Legal Ethical And Security Concerns Of Social Information Technology Essay
Definition: The Social Networking Sites may be defined as the service based on web application that helps to build a personal profile by any no. of individual users which may be visible to everyone or for a personal visibility in a restricted system and improve the connection quantity with others by screening and passing through the list with others in the same system. The theme and setup attractions will differ from one site to other site. These social networking sites may allow the following:
Online society: many of the persons are associated online some may ask to join on the professional basis and some may for students, dating etc that are forming various clusters or societies online.
Micro blogs: the sites under this are very popular such as twitter that provides an option to share various messages.
Networking: this option helps to connect with various others with similar likes and dislikes etc. however the other has to approve the former to connect.
For Commerce: these social networking sites may help to improve the professional front through opposite networking. This may help to improve the commerce, by sharing ideas and techniques and clearing doubts etc. press releases are dispersed through such company blogs. Sponsoring the events is a best example for such usage. (Alan Mislove, Krishna P. Gummadi and Peter Druschel)
It can be concluded that the social networking sites provide a no. of options other than a simple blogging. Due to the advent of technology and usage aptitude, the social networking sites are also implemented in commerce, business mailing also.
Danah M. Boyd and Nicole B. Ellison have briefly explained about the Social Networking sites boom from the advent of information technology. Social networking sites or SNES engrossed numerous abusers in such a way that these have become a part of daily routines. These increased in the mean while and reached to several hundreds and thousands. Many of the sites are based on various technologies and practices which may encourage different interests of the users. These Social networking sites broadly differ in reliability to the cultural aspects; it purely depends on the personal usage. Few may be limited to a particular religion, sexual, racial or nationality while some are related globally and to all age groups on a universal language basis such as face book, MySpace etc. these may also differ on the hi-tech technical usage such as video chat, audio chat, blogging etc with sharing of various files and records. This holds various advantages as well as disadvantages by using the social networking sites. Some of the sites help to connect with unknown addicts through its technical and sharing options depending on different common applications and concerns of interest, commotions and analysis of political aspects.
In conclusion, the author is acceptable in expressing that the social networking sites are broadly based on various technological as well as small to large community concentrating factors. Various features are available which depends on the type of the social networking site technical expertise.
Jeff Cain, EdD February 15, 2008, explains that the social networking sites are very famous among the youth especially students and youngsters when compared to elders. Various social networking sites such as Face book and MySpace along with Orkut and Bebo are being very popular along with Twitter. When such a social networking sites are introduced in the colleges, many students may connect to their friends as well as their academic heads to share the educational illustration. This type of a set up may help to clear doubts and for academic facilitation as well.
The social networking sites were broadly studied by scholars to understand the applications, usage, their effects and attracting aspects etc.
As every technology hold various advantages and defects, the social networking also have various goods and bads. The defects are mainly calculated as various concerns regarding to ethical, social, security, privacy and legal issues. All these are very head tracking issues which when remained unattended may cause very serious problems. These issues may avail to any age group at any time. The following study reveals certain facts related to the issues and populace usage of social networking sites.
According to ECAR Research Study 8, 2008, a study was carried out on the Social networking sites that have been showing the following results based on the security and legal as well as ethical concerns by the bloggers:
The study revealed about 85.2% are using at least one social networking Blog.
95.81% users under the age of 18-19 years.
From among those half are exploiting SNS to interact with classmates to clear subject related doubts and 5.5% with their teachers or heads.
1/3 of them are concerned about security aspect
Various other types of concerns in addition with these are involvement of malware or viruses, social engineering which may seize valuable information and legal liabilities.
This is shown through the following graph:
Ref: Security, Ethical and legal concern study on users @ ECAR Research Study 8, 2008.
The above study may reveal the importance to understand and reduce these concerns. For this, a complete study on various concerns is very important which may be provided with better solutions to clear up or atleast reduce the effects.
Kathryn L. Ossian has briefly studied various concerns or issues related to the application of various Social networking sites. As most of the Social networking sites allow to connect and communicate with other users certainly many issues may float. As most of these provide an option of photo uploading and status visibility, may unknown persons may freely get access due to free registration. A legal issue is observed in these sites every week and perhaps every day. Few of them are as discussed below:
Third party Content: as the social networking sites help to disperse various contents, folders, files as well as photos, graphics and text which is a copy righted by the original abuser, in that case legal issue arises.
Content ownership and its control: when the abuser deletes his/her personal page from a particular social networking site, it may not sometimes truly delete completely. This may raise the legal issue. This may end in sharing the personal as well as sensitive information.
Denouncement and additional torts: frauds, misinterpretation and abusing may result into the torts.
Illicit behaviors: This social networking site helps to reveal unlawful videos and criminal doings which may raise legal issues.
Practice of Employment: various social networking sites also attract the youth through exhibiting unlawful or half informational news which are considered into illegal aspects related to blogging. Or sometimes the content in theses blogs is impeded in hiring and dismissal from the jobs which are unlawful.
The author was optimistic in explaining various issues related to the legal, security and privacy related issues.
Dara Byrne has disclosed few more legal, ethical and security concerns related to the social networking sites which are observed due to the vary common practices like exhibiting the personal information on these blogs.
Security Issues: the security issues are observed in a case when a particular hacker gets an illicit access (in to the profiles of the users) or entire networking site which is restricted.
Privacy Issue: the privacy issue is considered when the hackers get access into the personal information of the bloggers. These, may not relate to the security aspects.
In most cases, both these concerns are correlated as the hacker may gain access to both restricted sites information at same time into the personal information of the bloggers. Such type of issue was raised on many of the social networking sites but they are resolved very soon. Many of these follow a strict on-site security. Sometimes the third party, due to marketing techniques employed in these sites may gain access. It was observed that, due to increased no. of sites, the security and ethical issues level has also peeked up. Increased privacy settings are not able to solve such concerns either.
According to Sandeep Chandrasekhar Sheshadri, many legal and ethical issues are related to the hefty usage in the Social networking sites due to combining personal content. These issues arise as a part of marketing strategy. Few of them are due to:
Violation of patented and rational possessions.
Cultural, offensive and sexual expression.
Obscene substance posting in the space.
Ethical Issues: these issues are discussed in brief by Stephen P. Borgatti and José Luis Molina, September 2003 as well as Mohammed A Razzaque. The ethical concerns are evolved due to the illicit collection of information most probably restricted personal or proprietary information. Such type of issues are to some extent are banned by clearly mapping marketing strategies and client request but it is not completely possible utilitarianism and deontological along with virtual ethics are concerned with such ethical issues evolvement.
All these issues have no permanent solution or a complete banning of hackers and illicit information tracking but to some extent these can be reduced by following a definite guideline for security and copyright violation. The users should take care of the information while providing so that if hacked no major problem shall be created. The sites also shall follow strict onsite security. Experts predict that as Web 1.0 is one way the trafficking or hacking is not possible while the usage of Web 2.0 is 2 ways or a browser based technology and so, insecurity may arise. Standard ports and protocols shall be provided to control the traffic.
Social Networking Sites for the Universities:
Stephen P. Borgatti and José Luis Molina, September 2003 explains that today most of the educational universities and colleges probably employ these Social networking sites. This helps to share the academic information and study related doubts can be easily clarified. The same explained by many other experts.
I strongly recommend that existing social networking sites can be employed for the University of Glamorgan, such as face book or MySpace which holds various positive features along with socializing related to educational features. These are positively handled by both elder staff as well as students. This type of services will also be beneficial for the online and e-learning or distance learning purpose also in a university. The following can be considered as the added features of the social networking sites for an educational purpose:
Preexisting social network site: It can be observed that the preexisting sites are very fast growing sites and mostly everybody has a membership account. They may already
Ease of usage: the preexisting social networking sites may help to access the usage with ease when compared to a new developed one. This can be supported by a fact of research work observed and carried on the students in Jacob Schroeder and Thomas J. Greenbowe, "The Chemistry of Face book". This work predicts that already around 60% of student converse or interacts regarding the education concern through online in which about 50% confer works of school.
Educational Course information: this will perhaps help most of the bloggers and especially interested students worldwide that the information regarding to your university in a preexisting site may reduce the risk of finding it in the other newly developed site which may fail to reach all. Hence both parents and students may access all the information at one single site.
Socializing: in case of the classes that are carried out both online as well as distance learning, the social networking sites can be applicable. This is readily available in preexisting sites. It helps to produce a peer to peer relation between its students as well as staff. Moreover for a new developed social networking site may also have this option but usage of the older site may reduce the new accessibility anxiety. The students can be able to stay in touch with each other even in the holidays at any place (Terry Anderson, 2006)
Sharing: the most useful applications of a social networking site in a university may be sharing the educational concerns and academic doubts. When an preexisting social network site is employed for this purpose, the commonly browsing students may both regular blogging as well as educational aspects like storing, managing and comment on network assets. Moreover the advantage to use a preexisted social networking site will improve the community of same educational background and subjects from among different universities from where they may share excess information which is not possible in a new social networking site for a particular university.
The sharing may include newly found techniques and finished project works from around various universities. This can be supported from a fact that the students at an average read about 8 books every year while he may share and discuss new works and techniques in a preexisting social networking site at an average of 2300 web pages.
Staff from various universities may also provide necessary tips to the students. Restriction free applications will help for this aspect (Jacob Schroeder and Thomas J. Greenbowe)
The preexisting social networking sites are provided with an option of bulletin board and conversing options where students from many universities or specially designed for the same university may be made use of. This help to improve synchronized discussions online.
Ning is an example of an education related social networking site in polish.
The sample of the universities social networking site along with various features which are possible and readily available in the pre existing social networking sites are as shown in the following figure:
Security policy document:
The security policy documents along with template are meant for reducing the effect of the security and legal issues which are very commonly observed in the social networking sites. This helps to detect and prevent the unauthorized usage or violation of the social networking sites secured information. Intruders can be banned from hacking the valuable information related to the university when it is being implemented in a particular university. This works by denoting the intrusion or not by anyone and may denote the information they logged if the intrusion took place. It helps to reduce the phishing, spam, leakage of the data and malware infections.
The security policy shall be such that:
It need to provide a granular access control
Encryption of the tenable data
Monitoring the information
Wide-ranging safety from the malware.
Valerie Vogel, August 06, 2010, has provided the information of a template for the Social networking security under various divisions such as from the point of user, his security as well as from the point of institutions or universities for a safe and secured social networking sites in campus. The following shows few of the policies:
Safer passwords with complicated terms
Information exposed shall be underneath control
Limiting the policy for posting the information.
A policy under which violation may disconnect from the main source
The universities shall follow security in revealing the students or staff and heads identity.
Policy for the security of the community related to online contacts.
Social security which is readily provided by many preexisting sites.
Carol Templeton, December 21, 2004 and SANS, 2004, the security for the usage of the social networking sites in the campus, the security policy document shall start up by requirement and environment of the university. As the university ecology is open and information posted will be available to all students and staff without restrictions. The universities moreover make use of the social networking sites to funding scholarships, gifts by the former students, funding purposes, vending the available books, research materials etc. hence strict security polices shall be implemented to store such an authorized information. The author explains the implementation of a security policy shall commence from the beginning of implementation. The university shall have technical proficient and security team to search and detect security related aspects.
Hence the above study can be circled to follow the security policy with following as a template:
Restrict the no. of hours of usage in the campus. This may be practically not appreciated by students and the staff.
Thorough awareness process to literate the usage and reduce violation process in their staff and students.
Security regarding passwords of the students as well as staff.
Copy right law shall be maintained or respected before and during posting information like graphs, charts, files etc.
Exercise the authentic posts
The top management shall check all the important information before posting and providing access and estimate the loss if hacking takes place.
Security when implementing wireless.
Usage of anti spyware and anti viruses and firewall protection.
Security Policy document template preparation:
The security policy shall protect the information, user's, students and staff's identity together with technological system data. It shall reduce the risk both internal as well as external exposure. The security policy establishment and distribution are considered to be a mandatory aspect for any organizational or university usage. The security policy shall be realistic, cost-effective and easily comprehensible in nature which shall be understandable by students, staff and management of the university.
Joel Weise and Charles R. Martin explain that the security policy is very complexive in nature and is much necessary of any institution. This policy will describe the working of the security architecture which determine the explicit, quantifiable and analyzable targets and purposes of the institution. The following can be recommended as various steps to provide a particular security template for the University.
Security Principles: The foremost or primary step of implementing a policy document is by defining particular security principles. This help to expose the form and character of policy depending on the type of ecology and act as groundwork for the security policy. These shall be evaluated prior and after the security policy implementation to estimate the rate of satisfaction regarding security of the institution.
As discussed earlier, every institution or a university shall define its environment and its limits about the remittance. The following can be considered as the security principles for our University:
Enlighten on the availability and limit for the information.
Assertion of the privacy and reliability for the information used by the students and staff.
Assertion for banning illicit exploitation and safe function security.
Integrity of students and administration for the progressed information, and ensure no illegal and invisible alterations, replacement, addition and removal of the information.
A security policy document will comprise a guide lines which explicitly explains the implementation of the security within the university with proper security tools and clearly explains the accountability of students, staff and administration which are acknowledged, dispersed and interacted.
Security policy structure of BS7799 ( Ajay Lakra and Jayanth Parial):
Purpose: the intention of this Security Policy is to describe the University's data security policy. The information of the university is a crucial asset and unauthorized hacking of any of the university's data is strictly banned from this social networking sites.
Objective: the aim and objective of the University's security policy document is to prohibit any kind of intrusion or unauthorized infringement.
Guideline under various types of security of university: the security of university may relate under various division such as
Security policy of information: this part of the security policy will include the set of laws and processes about the accessing of the resources for attaining privacy, reliability and accessibility of the information and assets. This part includes the following
Comprehensible and concise data interactions.
Specifically clear capacity and relevancy.
prospect of fortification
Security of university governing body: as the name implies this section will help to provide the definite guidelines related to the extence of governing body of the university. Such as:
About strong routing board
Effort synchronization capability
Support from proficient.
Collaboration of inter -association.
Analysis of external sources.
Access of the negotiator or hacker: this division will provide control the access of hackers or intruders.
Identification of risk of intrusion
actions of indentures
managing and cataloging of Assets: it will help to manage and catalog the possessions of the governing body of the university:
about the name and power on the admittance
about the I.T
the private and unrestricted data related aspect
security of the staff in inspecting backdrops and lawful contracts
reaction to the confrontations, susceptibility, exposing errors related to I.T
Literating to the students and staff including ideology of various laws and legal rules and terms.
Physical and ecological concerns: this helps to eliminate unauthorized intrusions internally.
Secured transaction recognition and managing
managing the access
firewall protection applications
fire security assessment
guiding and administering the sightseers from external sources
fire maneuvers and plan of awareness of intrusions
discarding of unwanted data
infrastructure and system handling process: this type of guidelines are targeted for the working of the admin department of the university:
method of manuscripting
managing the situation of intrusion
duty division among the admin
partition of progress and functions
managing the exterior resources
scheduling of the capacity
controlling the viruses
back-up of information
logs of machinist
cataloguing of errors
controlling the detachable information
information swapping control
transfer media security
Accessibility manager of the system: it will regulate the commercial information on a social networking site present in the university site:
cataloging of the addicts
client secret code supervision
visitor right of admittance assessment
Unattended client tools
verification of abuser
verification of node
uncovering of the abusers port
managing of network links
organizing the routing
network services safety
automatic detection of the workstation terminals
detection of users of other systems
managing their passwords
apprehending the users about their safety
time out periods of terminals
restricting the linking time
confining the information related to the university workstations
efficacy control of the system
confining the accessibility to the library of the university
separation of receptive system to hacking
managing the logs of illicit activities
usage of the system's timely check
management of time
expansion and safeguarding of the system: it will help to improve the security related aspects of the social networking sites within the university
investigation and measurement of security
legalization of internal information
encryption of the available information
verification of the communication
Security related to various projects related to I.T and its sustaining actions
equipped software control
shielding test information of the system
shifting managing processes
limitation on the above mentioned changes
controlling the commercial access and its aspects
updating the commerce stability plan
convening the legal violation or copy righted material and software
protection of the information
conservating the files of institution
security policy observance
inspecting the technical errors
After defining the above aspects of the security policy template the establishment shall also follow a step by step process to implement in the institution.
Scope determination of ISMS
Discovering the resources
Risk evaluation of the resources
Understand the loop hole areas
Decision making of the management
proper control activity assortment
purposes of the audit
applicability testimonial research
intentions and goals of security and its policies
contractual and authoritarian necessities
With a proper planning, checking and auditing and improving according to requirement of the university board, the social networking site's security policy document may be developed. This may be triumphed by a proper certification (Joel Weise and Charles R. Martin, December 2001).
Conclusion: It can be concluded that, it is very advantageous to make use of social networking site for the educational purpose by making use of a preexisting sites such as face book, MySpace and bebo which are universal and follow a strict privacy policies. Though various legal, ethical and privacy and security issues are however raises in any social network which may be halted by creating a standard and definite security policy. One such document for security policy is discussed which acts as a guidelines for all the divisions or bodies of the university like students, staff, administration, security personnel, educational data, private data, commercial data safeguarding, however proper training shall be provided to literate all the physical bodies to make a better use of these Social Networking Sites.
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