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Studying The Outstanding Achievements Of The Microprocessor Information Technology Essay

The microprocessor is one of the most outstanding achievements of the twentieth century. Those are bold words, and a quarter century ago that statement would have seemed absurd. But every year, the microprocessor is closer to the centre of our lives, forging a place in the heart of a machine after another. Their presence has begun to change the way we perceive the world and even ourselves. It is becoming harder to ignore the microprocessor as just another product in a long line of technological innovations. No other invention in history has spread so rapidly throughout the world, or so deeply touched so many aspects of human existence. Today there are nearly 15.000 million microchips of any kind in use (the equivalent of two computers powerful for every man , woman and child on the planet.) Faced with that reality, who can doubt that the microprocessor is transforming not only the products we use, but also our way of life and, finally, how we perceive reality? Although we recognize the penetration of the microprocessor in our lives as we grow indifferent to the presence of these thousands of machines tiny that we unknowingly every day. So, before integrating them too invisible in our daily existence, it is time to hold the microprocessor and the revolution which has led to appreciate the miracle that is in reality each one of those tiny silicon chips and ponder its meaning for our lives and those of our descendants.

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The first microprocessor, Intel 4004 Intel Computer Company, was made ​​in 1971. It consists of 2300 transistors and executes 60,000 instructions per second. In comparison, a microprocessor like the Intel Pentium 4 includes several tens of millions of transistors and runs several billion instructions per second. In fact, the history of the microprocessor is intimately linked to the microcomputer and micro-computers in general. The Intel 8080, created in 1974, is notably one of the first microprocessor (8 bits) adapted to a personal computer. It strongly influenced the architecture of the company Zilog Z80, and to a lesser extent, the range of 80 Ã- 86 microprocessors (80186, 80286, 80386, 80486) and the various evolutions of the Pentium, or equipping yesterday today ' Today the vast majority of PCs. Moreover, Macintosh computers are equipped with Motorola microprocessors (family 68000, built the first Macintosh sold in 1984) and, since 1998, RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) series Power PC (G3 or G4) developed in collaboration with U.S. firms Apple, IBM and Motorola. Pioneer of micro-computer and creator of the first microprocessor, Intel dominates the microprocessor market with about 80% market share.The following AMD by far with almost 20% and all other companies represent less than 1% market share. The situation is somewhat different for specialized microprocessors where other companies are still present (including Texas Instruments in the United States and SMT Electronic in Europe). 

The architecture of the 80486DX is almost identical to the 80386 plus 80387 math coprocessor and an internal cache of 8 K bytes. The 80486SX is almost identical to an 80386 with a cache of 8K bytes. No. Figure 3.5.b shows the structure of the inner core microprocessor 80486. If this is compared to the architecture of 80386, no differences were observed. The most notable difference between the 80386 and 80486 is that almost half of the 80486 instructions are executed in one clock period instead of the two periods that the 80386 requires to run. Like the 80386, the 80486 contains 8 registers of 32 bits for general purposes: EAX, EBX, ECX, EDX, EBP, EDI, ESI and ESP. These records can be used as records for the information of 8, 16 or 32 bits or to address a location in the system of memory . The records of 16 bits are the same set found in the 80286 and are assigned: AX, BX, CX, DX, BP, DI, SI and SP. The 8-bit registers are: AH, AL, BH, BL, CH, CL, DH and DL. In addition to the general purpose registers, the 80486 also contains the same records that the 80386 segments which are: CS, DS, ES, SS, FS and GS. Each one is 16 bits wide, as in all previous versions of the family. The IP (instruction pointer) accesses a program located within the memory 1Mbyte in combination with CS, or EIP (extended instruction pointer) to address a program in any location within the memory system 4Gbytes. In the operation in protected mode, segment registers work to keep selectors as they did in the microprocessor 80286 and 80386. The 80486 also contains the records for the global descriptor table, local and interruptions and a memory management unit as the 80386. The biggest difference between 486DX4 and 486DX2 is that the former is 1.5 times faster than the other. The 486DX2 also called 80486DX2 or i486DX2, sometimes referred to as the 80486D / 2, 486D / 2, 80486D2, the I486D2, or simply the D2, is an Intel microprocessor introduced in 1992 as a performance improvement of certain 486DX microprocessor


The processor Pentium is a member of the family of Intel processors , general purpose 32-bit. As members of this family, the 386 and 486, the address range is 4 memory Goctetos physical and 64 Toctetos of virtual memory . Provides a benefit higher thanks to a much more streamlined architecture.His bus of data is 64 bits. The various functional units which has the Pentium are among other things two named data caches and cache code cache, the prefetcher, a unit of page , etc. Intel Pentium II processor, emerged, like its predecessor Pentium, for systems of general-purpose commercial desktops, laptops, home PCs performance and server baseline. In this processor combine the advances of Intel P6 architecture with instruction set extensions of the technology MMX ™ to deliver excellent performance in applications of current and future PC. In addition, the Pentium II processor provides outstanding performance for software releases and advanced multimedia , including powerful featuresfor processing images and graphics realistic, video conferencing and the ability to run video full motion and full screen. The combination of these technologies makes the Pentium II processor option ideal for carrying loads of work of modern multimedia applications and data-intensive operating systems advanced. Current microprocessors are used in a broad range of software applications. In particular , the use of multimedia applications, 3D and Internet has experienced a tremendous boom in recent years and expects this trend to continue in the future. The latest addition to this family of processors was the Pentium II 450 MHz processor running a bus system 100 MHz, and the family of desktop processors Pentium II was composed of the following products : Pentium II 450 MHz processor, Pentium II 400 MHz processor, Pentium II 350 MHz processor, Pentium II 333 MHz processor and Pentium II 300 MHz processor.


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The processor Pentium II is fully compatible with a library of software for PC based operating systems such as MS-DOS, Windows 3.1, Windows for Work in Group 3.11, Windows 98, Windows 95, OS / 2, UnixWare SCO UNIX, Windows NT, OPENSTEP and Sun Solaris.  Among the features of architecture of the Pentium II processors include:


Dynamic Execution Technology

Implementation Dynamics is an innovative combination of three techniques of processing designed to help the processor to handle data more efficiently. These are the prediction of multi-hop , the analysis of the data stream and speculative execution .

Dynamic execution makes more efficient the processor manipulating data rather than just process a list of instructions. The way the programs are written software can affect the performance of the processor. For example, software performance will be affected negatively if you often need to suspend what you are doing and "jump" to another part in the program . Delays can also occur when the processor can not process a new instruction to complete the original instruction. The dynamic execution allows the processor to alter and predict the order of the instructions. Dynamic Execution consists of:



Channel family of processors P6 phase consists of approximately 12 compared to 5 of the Pentium and Pentium processor 6 with technology MMX, which enables the Pentium II processor to obtain a frequency approximately 50% higher than the Pentium processor with the same manufacturing technology. The sophisticated branch prediction mechanism of two-level adaptive training of the architecture of the Pentium II processor is essential to maintain the efficiency of the microarchitecture supercanalizada.


Intel MMX technology, high-performance

Intel's MMX technology is a major upgrade of Intel architecture that enables the PC to offer services more sophisticated multimedia andcommunications . This includes 57 technology-oriented manual operations highly parallel data types and communication media. These instructions use a technique known as SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) to provide superior performance computing and multimedia communications. Intel processors include MMX technology are fully compatible with previous generations of Intel architecture and the installed base of software. To further improve performance, the Pentium II processor, like the Pentium processor with MMX technology, you can run 2 Intel MMX instructions at once.


Write Combining


Powered by combination of writing (Write Combining) P6 architecture can achieve a return E / S in graphics very high. This feature combines several scripts on the part of memory (for example, in the buffer frames for the video driver) declared as type toilet in a single burst write operation, very suitable for the bus , which is optimized for burst transfers. The chipset combines these writings further, leading to a high speed I / S of graphs, which further enhanced multimedia performance and enables a video with a motion more realistic and also a faster graphics performance and realistic.



Intel Pentium III processor, the Intel's most advanced and powerful PC

desktop, has several features new to performance, productivity and capacity

top management. For users who interact with the Internet or working with applications

data-intensive multimedia, the most important innovations are extensions of " Streaming SIMD "Pentium III processor, 70 new instructions that dramatically enhance performance and capabilities of 3D applications, treatment of images , video, sound and recognition voice. With all the powernecessary for Internet-enabled software for next generation Pentium III processors will continue to provide PC users with outstanding performance well into the future.

Intel Pentium III processor offers excellent performance for all PC software and is fully compatible with existing software based on Intel architecture.The Pentium III 500 MHz and 450 further extends the power of process by leaving room for greater performance requirements for Internet functions, communications and media business. Software designed for the Pentium III free full multimedia capabilities of the processor, including full-screen video and full motion, realistic graphics and the ability to get the best of the internet. The systems based on Pentium III processor also include the latest features to simplify the management of the system and reduce the total cost of ownership for environments of companies large and small. The Pentium III processor provides exceptional performance for current and future applications, as well as quality , reliability and compatibility can be expected from the first company of microprocessors in the world.

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Current microprocessors are used in a broad range of software applications. In particular , the use of multimedia applications, 3D and the Internet has experienced a tremendous boom in recent years and expects this trend to continue in the future, so you should consider a wide range of programs to test for assessing processor performance and system. The PC users and purchasers should take into account different levels of performance, including productivity, multimedia, 3D and the Internet.


In some testing programs 3D and multimedia Pentium III processor has shown substantial benefits in performance. Compared to the Pentium II 450 MHz, for example, Pentium III 450 MHz processor shows a performance improvement of 29% in MultimediaMark * 99 and 74% in the test of transformation and lighting * 3D Winbench 99. The increased performance of the Pentium III 500 MHz in these testing programs 3D and multimedia is even greater, and offers performance desktop PC, Intel highest productivity and Internet applications.

Today there are many developers working on next-generation applications that will raise the Pentium III processor performance to new heights. As programs are updated to take into account test these applications and programs try to do the same synthetic maximize the potential of the Pentium III.


Until now, the family of Intel Pentium III processor includes the following products :

Pentium III 500 MHz processor

Pentium III 450 MHz processor


Intel Pentium III processor delivers new levels of performance and productivity for applications and operating systems today's most demanding. This processor incorporates advanced features to take full advantage of the architecture firm " Wired for Management "and environment of continuous process that productivity will trade to new heights in the new millennium.

The Pentium III presents extensions "Streaming SIMD" including 70 new instructions to speed up the process and improving performance in existing applications and next-generation advanced applications including imaging, video and 3D sound, access to web , voice recognition, new user interfaces and other applications of technology forefront .

Based on advanced CMOS process technology of 0.25 Intel core processor has more than 9.5 million transistors . Presented at speeds of 450 MHz and 500 MHz Pentium III elprocesador also incorporates advanced features such as cache 32K


nonblocking Level 1 cache and 512K of level 2 non-locking for quick access to priority data, storage cache to a maximum of 4GB of space in memoryaddressable and scalable to dual processing systems with up to 64GB of physical . A serial number of processor communication automatically gives applications of security ,

management system authentication and powerful new tool for identifying systems


Pentium III processors are available in the form of encapsulated single contact 2, Intel (SECC2) for availability of large volumes, greater protection during handling and compatibility with high-performance processors for the future. The platform support 400BX AGPset widely used also ensures compatibility with existing systems and a short qualification cycle for maximum performance





We'll start by saying that the new models use a new socket completely incompatible with everything known so far in the PC world, but is based on the Alpha EV6 Digital, and its connector, known as Slot A, is identical physically Slot1 Intel. This bus runs at speeds of 200 MHz against 100 of the current models and future models are planned at 400 Mhz. The first-level memory has 128 KB (four times that of the Pentium III) and L2 is programmable, allowing you to tailor the amount of cache to different needs, having at first with 512 KB, but still provided models to 8 MB. The initial models working at 500, 550 and 600 Mhz and still made from the current 0.25 micron technology. Incorporates 22 million transistors. Of course supports 3DNow instructions. Finally the architecture supports multiprocessor systems with games appropriate chipset, being able to build machines with up to 8 microns or larger.

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