Definition and concept of mergers and acquisitions
In term of mergers and acquisitions are usually recording to selling and buying the companies .Mergers and acquisitions have been a very important part for many organization, but each one has different meanings and definitions :
merger it is the combination or two organizations of the same size and field combine to gather to form a new organization where the profit and losses are shared equally .furthermore , when the companies going to the mergers or did merger , this will lead to change all the structure and create new management to establishing the fairness among the stockholders and combine or transfer all resources and capital between each others , also the organization moving to merger to make good atmospheres working , as well as , to create the synergy and consolidation , cooperation product. In additional , both organizations stocks are give up to a new firm entity . (Bruner, R. (2004). And (Investopedia, 2008).
refers to where the one company take over or control another company by selling and buying the own resource and assets to another company , it means acquiring all the capital resource and stocks from loser company to winner company ,this kind of business happened in different area and industry for example in ( manufacturing , technology, auto vehicles, ..Etc), the acquisitions mean a purchasing. In this case, the full decision making to the winner companies because it’s has control and restrict all the situation and orientations, when the acquisition happened the stocks and assets will divides to 51% to the acquiring company and 49% to the acquired company .whereas the management will not change and the strategies of the company but all operations and orders will follow and implement from the acquiring company . (Bruner, R. (2004). And (Investopedia, 2008).
Mergers and acquisitions are the type of strategy to growth or enhance the business and achieve the competitive , globalization and to increasing the profits and establish or build good reputation (brand ) . Galpin, T.J. and Herndon, M. (2007) found the mergers and acquisitions are the best way to achieve the growth rapid In term of using or following the mergers and acquisitions , the studies show that the acquisitions using more than mergers and M &A there is a lot of negotiation process going on in the organization like the delegation of authority and the other negations related to the decision making process before starting to whether merger or to acquisition , then the mangers or negotiators will explain the ways to follow it and identify which issues influence on it and how o take it into account and how can overcoming on the problems such as cultures , resistance of transfers knowledge , and how to increasing the communications , as well as , how to improvement the now operations and processes by increasing training and development , in additional , the mangers should take into consideration the limitations from following or going to mergers and acquisitions such as the economy situations and what are the expectations’ after mergers or acquisitions and what are our strategies related to future like ( proactive , reactive strategies, and contingency prospective ) to make sure the operation going to right way. (Cullinan, G. and Gole, W.J. and Hilger, P.J. (2008))
2.2Common reasons push the companies to mergers and acquisitions :
It has many reasons to drive the mangers to thinking about mergers and acquisitions , these reasons includes :
Access to developing and improving the customer base , this together with geographic markets or create new distribution channels , as well as to developing and increasing the cash flow .
Access to new market to increasing the organizational capabilities and to get new technology, that can help the firms to achieve and expand of opportunities strategic, in other word, some time the companies want to going to globalization by mergers and acquisitions.
To increasing the revenue by consolation of business units .
To obtain the economies of scopes and scales, also to make synergies by minimizing the cost of production by mergers or acquisitions and achieve cost leadership with high quality and service.
To overcome of the problems such as in mergers weakness in productivity or operation, whereas in acquisitions sometimes the financial crisis or bankruptcy.
Francis.H,(2002) investigated the roles and activities of human resources management (HRM) within the organization change and what HR are plying the vital role when the management change. He introduce a discourse analytic design to learn the function of human resource management practices and organization change and which explore approach to vibrant role or function of language shaping operation of change. He examined Which approach using to solve the problem and unproblematic when the organization and management change .the author based on his study that discourse learns agree that the language isn’t simple insightful of reality but is an major in constitute reality ,as well as, he moved on tested the probably of discourse based learns to bring or introduce high insights on the roles or functions of human recourse to producing change , the approaches was forming on work of ford and ford ,he introduce the case study to shown the surfacing of beginning change organization this case did on the large UK manufacturing company .also he suggest shift in conversation to treat the change management .
2.3The primary reasons lead to failure of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are :
Wrong in the formulation and implementation strategies or planning from the top mangers , in other words, lack of management experience in mergers or acquisitions .
Failure of top management to take into the account the humans consequences such as the cultures , race , beliefs, as well as don’t take in considerations the roles of human resource within the mergers and acquisitions such as staffing , selecting , recruitments, compensation and labor relation ,also training and development this role very important within the M&As because this step or phase helping the employees about the new roles and polices .
Lack of due diligence unsuccessful to gain the intelligence on human capital of mergers and acquisitions purpose of organizations.
2.4The primary reasons lead to successful of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are:
The mergers and acquisitions must create value to the new entity by follow all the polices and lows, this should implement from the good management, moreover, the purchasing mustn’t go above of value and objectives of consolidation and synergies.
The success of mergers and acquisitions probably dependant on the human resource management and practices because they can solve the problems related to culture and, labor relations, motivations, training development.
The top management has the growth and alternative to facing the uncertain events in the futures such as (proactive, reactive, contingency prospective).
2.5 Human resource roles and practices within the mergers and acquisitions
The human resource practices have a lot of activities within the mergers and acquisitions. also the HRM playing vital roles in the process of mergers and acquisitions , the activities shown from the (weber.Y and fried.Y, 2009) . They clearly the activities of human resource management within the mergers and acquisitions, includes: first is a leadership, in step the human resource mangers playing role are the motivator, focus and guidance, the researchers reviewed the leadership is a very important driver to transform and employees contributions , as well as , the second is a the culture , they said win the companies want to acquires or merging , the managers within it should or make sure to Identify the culture issues and align cultures and values ,and can attain this by share a main vision and mission , because to establish tie culture and working team and solve the problems and enhance the morals. The third is a communication this step very important to make all agreement clear and reduce the uncertainty , also to supporters employees engagement and to make the flexible deals and transactions , the forth is a staffing and selecting refers to the human resource has authority on the recruiting employees and firing, in other word , the HR mangers put the right person in the right position .the fifth is a compensation employees from the companies combined or from the companies acquired .this step should implement by right way to make sure to retention the employees experience and talent and reduce the turnover because if the employees and mangers within the mergers and acquisitions events quit then the costs will be high because they want to recruiting new staff and pay money on them and support them new courses , moreover , sixth is a training and development is very necessary to the mergers and acquisitions because to developing and improving , reduce the gaps to build good team work and organizations culture ,developing the employees performance to increase the productivity . but it has a lot of activities for human resource management but they mentioned the primary roles within the mergers and acquisitions
Shuler.R,jackson.S,(2001) explain the human resource issues within the mergers and acquisitions and how the human resource practices or roles can integrate and help the companies to reduce the problems and solve it by using human resource practices , such as identify the reasons of mergers and acquisitions and selecting the partners , planning to managing the operation of the mergers and acquisitions , solving the culture issues ,and how to reduce the potentials failure and increasing the potentials success , as well as argue the human resource department (roles )can increasing position and strength of companies within the market place .they investigated three models of mergers and acquisitions ,that systemically shown the Nemours of human resource issues and practices , this models includes :the first is a pre-combination : shown the human resource roles and activities in first stage of mergers and acquisitions , also this shown the pre-combination different within the mergers and acquisitions, very important in this stage is define and identify the reasons to beginning the activity , as well as, make sure or keen to the senior executive and retention on the key talents . The second is a combination–integration companies refer to how can the human resource implementing the planning and stage one to success the mergers and acquisitions. the third is solidification and assessment of new entity refers to descript the new company and how the workflow after post-mergers or acquisitions , shown the process meeting the objectives and planning of companies or not .they found human resource practices can doing the integration strategies and business , vision and mission of new company are clear , moreover, human resource apply the explanations and clearing to help the mangers to create the decision making and decreasing the uncertain , as well as , helping to create or build team or group working and solving the culture problems .moreover , human resource activities has implication on management retention , new product development and capital expenditure .
Porter(1985) investigate the human resource practices and activities within the organization and markets place ,he also argue the strong human resource roles will lead to attain the competitive advantages and gain market share and he mentioned that the human resource the big source to achieve the competitive advantages ,he argue that good employees within the company this mean good human resource then will achieve the revelry by high performs in value chain activities ,these activities are support and primary activities , then for sure will lead to high productivity and creativity . he assumed that the best fit and best roles of mergers and acquisitions will be easy to transfers the knowledge and resources and improve the capabilities .
The lessons of mergers and acquisitions act was the part of a mixture of discipline like organization strategic management, behavior, and finance. It has low no agreement For mutually across , and within this things on how can measure the mergers and acquisitions performance (stahl&voight,2008). As well as the researchers argue the interaction between the performance of organizations finance and human resource roles are complex and found these things dependent on contingency variable, moreover, they conclude that the human resource effects on the firm and performance financial but they argue that will happen when the employees behavior and attitude aren’t detrimental or harmful to the operation (paauwe and farndale ,2006).
2.6 Training and development during the mergers and acquisitions (M&As).
The training and development within the organization very important and necessary , also it is pivotal , the employees and mangers needs the course training within the organization to know about the kind of work and the position and new technology during the merger and acquisitions because when the M&As happen will change the polices and roles and type of work ,so the human resource have to overcoming on these problems to reduce the gaps , as well as , to reduce the turnovers and retention them , the training and development help to improve the integration capabilities from each companies , furthermore, the mangers before going to mergers and acquisitions should know the information about the environment and economic , human resource activities and polices ,also the culture and how can get way to transfer the knowledge , in additional, the training and development is playing very important roles to lead success of mergers and acquisitions by solve the different culture and stress ,conflicts , tensions , and how can help to overcome the resistance point , as well as helping to develop and enhance the effectiveness of knowledge integration and gain the knowledge by dependence on the database , processes and manuals (.besman , nobel and birkinshaw ,1999) found that the training and development within the mergers and acquisitions is positively linked to the knowledge transfer and can contribute to facility the transfer the resource and information ,in additional , they didn’t examine the relationship among the performance and training and the mangers of human resource (HR) can using the two type of training such as formal and informal , on job training and off job training . But despite the lot of researches on the human resources performance and roles but still has the major gaps linkage understand and fragmented. The very difficult within this linkage is owing within the fraction to fact of knowledge transfer engages a trade off among the costs of human resource roles and benefits but in naturally, the mergers and acquisitions program training and development is very necessary to the organization and implent this will be extra costs such as eternal providers, travel, time) (paauwe and farndale ,2006). Moreover, not many studies or researches on mergers and acquisitions have talk about the important and necessary of human resource activities for the combination mechanisms, also a little of researchers have debate the significant of creation mechanisms the to make or establish new a solids stock of activity.(Grant , 1996) examine and argued that characteristic benefits naturally erode overtime .This idiosyncratic is crucial that new roles be construct and continues enhancing within varying environment ,also to developed and improved that can make easy to creativity and innovation
(nonaka,1994) suggest the theory of knowledge to make or produce that relate to dynamic of events among two dimensions of transfer knowledge , this dimensions includes : one is transfer the knowledge among the group and individual or organization stage to make sure all the members or employees will reach the knowledge . The second is transformation the knowledge form tactic to open knowledge and vice – versa. He argued that the training is very important in this knowledge creation to make sure to transfer the information and increase the knowable about the new rules and policies and also to know about the objectives and goals of organization. In this phase experience and the knowledge is a human capital, this is the enter factor when the companies want merger to make of new activities and enhancing of existing of new entity. moreover , The training program directs and orienting the employees and managers to figure out new methods and ways and to recognize the location and leverage of new knowledge from the parties of the companies combined .as well as the each foundation of knowledge want way of training for to reach and focal the information and improve it ,also very necessary to training and development after mergers and acquisitions to ensure every things going by good way .as well as, necessary to continues in training and development to teach and know the uncertainty and unexpectations conflicts and problems will be happen and improve the due diligence ,therefore to address the challenges . he argue the training within the organization very important to controlling the new activities and practices and to adaptation, as well as, help to sustainable and achieve the competitive advantages and routine that separate the merged firms .in additional, he found that the most of investment in training program within the organization will increasing the skills, abilities and knowledge, also to the companies specificity of mangers and help to develop capabilities of integration.
(stone, 2007) examine the relationship among the mergers and acquisition (M&As) and human resource practices and how can the human resource mangers contribute and help to successes the mergers and acquisitions . he founds that relationship not easy because the human resource roles within the organization (multicultural) is probably less effective but he argue that is the values and characters of the individuals effect on the roles or activities of human resource operations , as well as ,found that the training activities will added more costs on the organization , in other word, the more investment in training and development will help to improve and enhance the performance and overcome on the multicultural issues , also will enhance the talents and competences . he mentioned that the investment in training and development will be accept if the performance walking by right way and the managers can predicts that will be right if they have certain in the future happen .moreover, he establish and argue that the more investment on training and development dependent on the different national and can effect on the relationship among added the mergers and acquisitions and training .
Appelbaum.S, et al ,(2007) examine and investigated the mangers’ want or need in term of being more knowledgeable and acculturated and what kind of training can support the mangers to ability to manage the operation and implications of mergers and acquisitions within the companies combined, also they shown the kind of training the mangers have to trained on it such as the culture stress and problems ,how can solve this issues , as well as , leadership how can motivate the employees to commitment to the job , communications between the new employees ,also training them on how can helping to controlling an monitoring when the management change (in term of mergers). They approach in them study to collects the data is a classification strategies collected from the academic of literature research , it was with particular or exacting reference related to the common issues problems management happened within the mergers and acquisitions to know what is the appropriate kind of training to support the mangers during mergers and acquisitions’. The outcomes from this study shown is the interdependent variable are a organization culture, trust, communication and leadership, stress and change , all of these played necessary or vital role during and post mergers and acquisitions’ operations and process and can or help to create the synergies and consolidations between the shareholder and stakeholder , moreover , they provides the company’s management or the organizations want to going to mergers and acquisitions’ to guide them how can to be success in the mergers and acquisitions and what the problems will facing during the M&A ,also what guide them how t keen to attain the goals after mergers and acquisitions (M&As) , as well as how can help the employees and managers to adapt within the new situations ( new entity ) to create harmony and comfortable between the companies combined .
Wells.D ,schminke.M, (2001) examine the role of human resource of development and training ethical within an integrative framework to craft and maintaining successful ethical training and how can human resource practices to improving and development the ethics within the organization . they suggest four theme to make effective the training program , these includes :training design this refers to pedagogy issues and content , need evaluation , trainee personality refers to what the influence on the trainee ethics and what are them behaviors such as scientiousness ,mental ability and self efficacy , transfer of skills and how can assessment issues refers to how can the long term of development and training retention or keep the morals and ethics on employees and managers and the effective of evaluation to keep the behavioral tracking on the right way . they discover on the individuals or personality moral cognitive development and tested how the structure built on resonance training principles can enhance or improve the self efficacy of ethics training , as well as , they present a serious or grave the research questions that the important of ethical integration and how can training can solve it , moreover, they present the contents of training program to improve the morals to the employees and mangers within the organization and how can preparation the trainee and trainers to pre training . they concludes are the human resource system playing vital role to enhance the moral and ethics ,also creation good relationship and synergy to keep the high performance and HR can speculate the prospective employees in the future (proactive ) and how can solve the problems if happened (reactive ) .
2.7 communications during the mergers and acquisitions (M&As).
Communications role within the mergers and acquisitions playing very important role and vital role to developing , enhancing and improving the capabilities and knowledge , as well as, to teaching and reaching the employees about new environment work, also to enhance the ways of learning and training programs , in additional , the communications can effect on the transfer knowledge situations and how can focal and reach the information between two parties , frequently , engaging in numerous months of deep interaction among receiving parties and transmitting( szulanski,1996). He founds that the good coordination’s and negotiations will help to build good knowledge transfers integrations but whole of these dependent on the communication and coordination among the employees and managers of the companies combined. in this case , should the managers and employees from the acquiring company inform and debate with the managers and employees from the company acquired about the members team and mangers staff about the new polices and roles , as well as , how can repots within the workflows and process or engaging of divisional , functional ,and corporate managers . (Grant ,1996) found the that the ability to creation good knowledge view , this rely on the extend of close integration of the organization mangers and employees . furthermore , the negative feeling such as lack of trust and uncertainty , conflicts and employees anxiety , when the organizations announcement on the merger , when the management announce that will shape the negative feeling because these companies don’t have good communications system and reliable information on the what will happen in the future when they want to announce because to overcome on this problems .formal communication within the merger and acquisition found that have been linked and positive reactions within the merger , as well as shown that have been reduce the management turnover and resigned ,also lead to stabilization of situation, moreover, the organizations intentions from the communication are to maximize the employees awareness and perception that can ability to increase the values of company such as honesty ,trust and caring. As well as the good designed for merger has to communicate about the information how the mergers and acquisitions impact on the employees to reduce the unexpected or uncertainty (bastien,1987 and schweiger & denisi,1991) . as well as the merger workshops that help to evolve and sharing the employees to recognize rational and logic of the merger and acquisition ,then will help to minimize the employees negative feeling and creation good members group and fantastic atmospheres .
The communication has good effects on the negotiations and big impacts on the mergers and acquisitions performance , as well as , the communications within the mergers and acquisitions are various from country to another country because it has many factors effects on type of communication in mergers and acquisitions such as (polices and rules, culture ,economic ,environment ,etc) ,for example , in U.S organizations in U.S the top mangers using the communicators professional within negotiation issues . the communicators enjoy use of hold of all the stage of the regular meeting and enjoy to call the first name ,also to set up notices to present and introduce the information about vision and missions statement . in contrast, the communications methods among the Japanese organizations and purchase subsidies within UK doesn’t open and easy . In Germany organizations focus on the rotate between the formal dissections and informal discussions because it has many kind of discussions and the communicators have to discuses and debate within different situations and environment. By contrast, in French organizations appear to entertain a bit of self-doubt , and seeking to perfects communicating between themselves , as well as , informing and provide the subsidiaries employees and mangers just what needs and want to know and learn bases . They also follow the adopting “colonial attitude”. (child, et al , 2001).
Proper .S, et al, (2000) examine the anatomy of merger and what are the factors of organizations affecting on the merger , also investigated and reviewed the role of human resource (HR) and chief executive officer (CEO) within the mergers and how can they lead to success the merger among the companies combined . they show the issues effects on the mergers such as clear communications and they argue this is very important during the mergers and acquisitions’, as well as they examined the culture situations and shown how the culture effect on the workflows and process when the companies merge each other’s or acquiring another company, also they argue is a reason of success of mergers and acquisitions when the mangers or human resource mangers solve the cultures issues , also , how HR can solve the problem when employees the companies combined resistance the knowledge and new polices , moreover , they examined general change happened during mergers and acquisitions’ such as when two companies merged, the management will change and shown the roles of human resource roles or practices in this situations , as well as they faced the outcomes or results inside the uncertain and new environment . They conclude strategy all the way through of the phases and managing process. the five main major they argued or examined are ( corporate culture , communications, managing strategy , stress) all these alienated into three levels includes : per- mergers and during mergers , and after mergers (post mergers).
Papadakis.V, (2005) presented the role and function of communication program and broader context in mergers and acquisition and how this roles can help or lead the both companies combined to be success, also he investigated the main factors influence or effective on the mergers and acquisitions (M&As) . These factors includes the internal and external factors that influence on the companies combined, as well as , the subsequently of mergers and acquisitions ,also , how the shape of decision making methods can help to lead to success of the M&As. He approach in his study , seeker to examine the factors effective of range the external and internal corporate environment and communication program, firm characteristics , as well as the characteristics of mergers and acquisitions itself . He based in his study or rely on the comparative of different big sample of 72 in profundity studies of mergers and acquisitions, The observe took from Greece. The author founds from his empirical shown are the communication program has very influence in success of mergers and acquisitions, this program was concern of negotiation about the strategic management and behavioral of the employees and managers and economic &finance scholar to help mangers to formulation of the decision making , moreover , the good or tie of communications will keep the operation and workflows within post-merger integration cool and creation good natural work , then will lead to survive . As well as , he said that his study will be giddiness to newly Europe countries because they like to encourage sign of the mergers and acquisitions .
Bhaskar .U, tatnam.V,(2009) evaluate the employees response to the mergers and acquisitions and how the function of leader members exchange (LMX) and leader communication, so they assess the behavioral reactions and responses of the employees to the M&As, also evaluate the affective and cognitive of the employees within mergers and acquisitions . they approach in them studying to get the data by survey on four banks that have done mergers in Indian , the responses was 225 mangers from these banks .the data gathered dependent on the questioners , this contained level of leader communication and leader member exchange with employees reactions to the mergers and acquisitions , as well as , before tested and examined the hypotheses the measured the psychometric are established .the outcomes from this study shown that leader communication fully arbitrate the association of involvement dimension of leader members exchange (LMX) with cognitive reactions , as well as , illustrated that have an effect arbitrate the relationship among behavioral reaction and cognitive to the mergers and acquisitions .in additional, they illustrate that the outcomes from this study has limitations by using communication and leader members exchange (LMX) through mergers and acquisitions, as well as, the values from this study are give insight into behavioral reactions and cognitive ,affective, of the employees during M&As case .
2.7 culture during the mergers and acquisitions (M&As).
Chew.I, Sharma.B,(2005) evaluated the impacts of human resource practices and culture on company performance . this observed data from Singapore . they studied the impacts of human resource (HR) practices and organizational culture influence of financial performance within the Singapore companies that did and engaged mergers and acquisitions . they approaches in them study ways of content analysis to gathered the information on human resource management and culture values effectiveness .they approach kabanoffs content investigation vocabulary .as well as , collected the data from the financial ratio to evaluate the organizational culture ,also they examine the various hypotheses . they founds that the companies with leader profile value or elite . when the processes implement by human resource practices had been good financial performance as contrast to companies with collegial profiles value ,then they follow that , and seek to attain better financial outcome by take on mergers and acquisitions actions organizations need and want to have leadership profile value and elite .
Lodorfos .G, boating.A, (2006) explained the part or function of culture in mergers and acquisitions practice and examine the impact of the role of culture to lead to success of the mergers and acquisition as well as the failure of M&As . they present the methods to enhance the cultures integration ,in other word, they suggest to improve the mergers and acquisitions ,HR should solve the culture problems and creation synergy between the employees within the new company in order to walk in right ways and working within the team group .moreover they said the integration of culture issues should take into account when the companies want to go to merge or acquiring foreign country (globalization) because it has Nemours culture and race , then the HR should consider this point to solve it .the authors approach in them study ,it was based on 32 encounters with senior managers mergers and acquisitions (M&As) of 16 dealt within the chemical industry .the authors founds the different culture among merging company are the solution elements of moving to effectiveness of the operation or methods integration and important thing leading to success of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) ,furthermore , the mangers of human resource have the same opinion that the different culture make organization challenges. They suggest four phase advance to focal with different culture, the first one is per-planning and per-merger this refers to engages the information meeting developing or improving the trust and confident among the employees and managers of both companies, also this phase intended to identify and define the problems or gaps culture and how can put the planning to solve or retreat it. The second phase is a planning phase refers to create the action planning to ensure the integration culture process such as negotiation the work of art and decide the level of integration culture ,assess the probable risk ,and what kind of training needs ,etc . the third phase is a implementing refers to how can control the system and join together structure , also this stage include the communication and the training workflow and reorganization . The fourth is a evaluation (reflection and review) refers to assessing the outcome and reaction, interaction employees and managers with this system. The authors argue are the implication of the four phases and founds are the good or strong fit culture will forming or attain the success of mergers and acquisitions and if all stages per-mergers, planning action, implementation and appraisal system running or following by correct ways foresue will make the good atmospheres and good environment working and creating value to the companies ,also contribute to achieve the competitive advantages
Minbaeva.D,(2005) examine the impact of human resource department activities on the knowledge transfers within the multinational organization and how the human resource management (HR) playing crucial role among the company departments ,also between the employees and managers to make transparent for all operation and workflow , as well as how can transfers the knowledge between the different cultures and race to withholding the problems ,anxiety and tensions , moreover , examine how can the human resource mangers identify and provide the process and operations and how can these methods can lead to reduce or minimize the problems and can contribute in achieve the goals and competitive advantages to the organization , as well as, he suggest the human resource department can move the companies to developing and improving the talent and competences and creation social relationship ,also can keep everything’s clearly and increasing the cooperating between the employees and managers .he suggest the human resource management (HRM) can support the companies learning environment and know the situations . he suggest the hypotheses that said when the human resource management activities are useful as integrated system of rely on the human resource activities (independent practices ) then being higher level of knowledge transfers ,he applied this tested or examined on 92 subsidiaries Danish multinational corporation (MNCS) these included 11 countries . the outcomes from this study, are a tow group of human resource management help or support to knowledge transfers, in first group the result analysis shown is a impacts of the human resource management (HRM) including training, staffing, compensation, appraisal on the transfer knowledge was an substantial and positive, as well as, HRM in first group has impact to be flexible workflows and on socialization . but the effective the human resource management on the second group wasn’t hold up the data, moreover, the outcomes shown the HRM has impact on the level of transfer knowledge when the multinational organization take it as system .as well as the implications reviewed that the correlation between the human resource management (HRM) and transferring knowledge is clearly and increasing our knowledge and understanding.
Conyon.M, et al , (2000) investigated the effective of mergers and acquisitions on organization employment within UK also , shown how the mergers and take over impact on the employees and managers in united kingdom, these impacts are employment losses and cost saving, and how effect on the mangers anxious , also what is the out comes from the mergers and acquisitions moreover, what is the expect of wages rate for the labor . The authors support them study systematic practical analysis of impact the mergers and acquisitions on the firms within the united kingdom .they used to prove them study the particular database , this database built for the period 1967 to 1996. This source collected from London share price database and the Cambridge ( databank of company accounts , as well as this information combined from 1400 mergers and takeovers by 1000 companies combined . the authors reached in this study are the outcomes shown that major rationalizes as firms minimize the joint output and increasing the effectiveness after merger, as well as , found that linked and aggressive merger practices is followed by high falls in labor demand . also this found supports the merger activity specially promotes efficiency and stop among with more of the earlier industry companies literature
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