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The Central Processing Unit Of Computer Systems Information Technology Essay

The central processing unit is the serving of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program. It is main part carrying out the computer's roles. The central processing unit transfers out each instruction of the program in order, to perform the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system.

The CPU has many different purposes which can be moving data from one location to another, building decisions and jumping to a new set of orders based on those decisions. The CPU's speed is a measure of MHz (megahertz) or more recently GHz (gigahertz). A chip with a megahertz rating of 900 MHz would be able to complete 900Million cycles every second.

The types of CPU:

AMD (Advanced Micro Devices)

Intel Celeron

RAM (Random Access Memory):

RAM is a memory facility which provides space for your computer to read and write data to be accessed by the CPU (central processing unit). When people mention to a computer's memory, they usually mean its RAM. The programs and data that we use are stored in the RAM temporarily so that the processor can access them fast. RAM is used to load and run programs or applications on a computer’s are operating system. Extra RAM means more applications and programs can be run simultaneously. The speed is measured in MHz, (or megahertz). The capacity of RAM is measured in bits, bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes and the typical capacity of RAM in a PC is 512MB to 8GB.

There are other types of RAM which are;

SDRAM (synchronous dram)

DDR(double data ratter)

Rambus Dram (RDRMM)

ROM (Read Only Memory):

Is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in ROM cannot be modified, or can be modified only slowly or with difficulty, so it is mainly used to distribute firmware. The BIOS software is built into the PC, and is the first code run by a PC when powered on ('boot firmware'). The primary function of the BIOS is to load and start an operating system. BIOS software is stored on a non-volatile ROM chip built into the system on the mother board. The first job for the BIOS is to initialize and identify system devices such as the video display card, keyboard and mouse, hard disk, CD/DVD drive and other hardware.

These are the types of ROM:

Mask-Programmed ROM (MROM)

Programmable ROM (PROM)

Erasable-Programmable ROM (EPROM)

Electrically Erasable PROM (EEPROM)

Input devices:

Input devices are any piece of computer hardware equipment used to provide data and give in information to the computer. They allow us to enter the information and data into the computer.E.g.

Mouse:

Is an input device which inputs information by clicking the mouse and being able to move the arrow in the monitor by using the mouse. Mouse can display mainframe data records that contain a leading 4 byte record length counter. With proper options, mouse can add carriage returns to fixed length records.

Types of mouse:

laser mouse

mechanical mouse

cordless mouse

KEYBORAD:

The set of typewriter - like keys that enables you to enter data into a computer. Computer keyboards are similar to electric-typewriter keyboards but contain additional keys. It control the computer and purposes includes a plurality of sets of two or more keys arranged for receiving the tips of the finger of a hand of an operator, the keys of each set have such a small superficial touch area and are clustered together. So as to be substantially comprehended and selectively operated by a single finger tip of an operator. There different types of keyboards:

Ergonomic Keyboards

Wireless keyboards

Illuminated keyboards

Output Devices:

Output Devices are used to communicate the outcomes of data processing carried out by information to the computer to the outside world. Which we get information out of the computer.

E.g.

Printers will print anything that in on that is on the monitor onto paper. This can be pictures, words and numbers.

Monitor

Monitor is a device that displays images or symbols generated by computers, an output device that is a part of your computer display system. They

Serve as the visual display to help you navigate your computer. Also to display text and graphics, produced by a computer. The resolution is the measurement of the number of pixels that a computer displays, also called a computer monitor, can show at one time. Monitors that display more pixels offer a sharper, brighter image. Monitors are measured in inches, diagonally from top left to bottom right.

Types of monitors:

CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) Monitor

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) Monitor

Printers:

Printer is a peripheral which produces a text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. It lets you to get a hard copy of a document, or picture. DPI (dots per inch) most printer’s print 600 dpi printers print 600 tiny little dots across one inch and 600 dots vertically for one inch. The higher the resolution of your printer or image setter, the greater detail you can print and the better appearance of your output. The speed of printers is measured in print-per-minute (PPM) for example, laser printer ratings range from 6 to 15 ppm, inkjets are rated 4 ppm and up for black text, and photo-quality inkjets range from 0.3 to 12 ppm, depending on the job.

Types of printers:

Laser printers

Ink-jet printers

Dot matrix printers

Disk Storage devices (Backing store)

Disk Drives are used to record information from the computer onto a floppy disk or CD.

Hard Disk Drive:

Hard disk drive (HDD) main storage used to permanently store all including the operating system, data, files and programs on the computer. Most hard drives are permanently stored in an internal drive bay at the front of the computer. Capacity per HDD increasing from 3.75 megabytes to greater than 1 terabyte. The typical capacity of hard disk in a PC is uses a 400 to 500 GB drive.

Types of Hard Disk:

Desktop Hard Disk Types: 3.5', IDE and Sata Interfaces

Laptop Hard Disk Types:2.5', 1.8', IDE, Sata, SCSI

Server Hard Disk types:3.5' Sata, SCSI

Optical Disk Storage CD/DVD/Blu-Ray

CD Disk:

A Compact Disc (CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data. It was originally developed to store sound recordings exclusively, but later it also allowed the preservation of other types of data.It is used to store data, video or music. So that makes it a storage device. A standard CD has a capacity of about 74 minutes of standard CD audio music. There are extended CDs that can actually exceed this limit and pack more than 80 minutes on a disk. CD's are capable of storing up to 700 mb.

The types of CD’s are:

CD-ROM is a pre-pressed compact disc that contains data accessible to, but not writable by, a computer for data storage and music playback.

CD-R a CD-R (Compact Disc-Recordable) is a variation of the Compact Disc invented by Philips and Sony. CD-R is a Write Once Read Many (WORM) optical medium, though the whole disk does not have to be entirely written in the same session.

CD-Rewritable disk, a type of CD disk that enables you to write onto it in multiple sessions. One of the problems with CD-R disks is that you can only write to them once.

DVD Disk:

DVD (Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format, which are of the same dimensions as compact discs (CDs), but are capable of storing almost seven times as much data. The storage capacity of a DVD is approximately 4.7 GB (gigabytes). A dual layer doubles the storage but requires a dual-layer DVD player/recorder to use the dual-layer media.

The types of DVD’S:

DVD-R

DVD-RW

DVD-ROM

Blu-Ray Disk:

Blu-ray Disc is an optical disc storage medium designed to supersede the DVD format. The format defines as its standard physical media a 12 cm (same as DVDs and CDs), 25 GB per-layer optical disc, with dual layer discs (50 GB) the norm for feature-length video discs and additional layers possible later. The capacity of Blu-ray disk is 25 GB (single-layer) 50 GB (dual-layer).

USB Memory Stick

USB flash drives are computer devices that inputs information that is saved on the USB and inputs it in to the computer when you insert the USB. Also typically removable and rewritable, and physically much smaller than a floppy disk. USB drives range in capacity from megabytes up to 256GB and offer much more storage than writable CDs and DVDs.

Operating system

Is software, containing of programs and data, which runs on computers and manages the computer hardware and runs common services for active carrying out of various application software. Operating systems are responsible for everything from the control and allocation of memory to recognizing input from external devices and transmitting output to computer displays. They also manage files on computer hard drives and control peripherals, like printers and scanners. An operating system also has a vital role to play in security. Its job includes preventing unauthorized users from accessing the computer system.

Examples of operating systems:

Windows Vista

Windows 7

Task 2:

Types of computers:

Desktop PC (personal computer)

Is a personal computer any common-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for individuals and which is planned to be operated directly by an end user with no principal computer operator

3 common applications of desktop PC:

Access the internet

Most time used in offices e.g. Microsoft office used to alto of things: like writing letters, posters etc.

Starting your own home business, e.g. selling items through online auction websites.

Laptop

A laptop computer or simply laptop, is called a notebook, is a small personal computer designed for portability. Usually all of the interface hardware needed to operate the laptop, such as USB ports, graphics card, sound channel, etc., is built in to a single unit. Laptops hold high capacity batteries that can power the device for general periods of time, attractive portability

The main purpose of a laptop computer is to be portable.

3 common applications of Laptop:

Can be used away from an outlet using a rechargeable battery.

Connect to any network, including wireless network

Answer email on the train, plane, or passenger seat of a car

Palmtop

A computer small enough to hold in one hand and operate with the other. Also called a "hand top," these ultra-small computers may have particular keyboards or keypads for data entry applications.

3 common applications:

Send an email

Create text message

Access internet

Network Server

A network server is a computer planned to process requests and carry data to other computers over a local network or the Internet by using the same network.

3 common applications:

Web server a static content to a Web browser by loading a file from a disk and serving it across the network to a user's Web browser.

Chat Server enables a large number of users to exchange information in an environment similar to Internet newsgroups that offer real-time discussion capabilities.

Fax Servers a is an ideal solution for organizations looking to reduce incoming and outgoing telephone resources but that need to fax actual documents.

Supercomputer

A supercomputer is a computer which performs an amount of speed which is far above of other computers. Known constantly changing the world of computing. Supercomputers are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks such as problems involving important physics, weather forecasting, climate research, molecular modelling .A particular class of problems, known as Grand Challenge problems, are problems whose full solution requires semi-infinite computing resources.

Task 3

Diagram flows around a computer system:

Backing store

(Disk storage devices)

CPU

Central Processing Unit

Main memory

(RAM)

Output devices

Input devices

When clicking on the mouse or typing on the keyboard its sends information to the CPU.

Once the information is recognise on to the CPU, The CPU sends information’s on to the output device and will appear either on the printer or monitor

When the PC is turned on the RAM sends information to the CPU and sends information to the backing store

When you save work on to the PC the backing store saves it sends the information to the CPU then to the main memory and is saved there

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