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Style Text Using A Computer Program Information Technology Essay

Using a programme such as a word processer that gives you a ‘what you see is what you get’ view or WYSIWYG for short. This allows you to style text freely, such as making characters bold, without much technical knowledge using in-built features of the programme. This gives you an instantly reviewable result. 

The other method is to use explicit marks. These are a series of marks that can be seen on the document and have specific meanings in regard to text styling and layout. The results of using this method however can’t be seen until it is viewed in a browser such as Internet Explorer 

A good explanation. Well done. 

a) The tags <BODY> and </BODY> are the markers that enclose the body of text that is to appear in the document.

b) The tags <H1> and <H2> are Heading tags. The size of the text is controlled by the number; 1 being the largest size and 6 being the smallest. 

The <H1> tag marks the start of text that is to be formatted in the largest size of heading and the </H1> tag marks where this formatting is to end.

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c) To change the bulleted list into a numbered one the current tags <UL> and </UL> will have to be changed into <OL> and </OL>. 

d) The modified line of mark-up text will be:

<P><B><I>Children under 5 go free!</I></B></P>

e)The developer has not provided the filename to link to or the correct tag to link to another document. The correct piece of HTML should read:

<P>Get more <A HREF =”details.html”>details of these offers</A>!</P>

<A> is the anchor tag. HREF is the hypertext attribute. A tag can have many different attributes.

You have a very good understanding of HTML Michael. Browsers are very forgiving of incorrect HTML, but don’t always produce the results you might expect J

10

The term hypertext means over or beyond text and allows HTML documents to contain hyperlinks; links that allow users to link directly to other parts of the same document or completely different documents and web pages by clicking on the highlighted or underlined hyperlink text.

This is useful because it allows the reader to skip from a table of contents or an index, in an online encyclopaedia for example, straight to the part of the document they are interested in without reading the entire document. This would save much time and effort in searching for a specific subject.

[99 words]

As well as navigating within the document, hyperlinks help the user to access further information, definitions etc. not displayed on the starting page.

3

a) The <HOLIDAYLIST> and </HOLIDAYLIST> tags are used to define a new XML type that contains a list of holidays that will be placed in between these two tags. 

b) The pair of tags that delimit each holiday description are <HOLIDAY> and </HOLIDAY>

c)The tags that describe the properties of each holiday are:

<DESTINATION> and </DESTINATION>

<NIGHTS> and </NIGHTS>

<PRICE> and </PRICE>

6

Question 2

a) C: represents the name of the hard drive that the file is stored on.

b) M150 is the folder name in which the TMA02 folder is stored which contains the file.

c) Q2.doc is the name of the file and the file extension, .doc being a Word document.

3

Keeping all your files in one folder on a hard drive can be very confusing especially if you have large numbers of different file types. It would also be very hard to find a file again quickly if you needed to. 

If you used a hierarchical folder system all of the different file types could be separated making them much easier to find when you need them. For example you could separate files into different folders for music files, word processer documents, pictures/images, videos and others for any file subject you wanted to keep separate such as work files that need to be kept separate and readily accessible.

[109 words]

Your example could have been more specific and demonstrated the multi-level nature of the folder hierarchy. E.g. you could have a folder Photos for your photographs, within this another folder Holidays for holiday pictures, and within this several more: Spain2007, Lakes2008 etc. When you want to find your photos from your trip to the Lakes last year, you can just navigate through the Photos, Holidays and Lakes2008 folders to find what you need.

3

The amount of 700 MB capacity CD-ROMS that would fit onto a 1 TB hard disk is 1497

There is around 676 MB left over but not enough to fit an entire CD-ROM.

1TB = 1048576 MB ÷700 = 1497.98 (rounded to 2 decimal places)

3

a) The part of the email address that represents the domain is poppleton.ac.uk.

b) The .uk part of the email represents the top level domain.

c) Yes the g.lapping username has to be unique if it is on the same domain; a domain cannot have multiple email addresses with a same username. Someone could have the same username on a different domain i.e. g.lapping@hotmail.co.uk

d) Mail attachments need to be encoded in the MIME standard to allow the recipient of the email to unpack and view it correctly. If the attachment was sent using a protocol that is different to the recipients, complications could arise in viewing the attachment.

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Email messages must be ASCII-coded text. In order to send an arbitrary attachment it has to be encoded to a series of ASCII characters. In this way the message and its attachment are all ASCII characters.

5

a) Persistent data is data that continues to exist after the application using the data is closed or the computer is switched off. 

b) The members of staff that own cars with engine sizes less than 1400cc are:

Indu Patel 

Susan Rogers

3

The principles of ‘The Ten Commandments of Computing’ [1] I judge that were infringed by the ‘phishing’ are:

‘Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people’ 

The spam email sent using the university’s email addresses may have contained offensive material which may have been seen by a person too young to understand it or susceptible to its contents.

‘Thou shalt not snoop around other peoples computer files’

When accessing the phished email account to send spam the perpetrator could read other personal email and files.

‘Thou shalt not use a computer to steal’

The email account log-in details were technically stolen by deception from the user.

‘Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness’

The people who phished the email account details impersonated the computer services department and the account holder when they sent the spam emails.

‘Thou shalt not use other people’s computer resources without authorisation or proper compensation’

The perpetrators used the university’s computer resources without consent and under false pretences.

‘Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that ensure consideration and respect for your fellow humans’ 

There was no consideration at all for the account holder of the email addresses who may have had disciplinary action taken against them by the university for misusing the email account or lost important files. There was also no consideration for the recipients of the spam.

[247 words]

You have argued your points clearly and concisely and presented them in a well-structured manner. Well done. 

6

Question 3

The EDSAC Machine

EDSAC was the world’s first practical stored programme computer. It allowed changes to be made to calculations without changing the wiring or components of the computer.

EDSAC had 1024 memory locations or around 5.5 kilobytes

I think you may be confusing the EDSAC with the EDVAC, Michael, which came a little later. The EDSAC had 1024 words, each of 17 bits in length.

Yes EDSAC had a basic ALU comprised of derated vacuum tubes and a control unit with an oscilloscope.

Input to the computer was via a set of instructions or programme punched onto paper tape and fed into the machine. Output was via a teleprinter. 

EDSAC stored information using a memory unit consisting of mercury acoustic delay lines. 

EDVAC represented numbers used a code of set patterns of symbols.

Again, you have confused the EDVAC and the EDSAC. The EDSAC represented decimal numbers as binary, two's complement numbers.

www.courses.gnowledge.org/htmlexportfile?ssid=4504, published by Technoid, accessed 18th January 2010.

www.computernostalgia.net/articles/EDSAC.htm, unknown publisher, accessed 18th January 2010.

www.cl.cam.ac.uk/conference/EDSAC99/statistics.html, published by The University of Cambridge 1999, accessed 18th January 2010.

This is not quite the right format. You need the author first, the title should be in italics and you don't need the words 'published by'. E.g

University of Cambridge (1999) Some EDSAC statistics Available form www.cl.cam.ac.uk/conference/EDSAC99/statistics.html (accessed 18th January 2010)

See Citing References - Helpsheet in the Assignments section of the course website for further details

4

The reasons high-level languages lead to greater programmer productivity are:

Low-level programmes are slow and difficult to write, making the job of programming time consuming.

A single high-level instruction is equivalent to many low-level ones making it faster.

In what way 'faster'? They are probably faster to write but not necessarily faster to execute.

Set of instructions for weighing boxes:

Start

Weigh the box

The box weighs more than 1kg

Place box in over 1kg bin

Else

Place box in under 1kg bin

There are parcels left to weigh

Return to start

Else

End of batch /finish weighing

You have the right idea Michael but you've not used the method for constructing algorithms as shown in Unit 6, Section 6. You should use 'if' statements for selection structures and 'while' statements for repetition structures. This is what your algorithm should look like:

While (There are parcels left to weigh)

Pick up a box

Weigh the box

If (The box weighs more than 1kg)

Place box in over 1kg bin

Else

Place box in under 1kg bin

2

a) Trace table for Figure 4

Line being executed

Count

Count is 0

NOT

(count is 0)

Line in output of window

Information to be written out

Start

1

1

2

2

False

True

3

2

4

2

5

1

2

False

True

3

1

4

3

5

0

2

True

False

6

Lift Off!

Well done

6

b) The programme would not run correctly because lines 3, 4 and 5 would only run when the number is 0, but they have to be executed for the number on line one to decrease. The countdown will never progress and be stuck on 2.

The program would still run but the results would be different. The first time the loop condition is tested it will be false, so the statements in the loop will never be executed. The program will just write 'Lift Off!' on the output window.

1

Truth tables for A & B

A

B

A OR B

NOT (A OR B)

True

True

True

False

True

False

True

False

False

True

True

False

False

False

False

True

A

B

NOT A

NOT B

NOT A OR NOT B

True

True

False

False

False

True

False

False

True

True

False

True

True

False

True

False

False

True

True

True

By comparing the last columns we see the two expressions are not equivalent.

4

Question 4

a) First = ; 6

second is undefined because it hasn't been set yet.

b) Second = first – 4; 2

c) First = 2 + 2 * first – second; 22

According to JavaScript’s rules of precedence (Unit 7, page 19) multiplication takes place before addition. Hence, first = 2 + 12 – 2 = 12

d) Second = first / 2; 11

This would be correct if first was 22, but first is 12 so second becomes 6

You haven't written down the value of both variables, as asked for Michael.

a)

<HTML>

<HEAD>

<TITLE>M150 2009J Q4(ii)</TITLE>

<SCRIPT LANGUAGE="JAVASCRIPT">

var recipient;

recipient = window.prompt('Please enter the name of the recipient', '');

var occasion;

occasion = window.prompt('Please enter the occasion', '');

var sender

sender = window.prompt('Please enter senders name here', '');

document.write('To ',recipient);

document.write('<BR>',occasion);

document.write('<BR>' + 'From ',sender);

</SCRIPT>

</HEAD>

<BODY>

</BODY>

</HTML>

It's good programming practice to declare all your variables at the start of the program thus:

var recipient;

var occasion;

var sender

recipient = window.prompt('Please enter the name of the recipient', '');

occasion = window.prompt('Please enter the occasion', '');

sender = window.prompt('Please enter senders name here', '');

document.write('To ',recipient);

document.write('<BR>',occasion);

document.write('<BR>' + 'From ',sender);

b)

These screenshots include a lot of whitespace and consequently the text of the output is very difficult to read. You should re-adjust the size of the window before taking the screenshot. Read through the ‘Taking screenshots – helpsheet’ on the Assignments page of the M150 course website. Pay particular attention to pages 3 and 4, which give examples of good and bad screenshots. This is the sort of thing that is required:

I would strongly recommend Firefox for testing your programs instead of Internet Explorer. Firefox gives much more helpful error messages. It’s free and can be downloaded from http://www.mozilla-europe.org/en/firefox/

5

a) Algorithm to find the price of the holiday:

Start

Enter the original price of the holiday

Enter the age of the holidaymaker

If

The holidaymaker is under 5 years old

Display ‘Your holiday is free’

Else

If the holidaymaker is under 15 years old

Display ‘Your holiday is £n (half the original price)’

Else

If the holidaymaker is 15 or over

Display ‘Your holiday is the original price’

You have the right idea Michael but haven’t complied with the standards for structured English used in M150. You should put the condition on the same line as the ‘if’ and then indent any line that comes after ‘if’ or ‘else’

If (holidaymaker is under 5 years old)

Display ‘Your holiday is free’

Else

If (holidaymaker is under 15 years old)

Display ‘Your holiday is £n (half the original price)’

Else

Display ‘Your holiday is the original price’

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b)

<HTML>

<HEAD>

<TITLE>TMA 02 Q4(iii)</TITLE>

<SCRIPT LANGUAGE = "JAVASCRIPT">

// A price calculation program for Mermaid Holidays

var initialPrice; // Advertised price of the holiday in pounds

var age; // Age in years of the holidaymaker

initialPrice = window.prompt('Please enter the advertised price of the holiday in pounds', '');

initialPrice = parseFloat(initialPrice);

age = window.prompt('Please enter the holidaymakers age', '');

age = parseFloat(age);

if (age < 5)

{

document.write ('Your holiday is free!');

}

else

{

if (age < 15)

{

document.write ('The cost of your holiday is £' + initialPrice / 2);

}

else

{

if (age >= 15)

{

document.write ('the cost of your holiday is £' + initialPrice);

}

}

}

</SCRIPT>

</HEAD>

<BODY>

</BODY>

</HTML>

This time you’ve got the indentation correct. 

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c)

Same comments as before about these screenshots - make sure to read the helpsheet so that I can read your screenshots!

d) These input values are not adequate because they don’t test the specific age bracket requirements of the holiday company; all of the numbers 1-15 should be tested and a few numbers higher than this to make sure the right output is achieved.

We should test at each value that determines behaviour and at the two closest values on either side, in case the wrong comparison operator has been used. The boundaries here are at 5 and 15. So we would test at 4, 5, 6 and at 14, 15, 16. (See Testing programs on page 37 of Unit 7.)

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