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Factors That Determine An Effective Employee Training Programme Management Essay

Kyla states that various skills like communication skills, leadership skills, management skills, team building, change management, organizational skills, goal setting and time control, presentation skills, etc. plays an important role in any company. Factors like constant and effective communication within each and every department is vital where the trainer make the employees understand how the training is directly related to the work they do and how the goals of the company are aligned with. Hence, specific and measurable goals helps to keep employee training programmes towards the track of success and also make improvements and performance easier to track which helps to deliver effective feedback.

Titus (2004) in his article had explained the influence of leadership style in terms of leader’s age perspective. Author states that younger and older managers have different approach to leadership styles and has found out that older managers prefer more participation in compare to younger managers. The author cites that both the group of managers practice both directive and delegative leadership styles.

Wayne (2006) states that the success of any training programme is determined by not only the quality of training but also by the individual’s readiness for training, motivation and support given by the organization for the training. Organization work environment as well as characteristics of individual greatly influences before training (motivating to participate), and after training (transfer of learning, skills and knowledge from the training to the job situation).

Benton (2010), states that to be a true leader, he/she should possess of four important C’s. They are confidence, constant communication, craftsmanship and coworker collaboration

The author explains that it is vital to keep learning those four C’s and growing along with it to start developing leadership abilities in professional work place and his/her career as it is important to motivate, empower and lead like the CEOs of the organizations.

2.1.8 Identifying, Minimizing and Filling Employee Skill Gaps:

Pierre (2009) in his article ‘identifying employee skill gaps’ states that it is most important for any organization to first identify those areas where the organization need to improve their skills. By identifying those areas, limited training resources will be used to minimize the critical skill gaps which will also be helpful for the organization in terms of cost cutting. However, many numbers of organizations are yet failed to meet their targets and objectives as they are launched without the sufficient knowledge of where the gaps in employee skill actually are exist.

Ilya (2012) in her article ‘plugging the manufacturing skills gap’ states that due to recession, manufacturing industries are struggling to find right employees with the right skills and experience for unfilled positions which as a result these companies are struggling to deal with high level of technical and complexity involved in today’s industrial processes. However, by increasing the working hours of current workers, and also by outsourcing the contract and temporary workers, most manufacturing companies have been able to minimize the gaps.

The author stated that more than 50% percent of manufactures report that the maximum number of staffing shortage is in skilled production which includes mechanists, operators, distributors and technicians, followed by production support including manufacturing engineers and industrial engineers. Companies should invest in training programme for enhancing skills among existing workers and can be helpful for the manufacturers to develop employees with the needed skills that match the job requirements by training with the right aptitude.

Dana (2002) states investing in employee training not only benefits companies by increasing team effectiveness but it also pushes individual to higher levels of achievement. The author has mentioned about an IT management training and consulting company in Atlanta, Sisco about how they identify employees’ skill gaps. The company has developed skills assessment and training programme which includes:

Training to improve skill level of the team;

Hiring outsiders could be avoided when new skills are needed for new projects by boosting team’s overall skills;

Training strengthen each members and can help out in other projects if needed;

By adding assessment procedure and employee’s training initiative in performance review will help to analyze employee’s training progress

The author in conclusion emphasizes that training plan overall should boost team’s skills and allow other organization’s departments and IT department to become much substantial and stronger unit of the organization.

2.1.9 Training as Continuous Performance Improvement:

Stephen and Phillip (2007) state that training is an important part of organization’s performance improvement system. Basically experienced trainers have the knowledge about how the effective training structured as a continuous performance improvement process is linked with other systems and business strategies. The author has mention that effective training is continuous performance improvement process and has given common Training Process Model below:

Identifying performance improvement opportunities and analyzing causes of existing gaps

Identifying and selecting the most beneficial solution to the opportunity from different alternative solutions (training is consider as one of the solution)

Design and implementation of solution

Evaluating the results of the solution

The author in conclusion states that training programmes leads to improvement in performance of the employees. With effective training function, there arises performance opportunities, create and implements solutions and measures the effectiveness of the solution.

2.1.10 Importance of Employee Assistance Programmes:

Cynthia et al., (2007) state that the organizations now have started to realize how the employees’ life can have an effect on their job performance which may distract concentration and motivation. They identified many organizations offering Employee Assistance Programmes (EAPs) to solve personal problems in order to improve their performance and retention.

For instance, one of the major oil companies offers EAPs like counseling and referral for various difficulties like stress, family and martial problems, drug and alcohol dependence and other similar difficulties. Generally, larger firms tend to offer counseling to their employees through their EAP.

2.1.11 On the Job Training (OJT) is Relatively Inexpensive and Winning Investment for the Organization:

Gary (2005) defines on the job training as any person learning by actually doing it. Coaching and understudy methods are the most common method of on the job training. This technique is widely used in lower level as well as top management levels. In lower level, trainees may need skills by observing their experienced worker or supervisors but, to be on the position of top management level, a potential future CEO might spend a year as an assistant to the current CEO.

The author has mentioned few benefits of on the job training. They are as follows:

It is inexpensive and trainee learns through practice and observation

It is economical as it does not require any expensive off site facilities like classroom or programmemed learning

Trainees get quick feedback on their performance which helps them to learn and rectify their mistakes quickly

Diane (2002) states that on the job training method is suitable for any size of organization whether a small organization that trains for single task or a large organization that trains a huge number of employee or entire workforce.

Hakan (2002) states that employees who work longer hours in jobs that requires on the job training earns greatly more than those employees in jobs who requires short training. Basically, in a country like Sweden, this kind of training has a positive effect on wage for employees. General and specific on the job training has significant wage effect, however, general training has significantly larger wage effects which are given to the private sector employees as compared to specific on the job training which are given to public sector employees.

Rao (2010) states that on the job training is given to the trainees when they are required to perform task with relevant knowledge, skills and abilities at the actual workplace. Here, author has explained about some of the common training methods like job instruction training, job rotation, apprenticeship training and committee assignments.

Job Instruction Training (JIT):

This method is widely popular where supervisor, trainers or a co worker acts as the coach to teach workers how to perform their current jobs. It involves the process of preparation, presentation, performance try out and lastly, follows up. It is mostly suitable for unskilled and semi skilled jobs where the job operations are simple and takes less time to expose.

Job rotation:

Job rotation means rotation of trainee from one job to another to have general perspective and greater understanding of how different functions in the organization works.

Apprenticeship training:

In this training, high level of commitment and participation is demanded from the trainee. These trainees are assigned with an experienced guide, coach or a trainer. This type of training is very similar to an internship which is one of the requirements of the college or universities.

Committee Assignments:

In this method, trainees are required to work together to solve the actual problems of the organization which will help them to understand the issues, policies, and processes involved in the organization.

In conclusion the author states that on the job training methods are very cost effective and employees learn quickly. Trainees are motivated to learn the right way of doing things. As feedback is immediate, there arise fewer mistakes as employees learn in actual work environment where they use their skills which they have learnt.

2.1.12 Designing a Learning Environment for Training:

Bernardin (2003) points out that a trainer should design a training programme and review the basic principles of how employees can learn. The revised learning principles should be connected with the design of training programme which will lead to meet the needs of employees as learners. Learner wants to apply the training they had learned in their day to day experience. So it is important that the trainers should design such programme which learners can understand and relate it to their work as learners would not be much interested with the programme if they cannot apply directly with their work situation.

2.13 The Problem of Youth with a Skill Gap:

Stephen and Phillip (2007) state that with the introduction to advanced technology and development of service sectors demand for the workers have significantly increased in many companies. Demographic shows that many of the individuals who are willing to enter the organization are likely to be under skilled and undereducated youth and these individuals will be the member of culturally diverse groups which the society has not yet completely linked with the workforce. Authors have also stated that in future, society will severely need the talent of member of minority groups in the workplace who are successful in their professional and technical careers respectively.

2.1.14 Knowledge, Skills and Attitude (KSA) Is A Learning Outcome:

Stephen and Phillip (2007) have explained Knowledge, Skills, and Attitude as three different outcomes of learning.

Figure 2.4: Classification of Learning Outcomes

Skill Based Learning

> Compilation

> Automaticity

Learning

Attitudinal Learning

> Affect/ Feelings

Cognitive Knowledge

> Declarative Knowledge

> Procedural Knowledge

> Strategic Knowledge

Source: Stephen P. Robbins and Phillip L. Hunsaker: Training in Interpersonal Skills (Tips for managing people at work) (2007) Pg. 17

Knowledge:

Knowledge means facts, information, principles, and procedure acquired by the employees. This type of learning basically refers to declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge and strategic knowledge.

Declarative Knowledge: The information that we get and place into memory. This information is factual information which can be legal policies or safety rules, etc.

Procedural Knowledge: This refers to how and when to apply the factual information which have been learned.

Strategic Knowledge: This refers to awareness of how, why and when those information are useful and should be should accordingly. This is used for planning, mentoring and goal directed activity.

Skills:

According to the authors, skills mean “capabilities needed to perform a set of a set of tasks that are developed as a result of training and experience.”

Compilation (lower level) means a learning stage where the learner is learning a particular skill or has just recently learned.

Automaticity (higher level) means a stage where learner has already the knowledge and has mastered the skill and uses quite often.

Attitude:

Attitude, the author perceives to be important to training because it affects motivation. Motivation basically means an effort they put to achieve the goals which is influenced by attitude (how a person feels about things which are related to those goals). Since person’s attitude influences behavior, it is crucial that attitude that motivate employee to learn and perform need to be communicate through training.

2.1.15 Using the Evaluation to Improve Training Programmes:

David and Stephen (2005) state that information evaluated from the training programme plays a crucial role in decision making about whether to modify the training programmes or continue it or whether to improve it. With the information and results and scores in learning, additional modifications of the training can be suggested if training evaluation is done properly. These authors opines that if the insufficient learning has occurred due to unclear information or lack of practice or inadequate time, training presentation will not be effective as expected. It is vital to give appropriate training to make use of new skills of employees. If need assessment are not performed effectively and work environment is not very good then job performance may not improve as expected despite learning it.

In conclusion author states that if there is no improvement in employee performance and there is no impact, then the training is not appropriate in teaching the new skills which are due to poor need assessment. So, it is important to evaluate the training programme effectively in order to have improved results for the organizations.

Harshit (2012) states that evaluation of training and development is the most important aspect which measures how well the trainee’s performance and behavior is improved through training programmes. Training is an investment to employee development, productivity and retention which leads to employee career development and job satisfaction. So thorough proper continuous evaluation, organization analyze if their investment is spent effectively or not and whether the targeted objectives and goals are properly achieved or not.

The article also contains few common training evaluation models used by the organizations according to the nature and budgets of the organization to evaluate training effectiveness are as follows:

Kirkpatrick Model:

Kirkpatrick model has divided the training evaluation model into four categories and they are reaction, learning, behavior and results.

CIPP Evaluation Model:

It has divided the training model into four categories for evaluation and they are context evaluation, input evaluation, process evaluation, and product evaluation..

Phillip’s Evaluation approach:

This approach deals with the return on investment (ROI) generated by the training from the perspectives of human performance and business outcomes. ROI is considered as quite difficult and expensive process so, most of the human resource department conducts evaluation in order to measure satisfaction level.

The author has also stated about Kaufman’s five level evaluation model in his article stating how training impact its evaluation defining the benefits towards the society and environment in the organizations through training which is shown in table 2.1.

Table 2.1: Kaufman’s Five Level Evaluation

Level

Evaluation Area

a.Enabling

Quality input availability like human, financial and physical resources

b.Reaction

Methods, means and process acceptability and efficiency

Application

Individual and small group utilization within the organization

Organizational Output

Payoff to the organization

Societal Outcomes

Payoff to the society

Source: Dipak Kumar Bhattacharyya, Human Resource Research Methods, Ganga. Saran & Grand Sons. 2007. Pg. 266

In conclusion author states that training evaluation is the most vital part of training and development where Kirkpatrick model is considered as widely used model. Since there are many numbers of models to evaluate training, author suggested that it should be further modified and explained properly which leads to proper evaluation of training for greater effectiveness.

2.1.16 Coaching and Mentoring For Employee to Provide Better Results For The Organization:

Wendell and Bell (2004) state that coaching is done by the immediate supervisor which is moreover focused on job performance, where as mentoring focuses on general career and personality development of the employee. Successful mentor is like a good teacher who shares experience, acts like a role model and provide advice and guidance in the organization. Coaching and mentoring can be upgrade by the training group experience where employee learns by listening carefully to the instructions, receives quick oral feedback, and understands what is going on a group.

Clare (2004) in her article states that with an effective application of workplace coaching methods, employee’s skills will raise significantly which will improve individual and organizational performance. Through a proper coaching at workplace, employee competence level will be improved which significantly will lead to consistency at work performance and as a result customer satisfaction will improve as well.

2.1.17 Creating value for employees: investment in employee development:

Chay and Norman (2003) examine how perceived investment in employees’ development (PIED), job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intent to leave are can be related with each other and what are its consequences. As employee development is considered as one of the most important functions of human resource practice, it is crucial to develop and maintain the overall capabilities of both the organization and individual employees. Basically, PIED creates a situation where the employees have faith on their organization as it value their contribution and care about their employability which as a result will leads to high employee retention and loyalty.

The author states that the main objective of this study is to understand the perceived investment in employee development globally with the possible consequences which they have explained in figure 2.5.

Figure2.5: The hypothesized model of the interrelationships between perceived investment in employee development (PIED), and the various work attitudes, and intent to leave constructs

Affective Commitment

+

Intent to leave

Job Satisfaction

Perceived Investment in Employee Development +

+

Continuance Commitment

Source: Chay Hoon Lee and Norman T. Bruvold (2003), “Creating value for employees: investment in employee development”, International journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958 5192 print/ISSN 1466-4399 online, DOI: 10.1080/095851903200010 6173, Taylor & Francis Ltd

Perceived investment in employee development (PIED):

It refers to equipping their employees with necessary skills and new knowledge which leads them to be prepared for the new job requirements. By developing the current skills and gaining the new ones through continuous learning will leads the organization to gain competitive advantage in the market.

PIED and Organizational Commitment:

It reflects the employees’ beliefs that the organization care about their employability and highly committed towards providing them the necessary training skills and competence which they needed.

Affective commitment means employees emotional attachment and involvement towards their organization.

Continuance commitment means employees’ loyalty and bond to the organization.

PIED and Job Satisfaction:

When the organization offers employee development programmes, employees consider as the opportunities to learn new skills and update their current skill for their career development to gain long term growth which as a result will lead to greater job satisfaction because they consider themselves as a valuable assets to their organization.

Intent to Leave:

The organization’s turnover cost will be in a serious position when they loose some valuable employees so it is important to have a better understanding of turnover to PIED. With effective PIED, there is likely to be less employee turnover which benefits the organization by not replacing the valuable employees.

In conclusion authors state that effective employee development will lead to sustained competitive advantage in the market. It increases the productivity of the organization and also provides career development and skill acquisition to the employees. As a result, employees are satisfied and highly committed to the organization which may create a strong relationship.

Empirical Review

This section reviews the studies conducted by researchers on skill development and training and development with relevant statistical facts.

Lal Bahadur (2004) conducted a research on “Human resource development practice in Nepalese business organization: A case study of manufacturing enterprises in Pokhara” stated that human resource development (HRD) in any organization is a planned effort and practice to facilitate employee’s learning of job related skills, knowledge, behavior and attitude to improve employee performance. The study had included 18 manufacturing firms out of 23 with more than 25 employees. Structured interviews were conducted to top executives, managing director and general manager of the manufacturing companies.

The report further included the development opportunities for employees and areas and subjects of training offered which is explained in table 2.2.

Table: 2.2 Development Opportunities for Employees in Nepal

Development Opportunities

Number of Firms

Percentage (symbol)

Training:

On the job training

Off the job training

14

18

78

100

Study Facilities

Time Adjustment

Scholarship

Study Leave

15

-

-

-

83

-

-

-

Exposure Visit

-

-

Source: Lal Bahadur Baniya (2004), “Human resource development practice in Nepalese business organizations: A case study of manufacturing enterprises in Pokhara”. Journal of Nepalese Business Studies, Vol.1 no.1

This study had found the two major opportunities provided for employees are training and time adjustment. On the job training was provided for technical staff who must be involved in production, machine operation or other technical field whereas, off the job training was provided to even non technical staffs working in finance, marketing and administration department.

Table 2.3: Areas and Subjects of Training Offered in Nepal

Areas and Subjects

Number

%

Rank

Production & Quality Management

1.1 Productivity Improvement

13

72

Ii

1.2 Quality Management

7

39

Vii

1.3 Production Management

10

55

Iv

Total Response

30

21

2.Financial Management

2.1 Account Training

18

100

I

2.2 Working Capital Management

2

11

X

2.3 Planning & Budgeting

4

22

Ix

2.4 Store Management

13

72

Ii

2.5Financial Management

7

39

Vii

Total Response

44

30

3. Marketing Management

3.1 Salesmanship

12

67

Iii

3.2 Sales Management

9

50

V

3.3 Advertisement & Sales Promotion

8

44

Vi

3.4 Marketing Management

12

67

Iii

Total Response

41

29

4. Human Resource Management

4.1 Employee Orientation Office Management

4

22

Ix

4.2 Communication Skills

-

-

-

4.3 Labor Management

6

33

Vii

4.4 Leadership

4

22

Ix

4.5 Motivation

2

11

X

4.6 Human Resource Management

2

11

X

Total Response

18

12

5. Office Management

5.1 Filing & Record Keeping

6

33

Vii

5.2 Telephone Handling

2

11

X

5.3 Secretarial/Office Management

4

22

Ix

Total Response

12

8

Overall Response

145

100

Source: Lal Bahadur Baniya (2004), “Human resource development practice in Nepalese business organizations: A case study of manufacturing enterprises in Pokhara”. Journal of Nepalese Business Studies, Vol.1 no.1

Table 2.3 shows that large majority of firms tend to offer training in the area of finance management followed by marketing and production management.

Major Findings of Study:

Training is the only development opportunity provided to employees to develop skills, knowledge and abilities. On the job training is offered to technical staff and off the job training is offered to employees working in marketing, administration and human resource departments.

Duration of short tem training is less than 2 weeks, followed by mid term on the job training is 2 to 4 weeks and no any training is offered for more than 4 weeks.

Training leads to higher productivity, improved performance, retention and increase motivation among employees.

Only one third of employees are satisfied with the training programme offered by the organization.

Thenjiwe’s dissertation, “The role of skills development on employee’s work performance: A case study of Inyathelo training and development (2006)” has focused on company’s performance as selected to skill development programme. The main objective was to determine whether the skills which have been learned are actually applied in practice or not, to analyze the performance of the company with skill development programmes and how well the employees are learning from such programmes. Large numbers of facilitators were engaged in skills development programmes including seven male facilitators and three females. Age groups of participated employees in this programme were from 20 to 51 and above.

The population of the company of about 30 employees where sample of 25 employees were considered including both permanent and temporary employees. By using random sampling with limited number of people in the company who participated in the study, three groups with the targeted population, employers and employees and skill development facilitators were included.

Findings of this study were as follows:

The skills development programmes were conducted in a similar set up as the real work place which benefited the employees to get exposure of the real work situation.

Based on the response of employees and skill development facilitator, general performance of the company and job performance of the employees has improved.

Employees are provided with an opportunity to attend skills development programme free of cost including accommodation.

In conclusion the author stated that it is very important to educate managers or employers about how important role does skill development programmes plays in improving general organization as well as job performance of the employees. Since many employers and manager still thinks training and development is very costly, they should be educated that investing in people is a wise investment.

Knox, Donald W. Jr. (2000) conducted a research on “The effect of leadership training on manufacturing productivity of informal leaders” with the sample size of 37 employees from different departments and shifts. Here, the first research design used for the study was a Solomon four group experimental design and the second design used was a one group pretest (posttest design).

The paper aims to explain how leadership training for the employees show significant positive gain in manufacturing productivity and the research itself shows that with the leadership development training; overall gain by productivity period in manufacturing productivity was 1.21 or 21% which states that any gains in productivity without increase in cost are important.

Recommendations based on this study are as follows:

It has been noticed that the largest gain in manufacturing productivity was gained by female employees, so opportunities must be provided to female leaders as well.

Training programmes should be extended to other areas and the new supervisors and managers should attend the training programmes as well.

360 feedback systems should be encouraged within the organization.

Introduction of new manufacturing programmes should be encouraged with effective communication, diversity and work team training within the corporation.

The author concludes by stating that there will be an overall gain in manufacturing productivity and significant improvement in the performance of the organization after the training programmes as with implementation of such training programmes, there is a good return on investment for the organization.

Geana (2008) conducted a research on “Essential soft skills for success in the twenty first century workforce as perceived by Alabama business/marketing educators” with the objective of providing such information for educators to improve the skills of students who are entering the workforce and making them understand the importance of the specific soft skills in workforce. A systematic sample of 520 was taken from the population of Alabama secondary business/marketing education which was listed in their directory for this study.

The author found that the large majority of the respondents (75.2%) stating general ethics to be very important skill in this twenty first century workforce for the students to be successful. Many respondents (73.2%) reported general communication skills as an extremely important, following to written communication (57.0%) and time management organization skills (56.4%) as important.

The findings of the study are as follows:

The majority of educators stated that to be successful in the twenty first century workforce, soft skills are extremely important.

It has been found that respondents generally supported soft skills, but the data disclose that the concepts and activities related to soft skills are not aligned into the business/marketing curriculum in consistent manner.

Other important topics like customer service, problem solving/critical thinking skills, business etiquette, oral communication skills and leadership skills are not given much importance by Alabama secondary business/marketing educators.

Sadiya (2009) conducted a research on “To study, analyze and evaluate training and development practice imparted by NIS: Sparta at Reliance Communication” with an objective of knowing how training assist and enhance the employees to acquire skills, knowledge and attitude (KSA), to know the employees’ feedback regarding training methods and to analyze whether training motivates the employees and reduces human errors. The sample size for this study was 25 people, the employees who had participated training programme in the last six months and the data collection was done through closed ended and open ended questionnaire.

Based on the study, suggestion for the company was that various training programmes in order to get maximum impact from it and continuous feedback from the trainers to trainees should be encouraged, proper and effective communication between all the levels, employees’ should be encouraged to suggest problems of other employees to make them feel that they are an important part of the organization and effective DAP (Development Action Plans) must be prepared and also given to the trainers as well.

The author concluded stating that the trainees were learning, enjoying and getting knowledge from the training programmes which showed that the company is performing at its best.

Lal Bahadur (2004) conducted a research on “Human resource development practice in Nepalese business organization: A case study of manufacturing enterprises in Pokhara” stated that human resource development (HRD) in any organization is a planned effort and practice to facilitate employee’s learning of job related skills, knowledge, behavior and attitude to improve employee performance. The study had included 18 manufacturing firms out of 23 with more than 25 employees. Structured interviews were conducted to top executives, managing director and general manager of the manufacturing companies.

The report further included the development opportunities for employees and areas and subjects of training offered which is explained in table 2.3.

Table: 2.4 Development Opportunities for Employees in Nepal

Development Opportunities

Number of Firms

Percentage (symbol)

Training:

On the job training

Off the job training

14

18

78

100

Study Facilities

Time Adjustment

Scholarship

Study Leave

15

-

-

-

83

-

-

-

Exposure Visit

-

-

Source: Lal Bahadur Baniya (2004), “Human resource development practice in Nepalese business organizations: A case study of manufacturing enterprises in Pokhara”. Journal of Nepalese Business Studies, Vol.1 no.1

This study had found the two major opportunities provided for employees are training and time adjustment. On the job training was provided for technical staff who must be involved in production, machine operation or other technical field whereas, off the job training was provided to even non technical staffs working in finance, marketing and administration department.

Table 2.5: Areas and Subjects of Training Offered in Nepal

Areas and Subjects

Number

%

Rank

Production & Quality Management

1.1 Productivity Improvement

13

72

Ii

1.2 Quality Management

7

39

Vii

1.3 Production Management

10

55

Iv

Total Response

30

21

2.Financial Management

2.1 Account Training

18

100

I

2.2 Working Capital Management

2

11

X

2.3 Planning & Budgeting

4

22

Ix

2.4 Store Management

13

72

Ii

2.5Financial Management

7

39

Vii

Total Response

44

30

3. Marketing Management

3.1 Salesmanship

12

67

Iii

3.2 Sales Management

9

50

V

3.3 Advertisement & Sales Promotion

8

44

Vi

3.4 Marketing Management

12

67

Iii

Total Response

41

29

4. Human Resource Management

4.1 Employee Orientation Office Management

4

22

Ix

4.2 Communication Skills

-

-

-

4.3 Labor Management

6

33

Vii

4.4 Leadership

4

22

Ix

4.5 Motivation

2

11

X

4.6 Human Resource Management

2

11

X

Total Response

18

12

5. Office Management

5.1 Filing & Record Keeping

6

33

Vii

5.2 Telephone Handling

2

11

X

5.3 Secretarial/Office Management

4

22

Ix

Total Response

12

8

Overall Response

145

100

Source: Lal Bahadur Baniya (2004), “Human resource development practice in Nepalese business organizations: A case study of manufacturing enterprises in Pokhara”. Journal of Nepalese Business Studies, Vol.1 no.1

Table 2.5 shows that large majority of firms tend to offer training in the area of finance management followed by marketing and production management.

Major Findings of Study:

Training is the only development opportunity provided to employees to develop skills, knowledge and abilities. On the job training is offered to technical staff and off the job training is offered to employees working in marketing, administration and human resource departments.

Duration of short tem training is less than 2 weeks, followed by mid term on the job training is 2 to 4 weeks and no any training is offered for more than 4 weeks.

Training leads to higher productivity, improved performance, retention and increase motivation among employees.

Only one third of employees are satisfied with the training programme offered by the organization.

Vichet (2009) conducted a research on “The impact of training and its integration in the firm’s business strategies on the firm’s competitiveness” with the objective of understanding training professionals’ perceptions on their strategic role and how their job performance contribute to improve the organization’s competitiveness. A non experimental descriptive study using online survey method was used in this study to collect necessary data it was conveniently accessible, provided great efficiency, and also saved time in data collection.

The sample size for this survey was estimated to be 376 training professional who are associated with American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) discussion board located at http://community.astd.org and other social networking sites like Twitter, Facebook, and Linkedin. In order to generate higher response rate, a total number of 450 online invitations were given to the training professionals.

Table 2.6: Participant’s Characteristics

Characteristics

Number of Participants

Percentage

(%)

Gender:

Male

Female

Total

48

63

111

43.2

56.8

100.0

Age:

21 to 30

31 to 40

41 to 50

51 to 60

61 to 70

No Response

Total

9

25

34

30

9

4

111

8.2

22.5

30.6

27.6

8.1

3.6

100.0

Position/Job Title:

Trainer

Training Consultant

Training Director

Training Manager

Training Specialist

Others

Total

13

19

18

30

16

15

111

11.7

17.1

16.2

27.0

14.4

13.5

100

Tenure:

1 to 5Years

More than 5 Years

No Response

Total

62

45

4

111

55.9

40.5

3.6

100.0

Source: Vichet Sum (2009) “The impact of training and its integration in the firm’s business strategies on the firm’s competitiveness”. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the doctor of philosophy degree.

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