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Web Application For Ecology Of Wild Leopards Information Technology Essay

The title of the project Ecology of wild leopards is related to bioinformatics and main aim of this project is to develop a web application which includes designing, producing and evaluating a software that allows access, tabulation and graphical display of prey species of wild leopards recorded at different times and locations in an African wild reserve. For the users convenience user friendly interfaces are created to enter and retrieve the data. Web site is also provided by a search engine through user can access any data present in the database.

As all the requirements needed to develop are fixed, domain specifications probably won't change within a short time because of this waterfall life cycle methodology will be more apt for this project. I had done my project design using 3-tier architecture and developed the web application using with vb and Sql server as the back end.

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I am sure that I fulfilled all the requirements that have given by the client to generate a web site and this documentation is an inclusion of all the details regarding my project.



The project is about the ecology of wild leopards, and ecology is defined as the study of the factors influencing the distribution and abundance of species in time. These factors can be abiotic (physical for instance weather conditions, soil structure etc.) or biotic (biological factors such as presence of other species). Both abiotic and biotic factors can affect the population dynamics (change in composition in terms of gender/age classes) of that species, which may result in some species becoming more abundant than others and in some cases even exclusion of certain species by others. Species can influence each others population dynamics by means of some interspecies relationships such as symbiosis.

To study the impact of these factors on the distribution and abundance of species (in this case of leopards), ecologists collect data during excursions. These data need to be stored maintained and retrievable. The subject of the project is to develop a supporting software system that allows access, tabulation and graphical display of prey species of wild leopards recorded at different times and locations in an African wild reserve [1].

For getting more information about the wild leopard ecology, I have gone through "Leopard ecology and conservation" project in Khuste reserve founded by Monika, in which the goal of the project is to promote the long term viability and conservation of this secretive and beautiful big cats, and its emphases on developing efficient and convenient methods of protecting livestock, collaborate with the locals and promote environmental education [2].


The main aim of the project is to develop a website for the leopard ecology & conservation program through which they can enter the data about prey species of wild leopards recorded at different times and locations in an African wildlife reserve. The website is also provided by the search engine through which any user can access the required data present in the database through crystal reports. Other aim is to produce a document which will be consisting up of entire elements of the project stating from its analysis to the deployment of a project.


In order to complete my project I have set a few objectives and I divided those into two categories.

Core objectives:

Producing a full set of requirements like gathering information about modules like excursion, location, observation, species which are needed to develop the ecology of wild leopard application.

Designing and implementing a prototype version which reflects the final website going to be developed.

Designing the database system based on the possible modules and sub modules that are analyzed during analysis & requirements gathering phases.

Implementation of the user interface and connecting it to the database.

Providing search engine for efficient access of different species accordingly with the time, location and their age and gender wise.

Implementation of the reporting system to display the results obtained from the search engine.

Testing and evaluating the system produced.

Advance objectives:

Uploading of various images that are taken by the researcher during their excursion time into the database.

Examining the connectivity of different file formats (excel) and applying mechanisms that allows the manipulation to those file formats.

Literature Review

This chapter includes two parts. The first part deals with the software development life cycle (SDLC), in which the suitable methodological approach that helps for developing an application and second part is all about the software that is used in developing the ecology of wild leopards' project.

Software Development Life cycle

Software used

This section includes software that helps in building up of the application.

The word asp is acronym of active server page; .net is an acronym of network enable technology. is a web based frame work developed by Microsoft technology to run web applications I used language while coding. includes both 2-tier and 3-tier architecture, 3-tier architecture includes database layer in addition to 2-tier in my application I am using 3-tier architecture [3], [4].

Sql server 2005 express edition

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As back end to my application I am using the sq. server which is also developed by the Microsoft and it has perfect coordination with the .net framework. Visual studio plays editor role for both.Net and sq. server. In association with the .Net application database objects like stored procedures can be written and deployed. By the combination of sqlserver and .net we can easily manipulate and debug the errors [5].

IIS (internet information server)

IIS is a web server which is to be installed to run the web application developed in .Net, installing of IIS is simple and secure. By selecting the IIS check box after keeping the operating system cd in the cd rom of the system [6].

System Definition

This chapter explains about the existing system and the problems encountered with the existing one. It also includes the proposed system with some enhanced features for the existing application.

3.1 Existing system

In the existing application the data that has been recorded by the researchers at different times and locations in African wild reserve were stored in excel sheets. If the user want to access the details of a species that is observed in particular time or location it is not possible for the concerned user to retrieve the respective file. The existing one which is based up on the excel sheet just helps the researches to store the data.

Problems Encountered:

The redundancy which leads to inconsistency

Lac of consolidation of figures

Difficult to produce required output in suitable formats

It is not user friendly

Time consumption for data retrieval is high

3.2 Proposed system

The proposed system is a website which was developed in such a way that it overcomes the problems occurred in the existing system. This has been developed in Asp.Net with Vibe and sq. server 2005. This can be helpful in developing user friendly software. In this for each and every observation recorded by the researcher will be maintained and can be retrieved when necessary.


Designing user friendly interface

RTI act just like search engines

New information can be easily entered

There is no redundancy of data in the files

Report printing can be easily done

Time consumption for data retrieval is very less

3.3 Hardware Requirements:

Processor Type : Intel Pentium processor

Processor Speed : 2.0 GHz

Hard Disk : 20 Gb

RAM : 1 Gb

3.4 Software Requirements:

Operating System : Windows XP

Front End : VISUAL STUDIO 2008(VB, ASP)

Back End : MS-SQL Server 2005

Web Server : IIS 5.1


Requirement Analysis

System Designing

Module Description

User Maintenance: In order to maintain the reliable and secure data this module has been designed. It provides the transparency of data according to the authorization level of several users such as administrator level, public level.

Master Module: This module consists of unchanged data and only the administrator has the authority to bring up any change. All the core details like location type, sex age class type, vegetation type, species type and some acronyms are stored in this module. By maintaining this master module we can save the amount of space in the server.

Excursion Module: This module is all about excursion details which mainly includes fields like excursion date, month, year and particular recorded time of the excursion. It consists of some interesting fields like temperature and humidity which are key aspects that considered by the biological people while observing the species. The name of the researcher who records observation during excursion is also included.

Location Module: This module consists of details related to the location on which the observation is going to take place. It includes details such as location id and location type namely pan or route along with its location type in details such as route names( A, B..) and pan names(moreswe, sutswane..) . It also includes details about location vegetation type like bush, savannah etc.

Observation Module: This module deals with the details of a concerned species that have been observed by the researcher. It mainly consists up of an observation id which is key field. The species id is noted along with the gender (Male, Female, Unknown) and age group (Adult, Infant, Julian, Sub adult, Unknown) of the concerned species. Number of observations that done by the researcher is also included in this module which helps in the further evaluation of observed species.

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Species Modules: This module consists of all the details related to the species such as species id which is unique, common name and scientific name of the species. It also includes gestation period, body weight of the species and a field which consists of details about the species type (Herbivorous, Omnivorous, and Carnivorous) is also included. Based upon the species id (using as foreign key) all the details of the respective species can be accessed in the required module.

For each of the modules namely excursion, location, observation and species modules there are few buttons provided like insert to enter the values that are been observed by the researcher, update button to change the previously entered values, find button for getting the concerned record on selecting primary key values, delete button to remove un necessary values that previously entered and refresh button to clear the values that present in the text fields. Finally home button is provided in each screen on pressing this it will directs to the home page.

Image Uploading Module: Various pictures of the species that have been taken by the researcher during the time of excursion can be uploaded into the database by using this module. It consists of dropdown box to select the name of the species they have taken the picture and there is a button to browse the image and the image chosen can be uploaded to the server on pressing the upload button. The uploaded images can be viewed in future with the help of button show image. Unnecessary images can be deleted by the help of delete button provided.

Search Engine: By using this user can access any data he would like to view within the scope of provided database. User will be provided by an interface consisting up of various combinations of data, for instance - Provide the number of herbivores from may to july in 2003 in route A of vegetation type bush, abundance of each species summed over its gender/age classes.

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