groups are the standards of the group members which have not been imposed on them by anyone and certainly not by the organisational management. The leaders of the informal groups in organisations will have power within the groups which can oppose the formal directives of the organisation or the organisational managers. Hence, it is important to realise that informal groups do exist within organisations and that they have an implicit code of ethics or an unspoken set of standards. In order to positively harness the power of the informal groups, it is important to understand group dynamics and to bring about changes in the informal group norms so as to support the formal organisation. [Arndt 1997]; [Onepine.Info 2005]
The terms groups and teams areoften used interchangeably and are important concepts in management literature.Groups can be found almost anywhere including schools, work organisations,families, and hospitals as well as in sports clubs. As opposed to a group, ateam is expected to have some positive attributes to it. A team will havecohesion, cooperation and teamwork and groups are expected to develop intoteams. A team is, therefore, a special type of group which has becamesufficiently organised in order to fulfil a mission or a purpose. A group canconsist of more then one individuals capable of interacting with each other whoare aware of their membership within a group as well as their positiveinterdependence as they strive to achieve mutual goals.
Although members of the group are most likely to have face-to-face interactions most of the time, they can also have interactions over the internet or other media once the group has been formed and members are known to each other. Informal groups will have communication processes which are smoother and less cumbersome then those of the formal organisation. Leadership status is mostly afforded to members who have access to information vital to the functioning of the group or the ability to distribute this information. Whereas formal groups come into existence as a result of organisation design, task allocation and decision making which result in communications and team learning, informal groups are formed as a result of mutually shared interests and are led by members with a strong commitment to the cause. Informal groups can provide a sense of belonging with friendship, support and affiliation along with a sense of identity as well as self esteem for its members.
Informal groups can also serve as defence mechanisms for forces that can be too great for a single individual to resist and may also serve as a platform to develop a consensus amongst members about issues which can also be related to the organisation and which may have been regarded as being controversial. The members in an informal group can feel more secure, less anxious and more capable of facing threats such as the cruel behaviour of a supervisor. The leadership of the informal group mostly belongs to the member who is most capable of satisfying the needs of the group and this leadership changes with changing requirements and the ability to cater for the requirements of other members.
Because the informal leader does not possess formal powers, therefore, the informal leader can be deposed if this leader cannot adequately satisfy the requirements of the members. Because the cohesiveness of the informal groups can be enhanced in the face of external threats, attempts to force a group to conform to organisational norms can backfire and it may be better to try and neutralise the group leader or to conduct reasonable dialogue. Informal groups can have norms, values and unspoken rules which may be necessary to perpetuate the existence of the group and in some groups violations of these rules or norms can carry severe penalties.
Although informal groups become important and noticeable because they start to challenge the formal organisation, it must however, be realised that not all informal groups in organisations are harmful and some may in fact be serving a useful purpose such as knowledge sharing, helping members cope, generating ideas or pursuing hobbies. Apart from the work floor, informal groups can also exist as 'communities of practice' amongst professionals who are informally sharing knowledge, pursuing design excellence or in other ways controlling and generating knowledge or skills in an organisation. [Accel-Team.com 2005]; [Rupert 2004]; [Fiona 2004]
Informal groups in organisationsarise as a result of the interpersonal relationships of the members of a formalorganisation and there are formal leaders who have authority because of theexistence of a formal organisation as well as informal leaders who may be givendeference by the employees because they have been able to assist in thesatisfaction of some of their needs. Some of the leaders of informal groups orthe 'workers of influence' can hold rather ordinary positions in the formalorganisations but can be a force to be reckoned with because of theirleadership of the informal organisation even though this leadership may betemporary or in transition.
Without any formal mandate, leadership in the informal group may be based on knowledge, past services, seniority, personality attribute and the art of inducing compliance, a power relationship, the desire for the achievement of a goal or the emerging result of group interactions. Generally, groups do not act because there are leaders but they acquire leaders to help them act. In a fee environment, the leader of the informal group will be the individual who will have a reciprocally rewarding relationship with the rest of the group.
However, just like any other leader, the leader of the informal group will have a guiding vision, enthusiasm and a passion for action, integrity, maturity, knowledge, candour, trust, curiosity and daring. The reason why an informal group leader may not have succeeded in the organisation's formal management structure could be due to a lack of formal qualifications or money and they may be perceived to be belonging to a different 'class' which is distinct from the formal managerial core. Power in the informal groups is vested by the peers and informal group leadership has influence over their members as well as the capability to exert an influence over managerial decision making. Hence, an informal organisation exists in parallel to the formal organisation and there is informal status that can be conferred on members of the organisation as distinct from the formal status in an organisation [Sandra 2004]; [Onepine.Info 2005]
The development of formal as wellas informal groups can be described in terms of Tuckman's five-stage modelconsisting of the stages of forming or the process of group formation, stormingin which individual search and conflicts occur, norming or the normalising ofrelationships between group members, performing during which peak groupactivity takes place and adjourning a stage when group members leave and arereplaced by others. At the informal group level, where personal relationshipsare more significant, factors related to sociometry or the science withinpsychodrama may influence the informal relations between actors apart fromconsiderations related to gain or protection from threats.
The basic notion behind sociometry is the flow of feelings which can attract or repel individuals to each other and this is used to explain the inner structures of groups which also have an outer structure. The outer structure of a group may not fulfil the needs of the group members although such a structure will reflect the decision and responsibility structure of the group and attention should also be placed on relationships of attraction between members without which a group can loose its creative life. In a hospital ward, for instance, the formal structures consist of the nursing supervisors who are in charge of the ward and the doctors, but there is an element of interaction between the patients who are all in the ward because they have a need to get well and be looked after while they try to achieve this aim.
There are no formal groups which have been put in place by the administration in a ward, but patients will tend to form informal groups because of their likes and dislikes as well as a need to cope with and survive their experience of ill health and get better. These informal groups will lend support to the members, help them when they need assistance, guide new members and may also take a stand against the formal administration of the ward consisting of the nurses and the doctors on duty if the interests of their members are threatened. [Diana 1996]; [Arndt 1997]; [Nathan 2004]
In this essay, an attempt has beenmade to take a look at perspectives associated with informal groups withinorganisations and to consider the dynamics of such informal groups. An emphasishas been placed on attempting to understand the dynamics of informal groups byconsidering the situation in a hospital ward in which patients have been placedbecause of a joint need to get well and informal groups are formed in order tosatisfy the needs of members.
2.1 The Development of Informal Groups inOrganisations
When creating formal groups inorganisations, attempts are, or should be made to bring together individualswho are capable of harmoniously interacting with each other so that the group whichhas been created to accomplish a task can work at peak efficiency. In informalgroups which are created spontaneously and not by an organisational dictate,the self interest of the individual members and a likeness for each other iswhat keeps the group together. Jacob L. Moreno (1892 - 1974) was the first toattempt to analyse group interactions using psychodrama and sociodrama, whichare role playing techniques, in an attempt to analyse interpersonal relations.
Members of the group will interact with each other and the behaviour of the group will have a tendency to modify the behaviour of the individual members, as was observed by Kurt Lewin (1890-1947). Most informal groups are controlled through leadership and the group discipline is maintained through internal pressure. In most informal groups, there is a respect for the individual and all members can participate in deciding things which are affecting them. However, once rules have been made, disobedience in certain groups can carry heavy penalties. Prison gangs are also a form of a group in which force and terror is used by the informal prison organisation to make members join and the penalty for disobedience can be very heavy.
Hence, it is important for formal authorities to ensure that informal groups operating in an organisation are operating in a healthy and constructive manner with any conflict with the established authority lying within manageable and legal limits. Extreme behaviour in a group should be of concern to the law enforcement authorities and the group can no longer be described as an informal group. The humanist philosophy of Abraham Maslow (1908 - 1970) suggests that individuals are motivated by a dynamic hierarchy of needs including psychological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualization, with individuals moving up or down the ladder in order to satisfy their needs as best as possible.
These needs of individuals are what keep informal groups together and in a hospital ward situation, the patients form informal groups in order to satisfy these wants. Responsibility, recognition and opportunities for growth along with opportunities for self actualization which cannot be satisfied in the formal organisation because of the specialisation of labour and command / obey directives as well as the control of activities are amongst the reasons why individuals in an organisation may want to join informal groups. According to Douglas McGregor (1906 -64), the average individual does not dislike work and has an acute interest in attempting to present solutions for organisational problems which can also motivate individuals to form informal groups.
The strict division of labour in a formal organisation without the participation of the organisational members and the resulting dissatisfaction can also lead to the creation of informal groups in which members can participate and which have the capability to provide stronger inputs to the formal organisational hierarchies. There are many other evolving needs such as those involved with safeguarding the family, the community and the self in a hostile or alien ambiance which can cause individuals to form informal groups. Examples of such tendencies may include groups formed by expatriate workers or their spouses in foreign lands. [Arndt 1997]; [Malcolm 2000]; [Tim 2001]; [Betty 1997]
In formal groups, there is a greateremphasis on task or goal-oriented activities which aim to get the job donerather then the maintenance-oriented activities which involve creating a goodatmosphere, creating social-relationships and the general happiness as well asa state of well being for the members. The emphasis on task-oriented activitiesrather then the maintenance-oriented activities, however, does not mean thatthe maintenance-oriented activities are irrelevant. In fact every group triesto find a balance between the two and in a formal group, neglecting themaintenance-oriented activities can mean that the overall group starts tomalfunction or a member who may be quite proficient at doing the job is notmuch of a success any longer. In an informal group, maintenance-orientedactivities can be more important then they are in a formal group, althoughinformal groups do have broad aims behind their creation. [Arndt 1997]; [Thomas2004]
All groups including informalgroups exhibit a state of dynamism with new members arriving, getting acceptedinto the group, coming to terms with their status within the group,contributing and then leaving because they have found new places to go to orhave developed new interests. Members must, however, have a reason to become apart of an informal group and most often the reason is that they have to be inthe organisation to satisfy their economic wants or have been put into asituation or a place in which joining the local group can be beneficial. As newmembers of an organisation arrive on the scene, they are exploring and findingmeanings in the new environment.
Initial social contacts are limited and mostly existing members of the informal group will sound out the new arrivals, offer clarifications and provide support. In the forming stage of the group, dependency is rather high and the group leadership may want to exploit the situation in order to induct new members. In the storming stage, the new individual member will start to exert their individuality and begin to come to terms with other members of the group and the group's values as well as mode of operation. Personal conflicts can occur as differences in the roles and personalities of members are resolved. There can be competitions over status and positions as well as roles and responsibilities.
A hostile environment can develop with members coming to term with reality. The position and the role of the informal group leaders and hierarchy may be questioned by the new arrivals but a realisation may sink in that there are benefits to be attained by the individual as well as the group because the members cannot all leave immediately. Dialogue, facilitation, coaching as well as discovery may take place as the group moves towards normalcy. In the norming stage, a level of understanding between members will develop after the new information and facts have been processed with an acceptance of the differences. Cooperative patterns will start to emerge in the group which are broadly acceptable and members will start discussing issues and making decisions on consensus.
Tensions which had existed will start to disappear as group cohesion grows, although feelings of disenchantment may occur as a reaction towards authority of the formal organisation and the group leadership. The group members will try to become independent and adjust the norms of the group to be broadly suited to all and there may be a tendency to attack the group leadership in order to bring in greater democracy. [Arndt 1997]; [Robert 2002]
The group will tend to move towardsperforming in line with its broad aims after the process of normalisation andwill carry on with its day to day existence. The group members will havesettled into their roles and will be valued for their talents and thecontributions that they may be able to make to the group. Ways of improving thesituation and enhancing the levels of happiness for all may be pondered on andimplemented along with ways to neutralise any threats. Individual members maymove towards building up better relationships with others in the group thatthey like.
Excitement may once again enter into the group as a result of new members joining and some old members leaving because they have to move to new places that are located far from the place where a group is functioning. Adjournments from the group may be marked with rituals such as a dinner, a drink or a last conversation, with some members looking back while others looking towards their future. Departure of old members and the induction of new members can move the group into an earlier stage in its dynamics with members coming to terms with new realities, roles and changes in the group composition. Loss of some departed members may be deeply felt and certain new members can be very refreshing, bringing in new ideas and to challenges to the group norms. [Onepine.Info 2005]; [Arndt 1997]
3.1 Sociometry at Work in Informal GroupInteractions
Interpersonal relationships in agroup are important because they enable individuals in a group to perform theirfunction and contribute to the objective of the group. Poor relationships inany group can cause a gulf to develop between the members or the group leadersand between members resulting in poor performance. Members may leave groups inwhich there are poor interpersonal relations or they may want to keep away fromthe activities of such groups. In formal groups, absenteeism, sick leave andpoor work attitude may be the result of poor interpersonal relationships while aninformal group can disintegrate in such a situation.
Tele or the two-way flow of feeling, as distinct from empathy or transference which are one-way flow of feelings is the basis of individuals forming relationships and coming together to pursue common aims. Individuals are drawn together spontaneously by common motives in order to achieve certain aims. The forces of mutual attraction can be constantly changing within a group with individuals coming closer on the basis of various criteria. Hence, there are likely to be a number of constantly changing sub-groups within a group, with the group being kept together by a stronger common goal. The forces of tele may determine who may be found sitting to whom, the person whose advice is sought on problems and the member who is seen to be providing the leadership in a group.
Members in a group may have relationships based on dependency, mutual respect and pairing or indecisive fight or flight type relations with a group's leadership. The identity of an individual within a group will contain identities from many other groups including identities related to family, profession and place of residence, previous affiliations related to education, employment or membership of clubs as well as any special experiences including those related to culture.
Individuals who are thinking of forming stronger affiliations with a group will be asking themselves questions related to inclusion as well as identity, control, influence, power and acceptance as well as intimacy. Attempts will be made to determine what an individual can become in a group, how much influence or control an individual may be able to exercise and if the individual will be liked and respected. Based on the answers to these questions and the alternatives that are likely to be available, the individual will form a relationship with a group.
If a member's expectations related to the group are responded to positively then greater energy is likely to result, alternatively anxiety and preoccupation with the self and a lack of interest may be the result of thwarted expectations. Strong group cohesion is likely if individuals are drawn to each other as a result of more then one factors of common interest which are enduring and not of transitory nature. Cohesion is demonstrated by spontaneity, sincerity and enthusiasm. Observing and analysing the affection, trust and advice networks in a group can assist in the determination of what is going on in a group and who is likely to be able to influence group behaviour and values.
Such knowledge can be useful if the formal organisation wants to change the behaviour patterns of an informal group to be less damaging or supportive of the aims of the formal organisation. [Diana 1996]; [Robert 2002]; [John 1998]
In a formal organisation, it is theinformal networks of working relationships and the informal groups which canhave a bearing on productivity and resistance to change. Managers must,therefore, try to keep the informal organisation in mind when implementingchange and making decisions. It is important to know the key members ofinformal groups and have some sort of a dialogue and channels of communicationopen with them so that discussions based on reason may be initiated if there isa need to change some behaviour patterns.
Misunderstandings, a lack of communication and dissatisfaction with some decisions of the formal organisational managers and their way of working can result in the informal network attempting to work in a manner that is contrary to the interests of the formal management and the organisation. Indications that this is happening may manifest itself in the form of apathy, a lack of interest in work and communications with the formal managers. Members of the informal groups may try to conduct secret discussions in order to try and find a solution and there can be a sense of disillusionment with the organisation.
Such wars are usually not healthy either for the organisation or the workers and the formal organisation can try to conduct a dialogue with the informal organisation in order to discus and explain matters which may improve the situation. [Cristiano 2004]; [Diana 1996]; [David 2001]; [John 1998]
Some informal groups in anorganisation may not have aims which are contrary to the interest of theorganisation. Informal groups of professionals who may want to enhance theirknowledge, knowledge workers, managers, sports and hobby groups etc canactually greatly benefit the organisational capabilities as well as prestige.Such groups can also assist the organisation by furthering their skills andusing these skills to assist organisational aims such as those related toproduct design, management, marketing, sales etc. The formal organisation maychoose to assist such groups within the resources that are available to theorganisation. [Kristina 1999]; [Andrew 2004]; [John 1998]
In the next section, an attempt ismade to study the dynamics of informal groups in a hospital ward. Such a studycan be instructive because a hospital ward is likely to be a place where themost idealised informal group formation is possible with there being apossibility of far fewer harsh forces at work in the hospital ward as comparedto other settings.
4.1 Informal Groups in a Hospital Ward
Treating and caring for the ill canbe a challenging occupation and depending on the nature of the ward beingconsidered, there can be a certain level of tension between the hospital staffand the patients. The nurses in the ward are more directly involved with thepatients and come in contact with them far more often. The doctors are thesenior managers of the formal hierarchy and remain relatively distant from theaction whereas the patients and informal groups made up by the patients is theinformal organisation.
A children's ward is the place where there is a minimal level of tension between the formal organisation and informal organisation consisting of the relatives of the sick kids. The kids themselves are too young to be making rational informal groups. Caring for the mentally ill or for adult patients in a depraved economic environment can result in serious frictions being generated between the ward staff and the groups formed by patients. Mentally ill patients can be very demanding while the adult patients may not be receiving the proper care in a depraved hospital because of a lack of resources. The circumstances presented in the novel Cancer Ward by Alexander Solzhenitsyn are instructive in this regard. [Valerie 2000]; [Harborne 1996]; [Sandford 1990]; [Ann 2004]
In most hospitals, however, agenuine attempt is made to care for the patients and depending on the formalculture which has been cultivated as a result of the policies of the seniormedical staff of the hospital, the relationship between the formal ward organisationand the patients tend to be friendly and cooperative. Informal groupsconsisting of patients, however, do spring up because there is a need to behelpful and be helped, pass time, converse and help each other to face thecommon enemy, the illness, as well as any other threats which may presentthemselves including the attitude of the ward staff. [Harborne 1996]; [Sandford1990]; [Ann 2004]
The arrival of a new patientgenerates an interest amongst the existing members of the ward and as the newarrival is investigated by the ward patients, the process of the forming of anew group starts. The newly arrived patient in the ward will initially beassisted by the formal ward staff or the nurses and will slowly get to know theother patients. The leaders of the informal patient groups may also express aninterest and assist in the resettlement of the newly arrived, gatheringinformation and making an assessment of the new patient.
The formal ward administration will know much more about the patient because they will have their particulars and medical records Any factors in common between two patients in the ward including similar medical conditions, close neighbourhoods, cultural experiences or professional background etc will lead to an attraction or tele between two individuals which can assist in the formation of an informal group. An attraction or tele can also exist between a patient and a member of the formal organisation such as a nurse if there are any common backgrounds or interests. Norming of the ward takes place when the newly arrived patient starts to fit into the new environment and slowly gets to know the other members.
In the storming phase, there may be personality clashes or debates about ward regulations and perhaps attempts to deliberately flout any regulations of the ward such as restrictions on smoking or meeting with others as a result of the attempts by the new members to personalise the ward space. The performing stage occurs with ward members settling down and helping each other while trying to get better. Sub-groups will be constantly formed and re-formed as the process of discovery continues and mutual interests shift.
A member who has been through trying times, undergone a painful procedure or an operation may be given extra attention by the group as a whole and especially by those who have a strong attraction or tele with this member. The nursing staff, doctors, the senior medical staff as well as the administrators can judiciously intervene by conducting a dialogue and reasoning to keep the situation in the ward under control in order to maintain healthy relationships amongst the patients as well as between the patients and the ward staff. The ward group is adjourned with the departure of a patient and ritual farewell meetings or exchange of gifts may take place for those who have recovered, while some ritual mourning and remembrance will be present for those who may not have recovered.
Informal groups in a ward can act in a protective manner towards their members, the patients, while collectively standing up against threats or the unreasonable behaviour of the ward staff. Occasionally, an informal group of patients may threaten the discipline of the ward and the formal medical staff will have to find ways to bring this group in greater harmony with the aims of the hospital and the ward. [Valerie 2000]; [John 1998]; [Sandford 1990]; [Ann 2004]
In the next section, an attempt hasbeen made to determine how the formal organisation can deal with informalgroups and encourage them to constructively work for the betterment of thegroup as well as the organisation.
5.1 The Formal Organisation and Informal Groups
A large organisation can containmany informal groups in departments and sections. Some of these groups can bevery harmless and in fact have norms that are beneficial to the organisation.Other groups may be powerful and appear as a counterforce to the formal organisationalhierarchy. It is important for departmental and section managers of the formalorganisation to keep an eye on the informal groups which may exist in theirareas of responsibility. Information related to group norms, membership andleadership as well as any networks of authority, advice and member attractionsshould be discretely acquired. It may be possible for the organisation toassist groups with positive aims and objectives which can assist theorganisation.
Groups with destructive norms will need to be changed, possibly by dialogue with members of influence. A normative profile related to attributes of the group which may include attributes related to performance, communications, leadership, work ethics, relationship with colleagues, training etc may be developed. This can assist in the determination of what needs to be changed and how. With most reasonable informal groups, a process of dialogue, teaching and learning can help with bringing about a positive change. However, occasionally groups with extremist philosophies may need to be broken by transferring the leadership or resorting to the law. However, it is important to realise that the formal organisational structures and management are expected to be moral and ethical otherwise resistance against established hierarchies in the formal organisation will continue to erode the organisation. [Cristiano 2004]; [Accel-Team.com 2004]; [Malcolm 2000]; [John 1998]; [Onepine.Info 2005]
Every formalorganisation with formal groups and managerial hierarchies will also have aninformal structure consisting of informal groups whose membership is based on themutual interests of the members. Leadership and position in such groups is notdelegated by the formal organisation but is based on the acceptance and desiresof the members of the group. The informal organisation and informal groupswithin the organisation are important and need to be kept in mind byorganisational managers when initiating change or making decisions. It ispossible for informal groups within the organisation to contribute positivelyto the aims of the organisation and informal group norms can be brought more inline with those of the organisation through a process dialogue and reasoningwith networks of influence within the group.
Accel-Team.com. 2005. Informal Groups. Accel-Team.com.Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.accel-team.com/work_groups/informal_grps_01.html
Ad F. den Otter. 2004. Formal and informal computer mediated communication within design teams for complex building projects. University of Technology, Eindhoven. Retrieved: March 18,2005. From: http://www.adms.arch.tue.nl/denotter/publications/Informal%20and%20formal%20cmc%20v71.pdf
Alec Courous. 2003. Communities of Practice: A Literature Review. Educational Technology, Canada. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://educationaltechnology.ca/couros/publications/unpublishedpapers/communities_practice.pdf
Alessia Contu, Hugh Willmott. 2003. RE-EMBEDDING SITUATEDNESS: THE IMPORTANCE OF POWER RELATIONS IN LEARNING THEORY. Organization Science, Vol 14, 3 pp 283-296. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.jims.cam.ac.uk/people/faculty/pdfs/willmott_reembedding_situatedness.pdf
Andrew Cox. 2004. WHAT ARE COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE? A CRITICAL REVIEW OF FOUR SEMINAL WORKS. Loughborough University. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.ofenhandwerk.com/oklc/pdf_files/E-4_cox.pdf
Ann Palmer. 2004. The Pain of Hospitalization. Ann Palmer. Retrieved: March 20, 2005. From: http://intotem.buffnet.net/mhw/43AP.htm
Brigitte Maria Catherine Viljoen. 2003. The Influence of Source Feedback Perceptions on Motivation. University of Pretoria. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-04062004-140208/unrestricted/00dissertation.pdf
Cristiano Castelfranchi. 2004. Formalising the Informal? Dynamic Social Order, Bottom-Up Social Control, and Spontaneous Normative Relations. University of Siena. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.irit.fr/COSI/summerschool/cfform.pdf
David William Taylor. 2001. Learning as a Process of Interaction: an Iterative Exploration of Small Firm Owner- Manager Networks. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.business.mmu.ac.uk/research/wps/papers/wp00_01.pdf
Diana Jones. April, 1996. Sociometry at Work. Australia and New Zealand Psychodrama Association. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:3XflPFCGjggJ:www.orgdev.co.nz/newsletters/djthesis.pdf+34.%09Diana+Jones.+April,+1996.+Sociometry+at+Work.+Australia+and+New+Zealand+
Elisabeth Maurer & Ursula Meyerhofer. 2002. Mentoring and Networking: A Swiss Example of Peer-Mentoring and Critical Thoughts about the Establishment of Formal Mentoring Programs. University of Zurich. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.mentoring.unizh.ch/pdf/swiss_exampel.pdf
Eve Mitleton-Kelly. April, 2004. An Integrated Methodology to Facilitate The Emergence of New Ways of Organising. 3
Fiona Lettice, Palminder Smart and Naomi Brookes. 2004. Managing an Informal Division of Labour within Product Development. 9th International Product Development Management Conference, Sophia Antipolis, France, 27-28 May, pp529-540. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.cranfield.ac.uk/sims/ecotech/pdf/lettice%20smart%20brookes%20pdmc%202002.pdf
Harborne A. 1996. Challenging behaviour in older people: nurses' attitudes. Nursing Standard. 11, 12, 39-43. Retrieved: March 20, 2005. From: http://www.nursing-standard.co.uk/archives/ns/vol11-12/research.htm
International Labor Organization, ILO. 2004. Changing an Organizational Culture through Social Dialogue: Experience at Sri Lanka Telecom. ILO. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/newdelhi/download/savpot/srilanka.pdf
Jacky Swan, Maxine Robertson & Harry Scarbrough. 2004. The Construction of Communities of Practice in the Management of Innovation. University of Warwick. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.mngt.waikato.ac.nz/research/ejrot/cmsconference/2003/abstracts/communication/Swan.pdf
Jane Punnett. 1997. Towards Effective Management of Expatriate Spouses. Journal of World Business. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://users.anet.com/~smcnulty/docs/effective.pdf
John Currie. 2000. The Potential of Action Research in the Sustainable Management of Change. University of Sydney. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.aare.edu.au/00pap/cur00294.htm
John Perry. February, 1998. An Evaluation of the Practitioner-team Ethic towards developing the Concept of the Learning Organisation. University of Plymouth. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/med1.htm
Kathryn Ray (University of Manchester), Mark Tomlinson (University of Manchester), Brian Longhurst (University of Salford), Mike Savage (University of Manchester), Gindo Tampubolon (University of Manchester) and Alan Warde (University of Manchester). 2001. Social Capital and Social Networks: an analysis of political mobilisation in the UK. BSA Annual Conference, Leicester. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.psa.ac.uk/cps/2002/warde.pdf
Kristina Groth. 2002. Knowledge NetA Support for Sharing Knowledge within an Organization. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.nada.kth.se/~kicki/Reports/LicKthesis.pdf.
Lisa Michelle Leslie. 2004. THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE ON THE ATTRIUBTION TO DISCRIMINATION PROCESS. University of Maryland. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: https://drum.umd.edu/dspace/bitstream/1903/1544/1/umi-umd-1335.pdf
Michael Murrey et al. 2004. COMMUNICATION AND DECISION-MAKING AS A MEANS TO DETERMINE PROJECT ORGANISATION STRUCTURE. University of Strathclyde and Glasgow Caledonian University. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.arcom.ac.uk/workshops/01-Loughborough/04-Murray.pdf
Natalia V. Papakyriazis & Moses A. Boudourides. 2001. Electronic Weak Ties in Network Organisations. University of Patras. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.math.upatras.gr/~mboudour/articles/ewt1.pdf
Nathan Eagle, Max Van Kleek, Alex (Sandy) Pentland1, Howard E. Shrobe. 2004. Initiating Informal Interactions within the Enterprise. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://people.csail.mit.edu/u/e/emax/public_html/papers/iui_2005_eagle_vankleek.pdf
Nir Brueller. March, 2001. Business Incubators Survey Value Creation for Incubated Companies Through Unique Resources and Capabilities. INSEAD. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://elab.insead.edu/publications/mbareports/IncubatorReport.pdf
Onepine Info. 2005. Groups. Onepine Info. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.onepine.info/mgrp.htm
Onepine.info. 2004. Researching and Finding Organizational Information. Onepine.info. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.onepine.info/ginfo.htm
Peter Busch et al. 2003. Selected tacit knowledge observations within two organizations. Australian Computer Society. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.comp.mq.edu.au/~richards/papers/vip2002.pdf
Philippa Ashton. 2004. Social Capital for Design Innovation and Integration. Technical University of Delft. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.io.tudelft.nl/research/dic/Paper_pdfs/Ashton.pdf
Robert E. Kraut, Robert S. Fish, Robert W. Root, Barbara L. Chalfonte. 2002. Informal Communication in Organizations: Form, Function, and Technology. Bellcore. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www-2.cs.cmu.edu/~kraut/RKraut.site.files/articles/kraut90-InformalCommInOrgs.pdf
Rupert Engel. 2004. An explorative study of knowledge transfer processes in new product development in the automotive industry. Cranfield School of Management. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: https://dspace.lib.cranfield.ac.uk/retrieve/1567/Engel.pdf
Sabine B. Klein. 2004. Family Influence on Value Creation. INSEAD. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.kmu.unisg.ch/rencontres/RENC2004/Topics/Klein_Renc_2004_Topic_A.pdf
Sandford DA, Elzinga RH.1990. Patient interactions in four psychiatric wards. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1990 Aug; 82(2):125-9. Retrieved: March 20, 2004. From: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=2239355&dopt=Abstract
Sandra E. Spataro. 2004. Informal Status in Formal Organisations: Differences in Respect and Prestige among Co-workers. Yale School of Management. Retrieved: March 18, 2004. From: http://www.mba.yale.edu/faculty/PDF/informalstatus.pdf
Thomas sterlie, Glenn Munkvold. 2002. Ordering Actors, Organizing Work. Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.idi.ntnu.no/~thomasos/paper/osterlie_munkvold_ct2005.pdf
Tim Brady et al. 2001. Making Sense of Learning Landscape in Project Based Organisations. UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.alba.edu.gr/OKLC2002/Proceedings/pdf_files/ID314.pdf
Trisha Greenhalgh et al. 2004. Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations: Systematic Review and Recommendations. University College London. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.ilazarte.com.ar/epss/mt-static/archives/documentos/Diffusion%20and%20Innovations%20in%20Service%20Organizationes.pdf
Valerie Williams. November, 2000. Evaluation of the Ward 7 Patients' Group. Royal Derwant Hospital, Tasmania. Retrieved: March 18, 2005. From: http://www.advocacytasmania.com.au/Evaluation.pdf
World Health Organisation. 2004. Findings: Long term institutional care. World Health Organisation. Retrieved: March 20, 2004. From: http://www.euro.who.int/HEN/Syntheses/mentalservice/20040721_8
References Related to InformalGroups within Organisations from British Libraries
- 1995, Electronic messaging news Stevenage: PhillipsBusiness Information.
- Amen, A. 1959, Informal groups and institutional adjustment ina catholic home for the aging Catholic University of America: Washington, D.C.
- American Association of Group Workers 1955, The Group New York:American Association of Group Workers.
- American Counseling Association. Association for Specialists inGroup & Work The Journal for specialists in group work : a publicationof the Association for Specialists in Group Work Thousand Oaks : SagePublications Inc..
- Anderson, S., Baland, J. M., Moene, K. O., Facultésuniversitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, N. C., & recherche en économie dudéveloppement 2003, Enforcement and organizational design in informal savinggroups Namur : Centre de recherche en economie du developpement, Faculteuniversitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Faculte des sciences economiques etsociales.
- Arndt Sorge and Malcolm Warner Ed. 1997. The Handbook ofOrganizational Behaviour. Thomson Business Press.
- Association for Computing Machinery & SIGGROUP (Group) SIGGROUPbulletin : a publication of the Special Interest Group on Supporting Group WorkNew York : The Group.
- Association for Specialists in Group Work ( The Journal forspecialists in group work Thousand Oaks, CA ; London : Sage Publicationsfor the Association for Specialists in Group Work.
- Back, K. W., Festinger, L., Schachter, S., & ANN, A. R. B. O.1950, Social Pressures in Informal Groups. A study of human factors inhousing by Leon Festinger, Stanley Schachter and Kurt Back, etc New York.
- Bailey, Z., Grugulis, I., & School of Management 1999, Exploringthe learning organisation within Rover Group Ltd Manchester : UMIST.
- Barber, J., Murray, D. J., Finnegan, R. H., & Open University1971, Understanding society, [How people live in societies] Governmentand politics edn, Bletchley : Open University Press.
- Bellah, R. N. & Hammond, P. E. 1964, Sociologists at work: essays on the craft of social research New York ; London : Basic Books,c1964.
- Bignall, T., Butt, J., Pagarani, D., & Joseph RowntreeFoundation 2002, Something to do : the development of informal supportgroups for young black disabled people Bristol : Policy, 2002.
- Bold, T., University of Oxford. Division of Social Sciences,University of Oxford.Dept.of Economics, & Jesus College (University ofOxford) 2003, Group formation in informal insurance arrangements.
- Boneparth, E. 1982, Women, power, and policy New York :Pergamon Press.
- Button, L. 1967, Some experiments in informal group workUniversity College of Swansea (Department of Education).
- Chatty, D. & Rabo, A. 1997, Organizing women : formal andinformal women's groups in the Middle East Oxford : Berg.
- Cherry, C., Turnbull, M., & Scottish Adult Basic EducationUnit 1985, Women start here : a basic education pack for tutors/organisersworking with women in informal learning groups. -- Part 2, Case studies[Edinburgh] : Scottish Adult Basic Education Unit.
- Communications, N. The journal : the journal of theCommunications Network London : Communications Network.
- Conway, S. & Aston Business School. Research Institute Socialnetwork mapping and the analysis of informal organisation.
- Conway, S. & Aston Business School. Research Institute 2000, Socialnetwork mapping and the analysis of informal organisation Birmingham :Aston Business School Research Institute.
- Dasgupta, M. 1983, Travel-to-work characteristics of differentlabour-force groups : a survey in Manchester Crowthorne : TRRL.
- Doonan, S., Aldred, C., Marshall, M., & Workers' EducationalAssociation 1984, Getting started : a basic education pack fortutors/organisers working with women in informal learning groups[Aberdeen?] : WEA.
- Evans, A. R. & World Employment Program 1992, Women's workand family welfare : informal women's groups and family planning informationand services Geneva : International Labour Office.
- Fabian Society 1972, Emergency powers : a fresh start : aninformal group London.
- Festinger, L. & University of Michigan. Research Center forGroup Dynamics 1950, Social pressures in informal groups : a study of humanfactors in housing, [1st ed.] edn, New York : Harper.
- Financial, L. P. Operating subsidiaries : the organisation ofdirectors' responsibilities within a group Financial Law Panel.
- Glendenning, E. 1969, An experiment to examine the effect ofinformal teaching on the creative thinking ability of a group of primary schoolchildren [Durham] : [University of Durham].
- Great Britain. Department of Health and Social Security 1984, Supportingthe informal carers : fifty styles of caring : a social work servicedevelopment group project London : DHSS.
- Great Britain. Social Work Service 1984, Supporting theinformal carers : "fifty styles of caring" : models of practice forplanners and practioners London : Department of Health and Social Security.
- GROUP (PROCEEDINGS) INTERNATIONAL ACM SIGGROUP CONFERENCE ONSUPPORTING GROUP WORK-.
- Groupwork London : Whiting and Birch Ltd.
- Haileyesus, A. 2001, Linking formal and informal financialinstitutions in North Omo Zone (Ethiopia) : an exploratory study ofsmallholding farmers group formation and financial services provision in BolosoSore and Kindo Koisha woredas University of Reading.
- Hamilton, R. A. 1976, The influence of informal socialnetworks on the choice of consumer durables : the application of referencegroup theory to buyer behaviour Manchester University : Ph.D.
- Harris, P. M. 1990, Formal and informal learning : a study ofthe effect of living with an English family on the language improvement of agroup of students following a short summer language course at a language centrein Southampton Original typescript.
- Hart, P. '., Stern, E. K., & Sundelius, B. 1997, Beyondgroupthink : political group dynamics and foreign policy-making Ann Arbor :University of Michigan Press.
- Howarth, E., Halmos, P., & University of Keele 1962, TheCanford families : a study in social casework and group work Keele :University of Keele, 1962.
- INTAND 992, INTAND newsletter : the newsletter of theInternational Network for Transactional Analysis and Neuro-LinguisticProgramming in Organisations Watford : Sherwood Publishing.
- International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work,SIGGROUP (Group), & ACM Digital Library GROUP : proceedings of theInternational ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work New York,N.Y. : Association for Computing Machinery.
- Johnson, D. W., Smith, K. A., & Johnson, R. T. 1991, Activelearning : cooperation in the college classroom Edina, MN : InteractionBook Co.
- Lall, S., Ghosh, S., & World Bank. Development Research Group.Environment and Infrastructure 2002, Learning by dining : informal networksand productivity in Mexican industry Washington, D.C. : World Bank,Development Research Group, Infrastructure and Environment.
- Lawson, K. 1994, How political parties work : perspectivesfrom within Westport, Conn. ; London : Praeger.
- Lever, M., National, E. C., Scottish Council for EducationalTechnology, & Council for Educational Technology for the United Kingdom1985, Learning together : a guide to running informal learning groups[Cambridge] : National Extension College in association with Scottish Councilfor Educational Technology and Council for Educational Technology.
- Malcolm Warner Ed. 2000. The Handbook of Management Thinking.Thomson Business Press.
- Manchip, S., Pitt, B., & Development Action Group ( 1996, Masiphumelele: a case study of the role of the Development Action Group in the informalcommunity of Noordhoek Observatory, Cape Town : Development Action Group.
- Marcussen, H. S. & Roskilde University InternationalDevelopment Studies 1996, Improved natural resource management : the role offormal organisations and informal networks and institutions Roskilde,Denmark : International Development Studies, Roskilde University.
- Maxwell, T. M. 1984, An examination into pupils' responses inan informal discussion group situation [Durham] : University of Durham,School of Education.
- Metz, R., Schlick, J., & Cerdic, C. 1975, Informal groupsin the church : papers of the second Cerdic Colloquium, Strasbourg, May 13-15,1971 Pittsburgh : Pickwick Press.
- National Conference of Social Work. Forum & NationalConference of Social Work. Forum 1955, Group work and community organization: papers presented at ... annual forums of the National Conference of SocialWork New York : Columbia University Press.
- ndersen-Wood, L. & Smith, B. R. 1997, Working withpragmatics : a practical guide to promoting communicative confidenceBicester : Winslow.
- Parker, G. & Family Policy Studies Centre 1990, With duecare and attention : a review of research on informal care, New ed edn,London : Family Policy Studies Centre.
- PERIODICAL, P. U. B. L. 1958, Science for the Informal Group... Prepared specially for club leaders and teachers by Science ClubLondon.
- Pitt, B., Royal College of Psychiatrists. Joint Working Group onthe consent of, & non-volitional patients and de facto detention ofinformal patients 1991, Joint working group on the consent of non-volitionalpatients and de facto detention of informal patients London : Royal Collegeof Psychiatrists.
- Praz, M. 1971, [Scene di conversazione.] Conversation pieces:a survey of the informal group portrait in Europe and America London :Methuen.
- PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OFSOCIAL WORK WITH GROUPS.
- PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM- EUROPEAN GROUP OFPEDIATRIC WORK PHYSIOLOGY.
- Reichert, S. M.-E. 1952, Patterns of Interpersonal Preferencesin a Nursing School Class: a sociometric study of changes in valuational basesof informal structure in a school group. Abstract of a dissertation, etcWashington : Catholic University of America Press.
- Rosenbaum, M. & Berger, M. M. 1963, Group psychotherapyand group function New York ; London : Basic Books.
- Science Club 1958, Science for the informal group ScienceClub.
- SIGGROUP (Group) 2002, SIGGROUP bulletin : a publication ofthe Special Interest Group on Supporting Group Work New York : SpecialInterest Group on Supporting Group Work, Association for Computing Machinery.
- Smith, P. B. 1973, Groups within organizations : applicationsof social psychology to organizational behaviour London [etc.] : Harper& Row.
- Social network mapping & the analysis of informalorganisation, Oct 2000 edn, Aston Business School Research Institute.
- The Journal for specialists in group work : a publication ofthe Association for Specialists in Group Work Newbury Park, Calif. ; London: Sage Publications, Inc.
- United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa, Group Meeting ofWomen Researchers on the Informal Sector and, & Agro, i. 1992, Report ofa group meeting of "women researchers in the informal sector and agro-industries",25-29 November 1991, Nairobi, Kenya Addis Ababa : United Nations, EconomicCommission for Africa.
- University of Hull The cognitive behavioural social workreview : the journal of the Cognitive Behavioural Social Work Group Hull :[Cognitive Behavioural Social Work Group].
- Walsh, K. C. 2003, Talking about politics : informal groupsand social identity in American life Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
- Wilson, S. & Stephen 1978, Informal groups: anintroduction Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall.
- Workers' Educational Association 1984, Getting started : abasic education pack for tutors/organisers working with women in informallearning groups London : Workers' Educational Association.
If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please click on the link below to request removal: