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Building and maintaining a conducive Organizational Culture

The pioneering work of Deal and Kennedy (1982) popularized the notion of understanding, establishing, and fostering a positive Organizational Culture. While Organizational Culture is an intangible concept, it clearly plays a meaningful role in organizations affecting its operations and employees behavior. Therefore, it is important for management to promote a conductive Organizational Culture to secure motivation and satisfaction within employees thereby creating loyalty and improved service quality. Indeed, even though Organizational Culture is not the only determinant of organizational success or failure a positive culture can be a significant source of competitive advantage for organizations in the business environment.

This chapter provides an overview on the concept of Organizational culture, Employee Motivation, Job satisfaction and their importance for an organization Also, the determinants of Organizational Culture influencing Employee Motivation and the dimensions of Employee Motivation impacting on Job satisfaction are analyzed. Hence, relationships between the three key variables are assessed by focusing on a specific model of Organizational Culture and Employee Motivation.

2.1 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

It should be pointed out that, much controversy exists regarding the general nature of Organizational Culture as a construct (Cooper el al. 2001) and, as a result, several different definitions of the concept have been formulated, each from the unique perspective of its author.

2.1.1 Definition Organizational Culture

Table 2.1: Definition of Organizational Culture

Author

Definition

Hofstede (1991)

The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one organization from another.

Deshpande and Webster (1989)

The pattern of shared values and beliefs that help individuals understand organizational functioning and thus provide them with norms for behavior in the organization.

Schein (1985)

The patterns of basic assumptions that a given group has invented, discovered or developed in learning to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration.

Deal and Kennedy (1982)

A system of informal rules that spells out how people are to behave most of the time.

Source: Author

In simpler terms, Organizational Culture is a set of interrelated values, beliefs and assumptions which people at work share, support and its impacts on their behavior.

2.1.2 Importance of Organizational Culture for an organization

Table 2.2: The Importance of Organizational Culture for an organization

Goffee and Jones (1996)

When organization members identify themselves with the organizational culture, the work environment tends to be more enjoyable, which boast morale. This leads to increased levels of teamwork, sharing of information, and openness to new ideas among employees because information flows more freely throughout the organization.

Martins &Martins (2003)

An organizational culture influences employees to be good citizens and to “go along”; the rationale being that a strong culture provides shared values that ensure that everyone in the organization is on the same track.

Source: Author

2.1.3 MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

2.1.3.1 Schein’s Model

Schein’s model (1985) of Organizational Culture states that Organizational culture is manifested at different levels in an organization as illustrated below:

Artifacts are the most visible level of an organizational culture. According to Cooper et al. (2001) artifacts are the manifestations of culture and define the behavior, objects and praxis the organizational culture uses to confirm and express itself towards its employees. Examples of artifacts include office buildings, language, dress code, histories, ceremonies, rituals and behavior (De Chernatony, 1999). Values describe how people in a group communicate and negotiate, and how they justify their behavior. These values often represent the beliefs of the organization’s leader and serve as criteria against which behavior is measured (Stoner, 1989).The underlying assumptions determine the manner in which people in the organization behave, feel and think. They form the essence of the prevailing culture, of which the artifacts and values are manifestations. These are taken for granted, and not discussed or debated.

Limitations

In fact, Schein’s model (1985) depicts the level of Organizational Culture, namely artifacts, values and basic assumptions and their interaction. However, the criticism of this model is that it does not examine the influence of external factors on organizational culture. In others words, Schein’s model (1985) is criticized for not addressing the active role of assumptions and beliefs in forming and changing organizational culture and their interaction.

2.1.3.2 Martins Model

The model developed by Martins (2000) to describe Organizational Culture was based on the work of Edgar Schein (1985) and draws on open systems theory originally developed by Ludwig van Bertalanfy (1950) and adapted by several authors like Kast & Rosenzweig (1985) and Kreitner & Kinicki (1995). The systems offer a holistic approach, but also emphasizes the interdependence between the different sub systems and elements in an organization (French & Bell, 1995).The organizational systems model explains the interaction between organizational subsystems (goals, structure, management, technology and psycho-sociological). The complex interaction which takes place on different levels between individuals and groups, and also with other organizations and the external environment, can be seen as the primary determinants of behavior in the work place.

The model is shown below:

Dimensions Measured to describe Organizational culture

Strategic Mission and Vision

Customer Focus

Means to achieve objectives

Management processes

Employees needs and objectives

Interpersonal relationships

Leadership

Determinants of OrganizationAL culture that influence Employee Motivation

Strategy

Structure

Support Mechanism

Behavior that encourage innovation

Vision and Mission

Purposefulness

Flexibility

Freedom:

Autonomy

Empowerment

Decision making

Cooperative team and group interaction

Reward &Recognition

Availability of resources:

Time

Mistake handling

Idea generating

Continuous learning Culture

Risk taking

Employee Motivation

Figure 2.2: Conceptual Model of The Determinants of Organizational Culture influencing Employee Motivation

Source: Adapted from Martins (2000 Pg 171)

2.1.3.2.1 Determinants of Organizational Culture

The model of Martins (2000) (Figure 2.2) show the determinants of Organizational Culture which influences Employee Motivation. This influence can be divided into five determinants of Organizational Culture which are explained below:

Table 2.3: The dimensions of Organizational culture

Determinants

Description

Strategy

The strategy determinant is fostered by a mission statement and by a clear corporate vision which is a mental picture of the organisation desired future(Qubein, 1999).

In fact corporate visions are most effective when communicated to employees by top leaders who exhibit strong values. (Martins 2000)

According to Mungrah (2010) the vision and mission statement of an organization acts as glue that holds the organization together through shared values and behavior.

An effective alignment of culture and strategy provides a means of getting people to work together to reach strategic goals and achieve the objectives of the organization (Collins and Porras, 1996)

Structure

Structure is reflected through the decision-making culture of an organization. It is displayed in large part by the formalization of its structures and procedures and by the nature of its participative management approach (Martins 2000)

Organizational culture has an influence on the organization structure and operational systems in an organization. (Armstrong, 1995).

An organizational culture through its structure can foster a supportive attitude towards employees through the following variables: flexibility, freedom in autonomy, empowerment, Decision making, cooperative teams and groupinteraction (Martins 2000)

Support Mechanism

According to Martins (2000) support mechanisms refer to the availability of resources namely time, the rewards and recognition system in the organization. In fact, behavior that is rewarded reflects the values of the organization and contributes to its effectiveness.

Behavior that encourage

innovation

Innovation is a crucial determinant of Organizational Culture which is a significant impetus for long term development (Samaha 1996).

The values and norms that encourage innovation manifest themselves in specific behavior in an organization (Yin, 2002). These include the ways in which mistakes are handled, encouragement by management to generate new ideas, a continuous learning orientation, taking risk and experimenting, and handling conflict constructively in an organization.

Communication

Communication is a key determinant of organizational culture. In fact, communication delivers the organization values, expectations and direction; provide information about corporate development and allows feedback from all levels (Rubatch &Stratton, 1995).

The purpose of communication is to influence attitude, behavior to achieve organizational goals and objective. An organizational culture must support open and transparent communication between individuals, teams and departments based on trust to strengthen its values and beliefs (Martins 2000)

Source: Author

2.2 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION

2.2.1 Employee Motivation

Motivation is an organization’s lifeblood (Sharma, 2006). Hence, it is crucial for an organization to have a sound human resource strategy that attracts, retains and motivates employees. In fact, management should constantly assess employee’s motivation levels and also what they need want or expect from their work.

2.2.2 Definition of Employee Motivation

Table 2.4: Definition of Employee Motivation

Author

Definition

Greenberg and Baron (1997)

Motivation is “the set of processes that arouse, direct and maintain human behavior towards attaining some goal.

Bartol and Martin (1998)

Motivation is “the force that energizes behavior, gives direction to behavior, and underlies the tendency to persist.”

Petri (1996)

Motivation is defined as :the forces acting on or within a person to initiate and direct behavior

Schultz and Schultz (1998)

Motivation is “the personal and workplace characteristics that explain why people behave the way that they do on the job”

Source: Author

In simpler terms, Employee Motivation is the inner forces that drive individuals to achieve personal and organization objectives.

2.2.3 The importance of maintaining Employee Motivation for an Organization

Table 2.5: Importance of Employee Motivation

Finck et al. (1998)

State that organizations must recognize that the human factor is becoming much more important for organizational survival and that business excellence will only be achieved when employees are excited and motivated by their work.

Schofield (1998)

Employee motivation is crucial for business success, especially considering that cultural differences have been found to account for 10% of the variation in profitability between firms and for 29% of the variance in productivity

Source: Author

2.3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION

Optimizing the fit between Organizational Culture and Motivation of employees is likely to enhance employee’s service to customers as well as their commitment and willingness to contribute to the organization’s success. Each of the determinants of Martins (2000) is discussed below to describe their influence in promoting or hindering Employee Motivation.

Strategy

The strategy determinant is crucial in promoting Employee Motivation. This is reflected through the mission and vision statement of the organization which influences its goals and objectives. Employees are often motivated differently. To develop a work environment that promotes motivation, organizations need to know what is important to their employees and then to emphasize these factors. A good mission statement inspires and motivates employees and provides a focus for setting objectives. For instance, Google mission objective is to organize the world information and make it accessible and universal (Google, 2005). Employees have a profound belief in an organization mission and are excited by the opportunities they have got at Google (Nelson and Quirk, 2006). Therefore, the employees believe in Google because their values are aligned to that of Google. The result of this belief in the organization is extremely high level of motivation. It is important for individual values to match organizational values because a culture of shared meaning or purpose results in actions that help the organization achieve a common or collective goal. An organization will operate more productively as a whole when key values are shared among the majority of its members. To that end, employees need to be comfortable with the behaviors encouraged by the organization so that individual motivation and group productivity remain high.

According to Kreither (2004, pg 434) creation of strategies through goals impacts on employee motivation. Hence, when management devise difficult goals the greater the sense of accomplishment and achievement that the employee feels when the goal is attained (Lawler 2003). For instance, Honda’s goal (1970) was to destroy Yamaha and it guided and motivated employees to achieve this goal. Hence, in this way management must direct employees in the right direction through appropriate strategies to motivate them as an effective mission reflects people idealistic motivation for doing the work (Collins and Porras, 1996)

Structure

Organizational culture has an influence on the organizational structure and operational systems in an organization(Armstrong, 1995).The structure appears to highlight certain values which have an influence in promoting or hindering employee motivation. Freedom as a core value in stimulating employee motivation is manifested in autonomy, empowerment and decision-making. According to Judge et al. (1997 pg 76) personnel must be given the freedom to do their work and achieve their goals in an automatic way within guidelines. Also, management should believe in personnel and encourage them to be more innovative by allowing them more freedom empowering them instead of controlling them. Moreover, involvement of employees in decision making about matters that affect them involved a strong positive correlation with employee motivation (Johnson & McIntye, 1998).

Guest (1990) states that if management trust their workers and give them challenging assignments, workers in return will respond with high motivation, high commitment and high performance. Also, Ritter and Anker (2002) stated that employer’s attitude in so far as they embodied trust, open and honest relations with employees were significant determinants of employee motivation. Collectively these findings indicate that employees depend and thrive on the concern and support from those they work for and share their working lives with. Hence if management shows its apparent concern for the people its employ, which may be displayed through a supportive attitude towards employees, in a people-oriented, encouraging and trusting environment this will result in employee motivation.

In addition, relationships with superiors, subordinates and colleagues in the workplace have been identified as an important contributor towards employee motivation (Cohen et al.1991; Du Preez, 2003). The consensus among these authors was that employee motivation is facilitated significantly by an organizational culture characterized by positive lateral and vertical relations between staff and by effective and efficient interpersonal cooperation and access to close friends in the immediate work unit increased the strength of the relationship.

However, according to Lok and Crawford (2001) an autocratic and dominant structure guided by elaborate sets of rules, regulations, rigidity and control is not conducive to employee motivation. McNeely (1983) held that the rationalistic conditions characteristic of a bureaucratic culture might be viewed as repressive and alienating, especially since hierarchical decision-making, which is a key feature of a bureaucracy, is likely to create feelings of powerlessness and resentment in those excluded from the process. This line of thought was supported by Visser et al. (1997) who added that a management style characterized by an autocratic and dictatorial approach suffocates employee individualism, and as such detracts from an employee’s sense of motivation at work.

Support Mechanism

Support mechanism should be present in the culture of an organization to promote employee motivation. Indeed, intrinsic reward like increased autonomy and improved opportunities for personal growth enhances employee motivation. (Herzberg, 2003). In fact, it is important to reward individuals as well as teams (Tushman and O’Reilly 2007). Thus, management should be sensitive to which methods of rewards will inspire personnel in the specific organization to promote employee motivation. Money can therefore provide positive motivation in the right circumstances, not only because people need and want money but also because it senses as a highly tangible means of recognition. But badly designed and managed pay systems can demotivate (Martins 2000). Another researcher in this area was Jacques (1961), who emphasized the need for such systems to be perceived as being fair and equitable. In other words, the reward should be clearly related to effort or level of responsibility and people should not receive less money than they deserve compared with their collegues. When it comes to time, not giving enough time to complete tasks can lead to distrust and burnout (Amabile, 1996). However, giving too much time can take away from the sense of challenge and decrease creative performance.

Behavior that encourage innovation

An organizational culture which supports innovation impact on the motivational level of its employees. According to Brodrick (1997), mistakes can be ignored, covered up, used to punish someone or perceived as a learning opportunity. In fact, tolerance of mistakes is an essential element in the development of an organizational culture that promotes employee motivation. Successful organizations reward success and acknowledge or celebrate failures for example by creating opportunities to openly discuss and learn from mistakes (Tushman and O’Reilly, 1997). Many employees, especially those motivated by opportunity for creative and innovative activity flourish in work environments where these activities are promoted.

Previous research indicated that organizations that encourage and support their employees in the development and exploration of new ideas are more likely to have a more motivated workforce than those that do not. From a sample of 8 000 full-time government employees, Johnson and McIntye (1998) found that creativity/innovation registered a strong positive correlation with employee motivation. This finding was supported by the significant positive correlation recorded by Coster (1992) between employee motivation and employees being encouraged to suggest new ideas regarding their work and the work arena. According to Odom et al. (1990) employees who work in an innovative and supportive culture are more likely to be motivated to work and removing bureaucratic barriers may contribute in creating employee commitment, job satisfaction, and workgroup cohesion.

Therefore, an organizational culture in which too many management controls are applied will inhibit risk taking and consequently result in demotivation of employees. Hence, it is important that a balance should be reached in the degree to which risk taking is allowed. This can be achieved by spelling out expected results, assigning the responsibility of monitoring and measuring risk taking to someone in the organization, creating a tolerant atmosphere in which mistakes are accepted as part of taking the initiative, regarding mistakes as learning experiences, and assuming that there is a fair chance of risks being successful to promote employee motivation.

Communication

An organizational culture that supports a two way communication based on trust will have a positive influence in promoting Employee Motivation. According to Magner et al. (1996) employees are motivated to stay longer in positions where they are involved in some level of the decision making process such that they have access to information and hence fully understand their working atmosphere. In a study by A.Foster Higgins and company (2005), an employee benefit consulting firm found that 97 % of the CEOs surveyed believe that communicating with employees positively affects employee motivation. Therefore management must create a collaborative work environment and build mutual understanding among employees through open and honest communication in order to motivate and retain employees.

On the other hand, when communication channels are discouraged in organizations can be a potential source of impediment to employee motivation For instance when a manager does not openly communicate with his or her employees the employee may feel abandoned which could lead to demotivation (Richmond et al. 1982). Indeed, it was found out that it is more effective when management include employees in the decision making process. Hence, it can be said that employees are satisfied with management when they use employee centered communication and include them in the decision making process.

2.4 employee motivation and job satisfaction

2.4.1 Roos Model

This model has been chosen for the study to assess the dimensions of Employee Motivation that influences Job Satisfaction. Roos (2005) presents a conceptual model of 5 dimensions of Employee Motivation and attempt to test whether Intrinsic, extrinsic, energy and dynamism, and synergy influence to Job Satisfaction. Figure 2.3 below illustrates the model proposed.

Dimensions of employee motivation that influence job satisfaction

Intrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic Motivation

Energy and Dynamism

Interest

Flexibility

Autonomy

Material Reward

Progression

Status

Level Of Activity

Achievement

Competition

Power

Job Satisfaction

Figure 2.3: Conceptual Model of Dimensions of Employee Motivation influencing Job Satisfaction

Source: Adapted from Roos (2005)

2.4.2 Dimensions of Employee Motivation

According to Roos (2005) the dimensions of Employee Motivation are:

Table 2.6: Dimensions of Employee Motivation

Intrinsic dimension

Intrinsic motivation dimension is defined as an increase in motivation corresponding with:

meaningful and stimulating work,

flexible structures and procedures surrounding tasks,

And for an adequate level of autonomy in performing jobs.

Extrinsic Motivation

The extrinsic dimensionof employee motivation is concerned with the premium placed on material reward at work. This includes:

Material Reward

Progression

Status

Synergy

This refers to the extent to which employees are motivated by a competitive environment. Similarly, several employee needs and motives portray the nature and level of synergy or harmony between their motivation profiles and their work environments. These include,

the extent to which people are motivated by opportunities for interaction at work,

by praise and tangible recognition,

by their need for job security,

And by their need for opportunities for continual personal growth and development

Energy and Dynamism

Certain needs or motives experienced by employees are indicative of their energy and dynamism while at work, such as:

Achievement

Competition

Power

Source: Adapted Roos (2005)

2.5 Job satisfaction

Job satisfaction has been widely studied over the last four decades of organizational research (Currivan, 1999). In fact, it is very importance to study whether employees are satisfied because it is intrusively believed employees who are more satisfied will likely exhibit more positive feelings, thoughts and actions towards their job.

2.5.1 Definition of Job satisfaction

Table 2.7: Definition of Job Satisfaction

Author

Definition

McCormick and Ilgen’s (1980)

The person’s attitude towards his or her job, and added that an attitude is an emotional response to the job, which may vary along a continuum from positive to negative.

Locke (1976)

It is simply a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences.

Schneider and Snyder (1975)

It refers personal evaluation of conditions present in the job, or outcomes that arise as a result of having a job. It appears then that job satisfaction encapsulates a person’s perception and evaluation of his job, and that this perception is influenced by the person’s unique disposition.

Source: Author

2.5.2 The importance of promoting Job Satisfaction for an organization.

Table 2.8: Importance of Job Satisfaction

Arnold &Feldman (1986)

Managers now feel morally responsible for maintaining high levels of job satisfaction among their staff most probably for its impact on productivity, absenteeism and staff turnover, as well as on union activity.

Spector (1997)

States that job satisfaction is an issue of substantial importance for organizations. In fact, organizations recognize that having a workforce that derives satisfaction from their work contributes hugely towards organizational effectiveness and ultimately survival.

Source: Author

2.6 Relationship between employee motivation and job satisfaction

According to Gouws (1995), the factors that motivate employees are the same ones that contribute towards their satisfaction in the workplace and subsequently conclude that motivated employees are generally satisfied with their work. Hence, motivation manifests itself in job satisfaction (attitudinal) and performance (behavioral) and thus provides the link between employee satisfaction and performance.

Intrinsic Dimension

With reference to employee’s intrinsic motivation dimension, task enrichment theory holds that a person’s motivation is increased by his or her experience of meaningful and enriching job content (Hackman & Oldham, 1976). Job enrichment involves the structuring of various elements of the job content for example, increasing job responsibilities, the variety of tasks, or employee autonomy (Perry & Porter, 1982). Coster (1992) found that for all hierarchical levels in the organization, stimulating job content had significant predictive value when it came to job satisfaction and that the related dimensions of problem-solving and mental effort also correlated positively with job satisfaction. Strydom and Meyer (2002) confirmed this finding by stating that the content of the work itself has a direct effect on job satisfaction in that the more interesting the tasks an employee has to perform, the higher his or her level of job satisfaction is expected to be.

However, Shepard (1973) found that workers in highly specialized, repetitive jobs exhibited the lowest levels of job satisfaction among workers performing a variety of jobs. Similarly, Stinson and Johnson (1977) found a consistent negative relationship between task repetitiveness and job satisfaction, regardless of whether the respondent exhibited a high need for achievement. In other words, even employees who are not highly achievement-oriented, experience decreased job satisfaction when performing repetitive, unstimulating work. In general, the literature has indicated that an employee’s job content has an important and pervasive effect on his or her experience of satisfaction at work.

According to Coster (1992) autonomous activity is an innate need experienced by many people. A number of studies have found a significant relationship between job satisfaction and the extent to which employees are motivated by being given scope for greater self-regulation in their work. Several authors have demonstrated a significant positive correlation between the levels of autonomy a person experiences at work and his or her level of job satisfaction (Mueller & Price, 1993; Coster, 1992; Guppy & Rick, 1996; Jernigan et al. 2002; Orpen, 1994). An employee’s perceived control over his or her own work was also found to moderate the relationship between the levels of motivation and job satisfaction experienced (Orpen, 1994). The literature showed that the nature of the relationship between motivation and job satisfaction is determined to a large extent by people’s perceptions of the amount of control they have over their own work.

Extrinsic Dimensions

The extrinsic dimension of employee motivation is concerned with the premium placed on material reward at work. Material, or extrinsic, rewards are those provided by the organization, those are tangible and visible to others (Bellenger et al. 1984). Research on issues surrounding material reward for work performance reported a significant positive correlation between the extent to which people are motivated by financial reward and their level of satisfaction with their work (Hoole & Vermeulen, 2003; Strydom & Meyer, 2002; Thomson, 2003).

Status also represents an avenue for enhancing a sense of self-worth. Hoole and Vermeulen (2003) found that the extent to which people are motivated by outward signs of position, status and due regard for rank is positively related to their experience of job satisfaction. Jernigan et al. (2002) agreed, and added that a low level of satisfaction with an employee’s status at work is likely to lead to an increased level of alienative commitment towards the organization.

Many employees especially highly achievement-orientated people, are strongly motivated by having encouraging promotion prospects in their jobs, as these offer opportunity for advancement in their careers and in the companies they work for (Bellenger et al. 1984; Sylvia & Sylvia, 1986). In this way, it has been shown that promising promotion prospects significantly enhance an employee’s job satisfaction (Coster 1992; Hoole & Vermeulen, 2003) and that negative promotion practices, for example, prolonged temporary status, bring about a decrease in job satisfaction (Visser et al.1997).

Energy and dynamism

A number of studies have shown that the extent to which people are motivated by challenging tasks (Du Plessis, 2003; Maslow; 1968; Stinson & Johnson, 1977) and by the sense that their abilities are being stretched, directly impact on the job satisfaction they experience. According to goal-setting theory, people are motivated by their internal intentions, objectives and goals (Spector, 2003). Therefore, people with a need for achievement and who experience success in this regard acquire a stronger belief and confidence in them, which encourages them to contribute towards the goals and objectives of the organization.

A need for achievement is often linked to a need for power in the workplace. Many employees are motivated by opportunities for exercising authority, taking responsibility, negotiating, and being in a position to influence others. This follows from the thinking of theorist like McClelland (1987), who postulated through the theory of learned needs that achievement-oriented people tend to be driven by the need for power more than others. A relationship between this motivational dimension and job satisfaction has been shown by Becherer et al. (1982), who demonstrated that the stronger the experience of responsibility or the ability to control and influence others through power in the workplace, the higher the level of job satisfaction tended to be. Similar findings were produced by Coster (1992) and by Hoole and Vermeulen (2003), who found that the authority to take action and to exercise the accompanying responsibility resulted in enhanced job satisfaction. Together these findings lend credence to the concept that power is a significant predictor of job satisfaction in those employees who are motivated by it.

4. Synergy

Certain needs or motives on the part of employees determine their level of synergy between their motivational drive system and the characteristics of their work environment. From the work of Visser et al. (1997) it was deduced that many employees experience job satisfaction because their need for interaction with others at work is being satisfied to some extent. Hoole and Vermeulen (2003) found for example, that pilots who enjoyed more social interaction with colleagues, staff and clients experienced significantly higher levels of job satisfaction than those who did not have much social contact with others at work.

Bellenger et al. (1984) and Guppy and Rick (1996) explored people’s need for praise and other outward signs of recognition for their achievements. In their investigation of characteristics of the work environment that may potentially impact on job satisfaction, they concluded that recognition of performance is a significant predictor of job satisfaction. Thus employees experience their jobs as far more pleasant and rewarding when they receive appropriate recognition for their accomplishments.

The need for security is one of the most basic needs according to Alderfer’s (1969), Maslow’s (1968), and McGregor’s (1960) theories. According to Davy et al. (1997) job security refers to one’s expectations about continuity in a job situation, and extends to concern over loss of desirable job features such as promotion opportunities and working conditions. The extent to which people are motivated by contextual factors, such as pleasant working conditions and job security has a bearing on their job satisfaction. On the other hand, Visser et al. (1997) demonstrated that a lack of job security impacts negatively on job satisfaction. The result was based on the perceptions of a large group of marketing personnel from the South African motor manufacturing industry, who linked their job security fears to a number of external issues primarily, notably the prevailing political situation in the country and the related future of the motor manufacturing industry.

The need theories (Alderfer, 1969; Maslow, 1968; McGregor, 1960) hold that self-actualization is one of the powerful higher-order needs that motivate people at work. In line with people’s need for achievement at work, it is expected that their satisfaction will increase as more opportunities for further training and development and acquisition of new skills present themselves. Coster (1992) confirmed this notion through the finding that learning opportunities represented a substantial predictor of job satisfaction. People place a high premium on their own personal development, especially since it affirms and boosts their sense of self-worth, and satisfies their need for self-actualization.

2.7 Conclusion

Building and maintaining a conducive Organizational Culture should be a priority for all Organizations. Indeed, by reviewing aforesaid scientific lectures we can find most scholars confirmation that a positive Organizational Culture promotes Employee Motivation which impacts on Job Satisfaction and is critical for corporate success.

The next chapter provides an overview on The Civil Aviation department where the proposed models will be applied.

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