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Different Theories On Human Development

Task 1.1. Explain the arguments and basis of different theories on human development. Compare and explain the lifespan theories of development. Analyse how knowledge of psychological concepts and theories are relevant to specific life stages in human life.

Mahbub ul Haq (1934-1998) stated that basic purpose of human development is give large amount of option to people. Human development theories are showing grate amount of evolutionary process. It merges with old ideas and feminist economics. The older ideas have came from welfare economics, ecological economics and sustainable economics. Further, human developments always work within the context of globalization. The basic idea of giving large amount of options or choices to people is building of capabilities that people can do or survive in life. In human development process, finally should create people friendly environment according people's need and interest. Further, there should be clear accessibility procedure to all the people that particular resources required. This will lead to enhance the creativity and productivity of the human. Also real wealth is more than money and healthy lives are one of the most important areas in human development. The developing and building of self respect and respect of others will be supported by proper agreed human rights.

The level of human development is varying from country to county. Hence identifying of each county's level of human development is very important to identifying of their current and future needs. To identify the human development level, we commonly use ‘human development index. The major criteria we consider in HDI are level of literacy, level of education, life expectancy, child welfare and standards of living. There can be lot of other miner factors can effects on each county's human development. That can be geographic, demographic or cultural. By using of HDI, we can divide countries in to four categories. Those are very high human development", "high human development", "medium human development", and "low human development" countries. Further it is very important to identifying of whether country is under developed, developing or developed that before applying HDI to country.

There six major theories that explain the different levels human development theories.

Darwin's Theory of Evolution - Charles Darwin (1809-1882) stated that child during the earliest stages of their life's' infants show many similar characteristics with their nonhuman ancestors and by looking at each stages of child development will give information on the evolutionary history of the human species.

Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) stated that motives and emotions that we learned from earlier experience in our life will lead to human nature and human development.

Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development

Erik Erikson (1902- ) has add more to Freud's theory by putting more weight on social influences and theory has applying on the entire life span.

Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory

Jean Piaget (1896-1980) believed that intelligence is playing major role that the human to understand the environment and adapt to it. He has explained the four major periods of cognitive development.

Behaviorism

John B. Watson has highlighted that human development should based on observations of past behaviour. Further he explained that this is the better way than the believing of unobservable and cognitive factors that explain in Piaget.

Skinner's Operant Conditioning Theory

Skinner explained that experience of new habits ,learning of those will lead to control the behaviour of human nature.

Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory

Albert Bandura believed that humans are more sensitive to cognitive information and to human development information from environment and learning from the environment plays a major role.

Vygotsky's Cognitive Theory

Lev Vygotsky highlighted that minds and thinking of children are mould by that particular social and historical culture that they are boned, lived and interacting adults.

Information Processing Theory

The human development is mental process and it involves attention, perception, memory, and decision making.

Biobehavioral Theories

These theories will exam the how genetic and environment differences will leads to change their characters.

Task 1.2. Critically explain the importance of understanding the development stages of human in working with your regular service users at your work place.

If person can understand others human development stage, it will leads to better service. When it to comes to service, people is one of the major factor that can effect on final out put.

By doing so if service provider can understand others emotion as well as your own emotions will lead to better negotiations and this will provide win-win situation to both the parties. Once people have better knowledge of human development stages you can interpret how others think can prepare before they come to discussions with you.

Task 1.3. Critically explain the reasons for “aggressiveness” of a service user using appropriate theories.

When some thing is performing or acting below the expected level there, we can observe the aggression from the responsible person. If you purchased a product or took service, but it is below the potential and expected level there we can occur the cognitive dissonance. This can observe only after the service or consumed the product. By using of following mention theories we can get an idea of aggressiveness.

Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) stated that motives and emotions that we learned from earlier experience in our life will lead to human nature and human development.

Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development

Erik Erikson (1902- ) has add more to Freud's theory by putting more weight on social influences and theory has applying on the entire life span.

Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory

Jean Piaget (1896-1980) believed that intelligence is playing major role that the human to understand the environment and adapt to it. He has explained the four major periods of cognitive development.

The aggressiveness can occur due to emotion. Freud's psychoanalytic theory clearly explains the relationship between emotion/motives and aggressiveness.

Task 2.1. Explain below are the social and biological factors that could influence the behaviour of a human. There are lot of social factors can influence on human behaviour. Role and status, stage represent in family life cycle and reference group. Further culture, sub culture, Age, religious influences , Occupation, Economic Situation,Lifestyle, Personality,Motivation, Perception

(Selective attention, Selective distortion, Selective retention), Beliefs and Attitudes

When you consider the life cycle, we can observe different objectives and behaviours according to achievement of the objectives. Father tries to earn money to protect her family but child has to go through proper education process younger stage of the life. Hence father act in security/supporting role or behaviour. But child has to behave as a learner or depend from his parent. Further income level and occupation play a major role in human behaviour. Example - managers and above people are mostly brand loyal than the miner staff of the work place.

Further genetic can influence the human behaviours. The ‘trait' theory explains that leaders are born and they can not make. Theory explains that these leadership characters come with the genetics. Further trait will carry from the mother, father or both.

When it comes to importance of social roles in the context of health and social care situations,

Culture, sub culture, Beliefs and Attitudes pay major role. Example - in younger stages of the life cycle parent will look after the children and when parents become old matured son or daughter will take care of their parent.

Task 2.2.

The neuro-degenerative disorders could also influence a person's psychological functions and behaviour.Neuro-degenerative disorders are ceriseillnesses that human can occur during his life time. In neurodegenerative gradually increase the loosing of the neuron structure and gradually decrease the functions of the neuron. Major diseases that can occur due to neurodegenerative are Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington. Due this protein structure of the cells can change and these can effects on natural DNA structure. This leads to creates unidentified many deceases due to change in DNA and protein structure of the cells. This is the reason for many unidentified deceases.

Neuro-degenerative disorders can critically effects on human psychological functions and behaviors. This will leads to dilute the person's thinking, analytical and decision making power. Hence person can not perform as formal human been and mental disorder can be the final result of the neuro-degenerativeness. Due to these problem person can not survive or be competitive in the social place. Person will become defender on other. Finally it will effects to the productivity of the society.

These Neuro-degenerative disorders can critically effects on human behaviors. This can leads to change in human attitudes, personality, emotional expressions and perception. Finaly this can leads to self control.

Task 2.3. Critically analyse the influence of sociological factors during different stages of life could influence a person's way of thinking and behaviour.

The sociological factors can influence a person's way of thinking and behavior during different stages of life cycle, In baby stage of the life cycle is very important part in the life cycle. In this stage baby's learn and behave according to what they observe during from his or her environment. Because their thinking and analytical power is very low. They mostly follow the parents and adults. Hence social factors of education level, occupation, culture of the parents and other adults are paying very important role.

When it comes to early younger stage, they would like to explore the world and find things about what they interest. In this stage parents income level play very important social factor to provide more opportunities to human in this stage. Parents education level, occupation, religion , social class, gender provide inputs to early younger's and they mostly like to follow and wants to behave like there parents. In this stage people are looking for many guidance.

Further, in younger stage their education level, social class, reference group, culture will give lot of inputs to human in younger stage to way of there thinking and behave. For an example one younger person associate with same stage person who is interest on sports and participate that, natural his friend also get interest on that particular area. In this stage people are looking for many motivations.

When it comes to adult and married, married with children stage, there are many other factors that influence person's way of thinking and behaviours. Those are income level. Social class, referent group. For example depend on their income level they will try to choose best option by elevating of many possible alternatives. Higher education level will provide lot of inputs to this stage.

When it comes to older stage of the family life cycle, culture and religion will provide lot of inputs to their behaviour and thinking pattern.

Task 3.1. Analyse how psychological theories could guide you to combat work-related stress, illness related stress, stress due to chronic illness, bereavement and loss. With the help of different theories explain attention deficit disorders, autistic spectrum disorders, behaviours associated with addiction. Explain neurosis, psychosis, depression, schizophrenia and eating disorders using the relevant psychological theories.

It is common in ever where of the world can observe the work related stress. The work related stress will built due to higher demand for the work requirement and higher demand for variety of work, combination of those can exceed the person's capacity and capabilities to do the work. This can creates the different levels of illness and many other diseases. Following are the few indicators for the work related stress.

High staffs turn over

Many sickness leaves

Lot of mistakes

Many communication errors

Drop of productivity

Many complains regarding the service levels

Not proactive

The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health in the United States defines job stress as: the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, needs of the worker.

There are five factors that can generate the work related stress.

Culture: What is organization behavior, culture and sub culture and how it deals with stress. Example- normally many people work late and it can become a culture and long term it can generate the work related stress.

Change: An organization environment is not stable. Due to new technology and globalization will lead to change the organization environment. If the staff can not adapt to the change environment, there can be development of work related stress within the staff.

Demands: if the demand is higher than the capacity and the capability of the workers, we can observe the higher level of work related stress within the members of the organization.

Control: work procedures and work sanded can creates work related stress

Relationships: The better relationships between internal workers are very important to having of higher productivity level. If not there can generate the work related stress.

There are lot of theories and concepts are available to explain the work related stress and it explain the how you can control and overcome from the stress. Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, Therapeutic Neutrality, Counter-transference, Free Association, Resistance, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

Task 3.2. Critically explain how you could improve the quality of life of a service user with the better understanding of his/her current psychological conditions.

Psychological problems can explain as mental disorders, this deceases can effects on many areas of the life.

Type of psychological problems are as follows,

Depression - there are many types depression,

Anxiety Disorders -

Schizophrenia -

Childhood Disorders

Impulse Control Disorders -

Personality Disorders - Adjustment Disorders -

Family Problems -.

Current organization environment are changing and highly competitive. Hence level of stress is vey h9gh. If person can understand the others or consumers psychological condition, it is easy to understand, identify , anticipate consumer needs and wants. For example , there are lot of people that they have illness of eating disorders hence if the provider can make their food more heather than now. They can improve the quality of life in human.

Further people who have impulse disorder can observe following, Impulse-Control Disorders exhibit the inability to control impulses and it can be harm to own self or r others. There few Types of impulse-control disorders are available: Trichotillomania ( example - hair-pulling), Pyromania (fire-starting). Hence understanding of customers or subordinates psychological conditions will leads to provide of betterservice.

Task 3.3. Critically explain different strategies you could adopt to work with different service users applying the psychological theories.

It is very important that have better understanding of your customers, subordinates and others current psychological conditions.

There are six major type of people's are available and those are as, hostile co-workers or bosses, complainers, super-agreeables, know-it-all experts, pessimists, and stallers.

The Hostile Co-worker or Boss

You should work with fairly with them and you need to develop the strength and tact. Further you can support them to need their requirements soon as possible or you can stay as weak and scared.

Dealing with hostile people requires both tact and strength. Since persons who feel they have been wronged are more likely to be belligerent and violent, you should first try to be sure they have been dealt with fairly. By using of tools like minimize the noise level and keep your self calm will leads to have a better negotiations with this type people

The Chronic Complainer

People who are blaming and fault-finding are in this category. The initial stage of this type of situation is very important and should not agree with them and do not apologize from him. What should do is collect the data and solve the problem

The Super-Agreeable

These people promise to deliver things more that they do or complete. We should make avoid them from such over promises. Further, should explain them that friendship is more valuable than these over promises.

The Know-It-All Expert

There are two types true expert and pretentious-but-not-real expert , they don't like to get ideas from others. Before deal with them you should study all the areas that are relevant to the problem. Also should not counter attack them and come up with the suggestions and ask questions from them.

The Pessimist

This is very negative attitude and they will say it will not work, we have already tried with that option are frequent answers from them. Should not counter attack them and change their ideas by having brainstorming programmes.

The Staller

These people do not want to make other people unhappy, hence they fear to take decisions. We should support to take correct decision with required supporting document.

Task 4.1 Evaluate and explain the application of psychological principles and theories to effecting behaviour change in health and social care sector. Analyse how psychological theories can enhance understanding of relationships in health and social care between different parties involved.

There are lot of theories and concepts are available to explain the behaviour changes in health and social care sector. Major theories as Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, Therapeutic Neutrality, Counter-transference, Free Association, Resistance, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy very used. Among these according to the cognitive theory it described related health education and health behaviroal programmes. This theory stated the how people get behavioural patterns in their social care sector.Behaviroal changes are depend on the environment ,people and behavioural factors .The framework for designing, evaluating programmes and implementing the progranmmes are done through this theory. Environment means the surrounding the effects that influence the persons behaviour.

Task 4.2 Critically explain how psychological theories could guide you as Health and social care professionals to have an understanding attitude towards your service users.

There are lot of theories and concepts are available to explain the behaviour changes in health and social care sector. Major theories as Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, Therapeutic Neutrality, Counter-transference, Free Association, Resistance, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy very used. Among these according to the cognitive theory it described related health education and health behaviroal programmes. This theory stated the how people get behavioural patterns in their social care sector.Behaviroal changes are depend on the environment ,people and behavioural factors .The framework for designing, evaluating programmes and implementing the progranmmes are done through this theory. Environment means the surrounding the effects that influence the persons behaviour.

Task 4.3 Critically explain how different psychological theories could help you to improve inter service user conflicts at your workplace.

We can be considered the cognitive theory for to improve inter service user conflicts in workplace. In the work place, we provide the services to the customer and we hope their satisfaction. If customer has came to the work place they are aim to do their purpose quickly and the very accuracy. Therefore we must improve our behaviour skill according to the cognitive theory. In the business field, most are hope give satisfactory services to the customer and hence as the feedback they can be get clear mind about the our workplace Therefore more customers attract the workplace so it gives more profits to the business.

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