Open source software, a computer software
Open source software is defined as the computer software which means that a source code having the particular rights with reserved copyrights. In 1983 it was started, in 1998 a group of individuals are gathered and decide it as in terms of free software which was replaced by the open source software (OSS). The main functionality of this software is that any one can create their own modifications on this according to their operating systems and they can develop the software.
Open Source Definition:
This open source is defined as follows it is used to determine whether the software license which was considered is open source or not, the entire definition is based on the debain free software guidelines.
Models in Business:
This Open source software is used by many enterprises, but it has the less support to the operating system and other training, it is back in the long road map and the change of velocity. In business models it is considered as the dual license strategy which was demonstrated by the MySQL, Ingres and others.
Organizations and projects of open source software:
In this Open source software so many prominent companies are there, some of them are as follows Apache software foundation, Firefox web browser, Eclipse foundation, Debian projects, Objectweb and many more. Open-source middleware is developing by the European born community. So many organization are coming forward to join in the Open source software.
In this space so many open source programs are defining, some of the projects are as follow Sun's java programming language, SQL database systems, Unix operation system, Sun's 2 openoffce.org, Wireshark network and many more.
Open source software in terms of distribution is comply with the following sections and described as follows:
Open source software in free redistribution:
The main theme of this is that it does not restrict any section of the part of selling or giving the software to the main part of the software distribution which includes the different programs from different users. This license will not offer any fee for such distribution.
Source code in open source software:
In this the program must have include the source code and also to allow the source code in distribution in the compile form. Some of the products are not distributed with the source code so that they have the well publicized that means in terms to obtain the source code to offer the cost no more than the cost of reasonable reproduction, by using the internet we can know the without any charge. In the output of intermediate forms of translators and preprocessors are not allowed.
Derived Works of open source :
In this the name itself mentioned the meaning, the license which is considered should have to allow the modifications and derived works of the software if required. The distribution is allowed under in terms of the same original licensed software.
Integrity of the author's source code of open source:
In this some times the license may restrict the source code being the distribution is in modification only when the license of distribution allow the patch files. In order to carry the different names or the different versions numbers of the original software the license should have to carry the required derived works.
No discrimination against the persons or any groups:
When a person or group of persons are working for th certain software the license should not discriminate.
No discrimination against the fields of endeavor:
The license which is considered should have to allow all the users to perform any task in the program in any field of endeavor. Take a example in the research or in any business it may restrict the program which is being used.
Distribution of license of the open source:
For every program there are certain rights , these rights should be applicable to the persons to which the program is redistributed with perfect execution in additionally by the those parties.
License must not restrict the other software:
The license should not put any restrictions on the other software which are licensed.
License must not be specific to a product:
The rights which are allocated to the program should not depend on the program's being the software distribution at a particular part. In any conditions the program which is extracted from that distribution and used in terms of program's license , the rights are same to whom the program is redistributed which are conjunction to the original software.
License must be technology neutral:
The license provisions should not predicated on individual technology or any other style of interface.
In the present phone industry the software is governed in many ways, in the past years the mobiles with the operating systems are very less and this is in only to the higher end handsets. The mainstream handsets are worked with the huge manufacture circle. In the present years the many company's introduce the mobile with the operating systems and the variation of the mainstream mobile and the higher end handsets are going to disappeared. The term operating system in the mobile phone is the software have the following middleware, kernel and application execution environment , many drivers, etc. The major component in the operating system software is the user interface framework.
In the past years nearly 2000-2003 many phone industry's look's to develop the more operating system features in the mobile which are open OS's, by this there is tough competition between the Nokia, Sony Ericson, Palm OS, Microsoft, etc. The user interfaces, OS's, applications , features in the mobile execution environment are going to increased. So the operating systems in the mobile are fulfilling the needs of the operators. In additional to the mobile industry the openness platform is the secondary to the developers and it is mentioned as the third party to the industry's.
In terms of long term investments the Linux based software are preferable, in this plat form the software is both for the low range handsets and higher end handsets. At this time only the Linux is dominant of vendor.
Open source is launch in the handsets across the original equipment manufactures. This mobile open source software includes the android, LiMo, etc. In the mobile industry the open source software have many projects with more inadequate requirements. The open source project are individual based and they are more used to develop the Linux. While choosing the software project the investor are thinking about the cost in the project, in some time due to this some important features of the project may missed. So the investors have to come forward and invests more and more on the open source project which are licensed.
This open source software is entirely different from others.
Open source software to mobile phone industry
In the present scenario broad alliance of leading technology and wireless companies are announce the development of as Android. Android is software that includes the operating systems which is used in mobile devices, Android also includes the middleware and key applications. Android SDK provides the tools and APIs which are used to develop the applications that runs on Android powered devices. This platform is to introduce the Accounts management, contacts and sync which are very advanced to use in the mobile devices.
The Android development is through the Open handset Alliance by the companies like HTC, T-Mobile, Motorola and others which are the mobile phone industry leaders. Today's mobile platform the alliance shares fostering innovation on mobile devices. Android will accelerate more mobile services which are made available to consumers. Nearly 3 billion of people are using the phone and it becomes most personal and ubiquitous communication device. By the Android developers, wireless operators and dhandset manufactures are well settled by introducing the new mobiles into market at lower cost. Android is the first a software stack fully integrated mobile which consists of operating system, middleware and key applications.
Nearly thirty-four companies are working on open Handset Alliance which aims to develop the technologies that will gives low cost mobile with more features. Android gives the more benefits to the customers, developers and manufactures of mobile devices. By this consumers can access the rich internet and more features on their mobile with low cost only.
Open mobile Alliance OMA is founded in 2002, it has the standards in providing the software components to the Software Component Management Object (SCOMO). It is well in the installing and uninstalling the drivers , activation and deactivation of the security code of the mobiles, updating the mobile software
Open mobile software Interface (OMSI) it is founded in 2003 by some companies namely Sony Ericson, Nokia and BenQ. The object of this is to delivery the data from the handset to the PC when both are connected with each other with the data cable without any distortions.
Open Software, Open Device, Open Ecosystem
This partnership gives the more potential to mobile technology very useful to the customer around the world. The mobile industries which are using it are Motorola, T-Mobile, Google Phone, HTC etc. The entire mobile ecosystem is completely using the software stack which is Android. It is two way contact sync, which are more used in the mobiles. The end result is that mobile platform will enable wireless operators and manufactures to give best mobiles with best features
Open source software certification:
It is certified by many institutions which are using this open source software, namely UNU/IIST ( United Nations University/ International Institute of Software technology in this institute the profits are not considered. At present it is include in the project named as "The Global Desktop Project".
Advantages of Open Source Software:
The main advantage of this open source software is that for any user or operator this software is available at low cost. This software has the right to use it in any way. The source code which is available is right to modify because sometimes unlimited tuning is required for the development of the software product. In this software "black boxes" are not possible. For the democratic action this open source software can provide the new forums. In this software the alternate code can created if some times the current code is wrongly managed, possibility for "forking".
Open source hardware
It is the hardware designed and deals in the same manner of the free and open source software. In open source culture the open source hardware is one of the part and applies the concepts of hardware in open source. In generally the hardware needs the PCB layouts, schematics, materials for the design, and it needs the software that which drives the hardware.
Open source hardware can be formed by the several programmable logical devices which are still to rise. In the hardware instead of the schematics the code can be shared very simple the code is HDL (hardware description language). This HDL commonly describes about to set up the on-chip systems or integrated circuits designs or gate arrays. When the HDL modules are distributed then they are called as the Internet protocols core (IP cores).
Instead of creating the new license for the hardware design it uses the same license of the open source software.
- John Ackermann was drafted the Tucson Amateur Packet Radio (TAPR) open source hardware which was reviewed by the community members of open source software (OSS).
- In all balloon projects the licensed used is Balloon open source hardware.
- Los Gatos Public Library is encouraged by the open source hardware license even though it has its own original software license.
- So many variety of license are used by the open graphic projects including the MIT , GPL and proprietary license.
- Graham seaman written the Hardware Design Public License.
Open source hardware in Computer Components:
Open source hardware in the computer components like in CPU's having several types and these are implemented as the soft microprocessor. Sun micro systems have the open SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture Reduce) which is an open source processor project and this is contributed by the UltraSPARC T1 and UltraSPARC T2 which are the multicore processor designs.
- Open source RISC CPU is offering the very high performance.
- Graphic cards designs offers the Open Graphics projects.
- For sensor networks sun SPOT is the open source hardware
- In telephony openmoko which is the telephone operating system.
- In Laptop cases Video Image Analysis(VIA) openBook which was introduced by the VIA technologies.
Open source hardware development:
Open source hardware represents the Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGA) based platform and many open source designs are implemented. For the developed and developing countries the open source hardware is the bridge which connects the technology and for the education. FPGA, CPLD, ASSIC designs are developed by the open source hardware. For the development the hard the software should added to it
By using this open source software there are many benefits to the telecom industry. This software is very easy to understand and many companies come forward and using this software instead of their original software which is licensed because this software is distributed source code. The risk in this software is very less by comparing with other software, so the companies are offering it. By this software the tracking of the product is very simple in any organization.
- Mobile Operating Systems - Andreas Constantinou
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