Examining Developments To Management Information Systems Information Technology Essay
Our coursework is aim to develop Management Information System. Children Support Agency wants to implement MIS.
Coursework requirement contains key actors, key issues and conflicts of CSA environment. And then, that can also explain what the main focuses of CSA organization are. Moreover, that can also explain about how to help rich picture can help to understand about CSA's environment.
This coursework also represents why chosen actors and why they are key to the system. And then, primary and second scenario of use case diagram contain in this coursework requirement. The final one is contains about usefulness of rich pictures and use case diagram.
Terms of reference
This coursework had three parts such as Part A, Part B and Part C. Generally, Part A is explaining about problem situation of CSA environment. That's present by rich picture. Second part is explaining about contract system for CSA. That's present by use case diagram. Process description contains for these two parts.
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Final part is comparison of rich picture and use case diagram. These two techniques have effectiveness. However, it difficult to say which techniques is a good one. Each technique has their effectiveness. So, this report explains what are the individual effectiveness and usefulness.
CSA wants to implement Management Information System (MIS). Basically, it wants to make centralized management system across the organization. MIS is based on report. However, CSA have not clear record. So, it's difficult to produce report. Generally, MIS contains two paths. One is operation and one is reporting.
And then, this document explains about how to help understand CSA environment and contract system project with rich picture and use case.
A1. Rich Picture for CSA environment (See Appendix about conflict description)KT.jpg
A2-A2.1 Key actors of the CSA environment
To make strategic decision for future base on reporting. For example, chief executive is considered to develop new MIS.
Manage to budget. Provide accurate and certain finance information. Allocate funds for projects and report for funding bodies. For example, when the funder provides funds, finance director will allocate for each project and all of the CSA's project will produce monitoring report for funder. Moreover, MIS will develop under control of finance director.
Head of HR
Manage staff centrally. Assign duty to staff and assign new staff. For example, HR department choose junior member staff for moving to London. So, new staff employ for CSA by HR department.
To advertise for new project
Administrative Service Director
Collect management information. Manage to all region and area office. For example, all project will identify about how much spend to budget, how long will run, how many staff employ and what are the project's deliverables. Administrative service directory is also responsible to control and manage for develop new MIS. Generally, administrative service director is responsible to manage CSA.
Manage projects, develop new projects, identified what are the project deliverables and arrange contracts with funders
Contract and Funding Raising Department
When the project start, the first step is joining to contract. This team is also kept to contract information about CSA running project. For example, contract information may involve date, id, funder name and staff.
The above table is shown to key actors of the CSA environment. Chief executive is one of the members of Senior Executive Group. SEG decided to develop Management Information System.
New MIS is being developed under control of Administrative Service Director and Finance Director. So, they are also key actors of the CSA environment. Moreover, finance director is coordination with Head of HR and administrative service director for developing new projects about how much the budget use, how many staff assign and what are the deliverables. So, Head of HR is also key actor for CSA.
A2.2 Key issues
There are number of key issues. CSA wants to develop new Management Information System for monitoring, manage centrally and sharing data between each regional office and each area office. All running projects are based on contracts. All of the contracts information need to records in the system.
All projects are implemented ad hoc planning. The final result are different management style, different data recording style, all information are not accurate and clear, different running style to project, no standard procedure or guideline and difficult to identified for strategic decision making process.
Other key issues contains about contracts are kept in different place. As a result, contracts will be lost. That can becomes confuse condition and project does not finish at end date.
Areas of conflict
The first conflict is concern with northern regional director. Sean doesn't want to develop new system. He also thought about all of his staff are overloading and new system is spying to their daily activities at work.
The second conflict occurs between area manager and information quality officer. Area manager want to records individual people case like that interviewing process. He wants to share this data around the area office. But, information quality officer doesn't want to input individual person case. She thought that will be too complex.
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The third conflict is between information quality officer and team leader. He doesn't want additional work concern with KPI. His priority is only to save young people.
The final conflict is concern with Head of HR. He wants to more concentrate to new HR software rather than management information system. On the other hands, he had problem with area managers. He wants to record centrally concern with CSA staff information. But, area manager kept staff information their own.
A2.3 Main focus of the Environment
The main focus of the environment in this rich picture is when the CSA running the projects that will need management information system. Because of all of the CSA's data are recording in different formats. As a result, there are inconsistent and inaccurate. So, SEG did not consider for future plan. And then, CSA did not produce accurate report for funding bodies and all projects are developing without plan. Finally, some of the CSA staff are burden of using IT.
In the CSA's environment rich picture contain about control of system. Control of system means like that all of the processes are run correctly, data are input correctly, think correctly and system is run correctly. When develop management information system that will contain to control of system. Control of system is essential part of the MIS. For example, new MIS can avoid to different data formatting style and record information at different source. So, all of the data are correctly enter into the system. Moreover, unauthorized person can't access other data from the system.
All data are contains in the rich picture diagram for CSA environment. For example, who is responsible for what, all project are require contract, produce regular report for funders, each region and area run ad hoc planning and different data format and require to develop new MIS. All data are based on CSA scenario and immerging in the rich picture.
The first step of CSA project is to join the contract with funding bodies. Resources will assign based on project size. All projects will produce monitoring report form funder while the project is running. For example, the project duration is 1 year. CSA will produce monitoring report at every 6 months or annual report. Processing is mean task. Task may be step by step. For example, head office develops new project and assign budget and resources. After making this process, branch office is running projects.
B1. Use case diagram for contract system
B 1.1 Primary scenarios
For record new project
Step1. Contract team check valid project information
Step2. Contract team record criteria concern with new project
Step3. Contract team successfully recorded new contract information
For record existing contract
Step1. Contract team check existing contract information
Step2. Contract team record information concern with existing contract
Step3. Contract team successfully recorded existing contract information.
For identify criteria
Step1. Contract team checks project criteria coordinate with regional office and area office
Step2. Contract team identifies project criteria coordinate with regional office and area office
Step3. Contract team records project criteria coordinate with regional office and area office
For check tender requirement
Step1. Audit of resource checks tender requirement
Step2. Audit of resource checks what may be needed for project success
Step3. Audit of resource make Go/No Go decision
Step4. Audit of resource record bid criteria
Step5. Audit of resource choose funding bodies
Step6. Audit of resource record sending bid to appropriate funding bodies
For record outcome
Step1. Contract team checks won, fail and some subject change bid information from funders
Step2. Contract team records won bid information
For create new contract
Step1. Contract team check staff list from HR department
Step2. Contract team assign staff for new project
Step3. Contract team check lead worker list
Step4. Contract team allocate who is lead worker
Step5. Contract team advertise new project for marketing and publicity
B 1.2 Secondary scenarios
For record new project
Step1. If invalid project information
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Contract team request project information again
For record existing contract
Step1. If invalid contract information
Contract team recheck contract information
For identify criteria
Step1. If invalid criteria
Contract team recheck project criteria coordinate with regional office and area office
For check tender requirement
Step1. If invalid tender requirement
Audit of resource request valid tender requirement
Step3. If decision No Go
Audit of resource record fail reason
Step4. If invalid bid criteria
Audit of resource recheck bid criteria
For record outcomes
Step1. If the bid is fail
Contract team records fail bid information with reason
Step1.1 If the bid is some subject change
Contract team record what is requires to changes to meet with CSA requirements
For create new contract
Step1. If the staff isn't available
Contract team reassign staff for new project
Step3. If the lead worker isn't available
Contract team reallocate lead worker for new project
The following key actors are main play the contract system.
Contract team is responsible to hold centrally CSA's project contract information. This activity is aim for Management Information System. In practice, all contract information is record at different place such as regional office and area office. Moreover, contact team is also responsible to develop new projects and mange the project. This activity is aim to bid process for new funding bodies. Contract team is corporate with regional office and area office to identify the project criteria.
Regional offices are corporate with contract team and identify project criteria.
Area offices are also corporate with contract team and identify project criteria.
Audit of resource
Audit of resource is responsible to what are require in the project and identify to tender requirement. Moreover, audit of resource is also responsible to decision for doing or not.
I would like to choose primary scenario for check tender requirement. Because of it include key activities for contract system. Audit of resource check tender requirement and what would be needed for the project succeed. These activities are become a fact successful project and for making contract. These activities are making coordinate with area office and regional office.
And then, the team is also makes important decision for Go or No Go. If No Go decision, CSA can't to do more and never arrive to sent appropriate funding bodies. If Go decision, this team is write criteria of the funder. Therefore, if this scenario doesn't the above activities, CSA's project never becomes.
Primary scenario is always thinking about right condition. It's never think wrong condition. Therefore, it can also call "happy day scenario". Secondary scenario is thinking about how to make when the process arrives wrong condition. For example, something can happen at this point. So, it should immerging which action can make to recover for this point. All secondary scenarios are based on primary scenario.
Assume that, CSA already have old system. But, it's legacy and can't run effectively. If CSA run new project, that will make contract first. If CSA want to success project, that should be ask the following questions. These questions can also help to success to project in real world.
What are needed to complete new project?
What are the new project's deliverables?
How long will take to finish new project?
How much will spent to budget to finish project?
Who are involved in the project?
Which resources can use?
Who are target audiences?
When the project can start?
What legal issues contains in new project?
All of the above questions can successful project in real life. If CSA want these all information, that should be asked any responsible person who can give certain information. However, that's should better if can get in one place any necessary information. All of the above question can ask the following persons.
Human resources manager
Any team leader or lead worker
Information quality officer
Senior advisor (including legal issues)
Any staff who can support to success new project
All of the above persons are important to success project. Because of, they had experiences a lot of activities about running project.
1. For rich picture
1.1 General description and easy to understand
Rich picture is a soft approach and sometime call 'epistemology' approach. Soft approach is try to look at understanding about what the people are needed, what are they hope from the new system and which part of the system are worries to them. In traditional approach is based on technically solution. It can't solve to social role in the system and what are expected from the system. Traditional approach has many weaknesses such as always thinking about hard, difficult to develop user satisfaction system and so on. However, soft approach such as 'Soft System Methodology or Stamper's Semiotic Framework' can help to improve these weaknesses from traditional approach. Main different thing of soft approach is taking to holistic view of the system compare with heard approach.
Rich picture is very usefulness to understanding about what is the CSA organization. In soft approach, it is a requirements analysis technique. It betters to do in human activity system. That can demonstrate what the CSA's individual person concerns are and what the requirements about CSA's complex situation are. Rich picture can draw at the start of analysis stage, before the analysts will not clearly identify which situation of CSA, which are the structure of CSA and what the CSA's person concerns are. Over the world, some of the systems are technologically good. But, all are failed in quality. Because of the entire project manager are ignoring to this issues such as people concern and their social role. That's similar to neglect to organizational issues. Moreover, a lot of project fail reasons include project are late, spent more money and system didn't deliver on time.
1.2 Easy to Fails
Project failure issues are concern with the upper issues. All problems occur based on human elements. Because of human have knowledge, human can expect and human have sense. In traditional approach like SSADM, user can contains at every stages of system development method. Why they are not contains at every stage? The reason is only one. All of the usages are difficult to understand for a few knowledgeable users. The result is users can't contain at every stages.
As a result, user may reject to system. If the project manager or project team ignores to these issues, a lot of problem occurs. The problem may be like this: project team identify wrong problem and didn't know reason why the system to be developed. Nerve mind, 'rich picture' can help to solve these problems.
Over the world, most of the information systems are technically good. But, 90% fails. They are neglect to project stakeholder's concern, their problem, did not know exactly what are they need and so on. As a result, all are fails. However, rich picture can help to understand project stakeholder concern, problem, and information flow between user and department.
1.3 No instruction rule
Rich picture can demonstrate on the paper or whiteboard. It does not have already defined rules. All are based on human activity. Rich picture can help to understand too many information about CSA such as boundary of the CSA, organization structure of the CSA, CSA goals, individual CSA people problem, concern, what are they needed, conflict between two person and roles of the CSA person.
That can easy to understand because of it's a pictorial nature. Say honestly, rich picture will be taken funny. Pictorial representation covers to individual characteristic, different point of view and nature of human. In CSA environment rich picture, that will be contain important factors of the organizational situation. For example, CSA are require centralized management system, all core information are different format, inaccurate, uncertain and some data are lose. Moreover, that can also demonstrate to behavior of the CSA person and their social roles within the environment. Finally, rich picture can identify to people excepted behavior for new MIS.
1.4 Problems solving approach
All are unstructured problem situation of the organization by analyst point of view. For example, the analyst can found conflict between North Regional Director and other member. Rich picture is always tried to visualize the problem. Never look up to problem solution. But, that can get way how to do the problem solution. David Avison and Guy Fitzgerald say like that "rich picture analysis process is moving from 'thinking about the problem situation' to 'thinking about what can be done about the problem situation'".
Rich picture can help to improve communication between analyst and user. Because of, that can't have any already assign rule or situation. User and analyst doesn't need to obey any other rules that can freedom, easy to understand and easy to use. All symbols are based on situation and user can add any other symbols. When the rich picture starts that look up elements of structure such as organizational structure, who are involved and what the problem occurs within the organization. The next step is look up to elements of process such as who is responsible for what activities. Generally, elements of structure and elements of process are interacting with each other. That can give idea to analysts for climate of the CSA's situation.
1.5 Advantages of rich picture
Corporate working system with human elements
Interactive communication between user and analysis
Easy to know individual concern such as what they expected from the system, what they needed from the system and so on
1.6 Disadvantages of rich picture
Sometime, it may be very complicated
Difficult to use at designed system and natural system
Not suitable for every system
2. For Use Case
2.1 What is use case?
Use case is one of the important techniques of requirement analysis. Requirement analysis techniques will start of the project, because of it vital important. If the project did not make requirement analysis, the project will fail and user will reject. However, requirement analysis technique is not enough only use case. In reality, use case can't help to know about individual people about what they needed and what are they expected from the system. So, if the project wants to success the project at both side which will corporate with rich picture and use case diagram. Both sides contain hard approach and soft approach.
Above use case describes what functionality contains in contract system at CSA, what are the boundary of the system and who is directly or indirectly involve in the system. But, it does not display about individual actors concern. Say honestly, user case is easy to understand. Because of, it is user-oriented diagram and all usages are not difficult to understand for a few knowledgeable user.
2.2 Compare with traditional approach's diagram
In traditional approach like SSADM that contain a lot of diagram. But, it is difficult to understand for a few knowledgeable users. Even experiences user is also difficult to understand. As a result, user can't complete contain at every stages. Because of, all diagrams are difficult to understanding and boring. User only contains at the start of the project in traditional approach by making fact finding such as interview, questioners and brainstorming. All fact finding techniques are not get right things for proposed system. But, use case can help to these issues. And then, user never meets until the user acceptance testing. So, user can reject the system and the finalized system is doesn't meet user requirements.
2.3 High-level requirements
Use case shows high level requirement of contract system. High level requirements are essential part of the system. Moreover, actors (already describe in top) is also important. Contract team is directly involves in the system. But, regional office and area office is indirectly involves in the system. So, vital of important process is who the actors are. Use case will also aim to find out what reusability of the contract system is. i.e extends and includes.
Use case can show diagrammatic view of what the user needed. That can be filling up all of the user requirements. Requirement analysis is heart of the system. So, use case is already become heart of the system without notification. Basically, use case can give structure way of the behavior requirement of a system. And then, that can be drawn reasonable design for the proposed system.
However, all of the usages are pre defined. That is not possible to change. All of the user must obey to object oriented approach. If not, the analysts or user will difficult to understanding what the use case talking about. On the other hands, when system boundary is large, use case can complex.
2.4 Help understanding 3 difficult aspect of system
In reality, use case is easy to understand about requirements elicited for proposed system. If the project manger doesn't make requirements analysis, all functionality are making by false assumptions. Some of the requirement analysis techniques are not based on user center approach. For example "questioners". Questioners are corporate with based on system thinking actions and experiences. Development team well not knows business flow. However, use case is user centre approach.
In normal way, user always thinks all of the processes are really important. In the case study about contract system, most of the user thinks all functionalities are important. But, all functions are not important. E.g. In contract system, all contract information is first priority and funding information is second priority. So, use case is also identifying which functionality is most important for proposed system.
2.5 What can describe in use case
Use case can describe system behaviors to understanding for user and project team members. One use case can describe which functions are important for new system. However, that's not contains low level detail about "how to achieve and which object are interact with new system". Use case is like a communication tools. Because of, it can help for analysts to identify the system functionality. In also user point of view, user can describe by user case what they are really wants.
Some of the resources publish like that: "use case may be described as a sequence of actions that an actor performs within a system to achieve a particular goal." Use case can also describe who is directly involved in the system (primary actor) and who is indirectly involve in the system. By looking actor, the analysts can seem who is playing which role and which responsibility. In CSA, contract team is developing new projects and record existing contract for bids.
Advantages of use case
Use case has the following advantages:
Use case is trying to understand for user about what they want from the system. Because of, use case is focus upon user point of view.
That can also help very interaction design between user and system.
User will also know which function is first and which function is second. Because of, it can help to identify step by step function.
Moreover, user will know boundary of the system.
Primary scenario and secondary scenario can use like a communication tools
East to know high level function and low level function
Disadvantages of use case
Use case has the following disadvantages:
A little experience user can't understand use case modeling. Only expert user understands to use case modeling.
When drawing user case modeling, that will require data and information. All data and information comes from requirement analysis techniques such as formal interview or questioners. So, it's difficult to make directly without data and information.
Difficult to know which activities are first
Rich picture can help to know about what CSA people are needed and what is individual needed and individual concern. At this time, conflict can occur between individual needed. And then, that can also explain about who are key actors of the system, key issues and conflict at the CSA environment.
Use case can help to understand about what are needed by user. That can also know boundary of system and who is directly or indirectly involved. Generally, use case is mainly use for requirement analysis techniques and rich picture is mainly use to know people concern, expected and any other human immerging.
Northern Regional Director doesn't want new system. Because of, all staffs are overworking in this region. And then, this regional director thinks new system like a spy on what they do.
Conflict 2 occurs between area manger, information quality officer and administrative services director. Area manager want to record individual person case such as record individual person interview. Information quality officer is doesn't to record individual young people's case and think "that's very complicated". IQO is also want to implement case management system. However, administrative services director doesn't to implement case management system.
This conflict occurs between team leader and information quality officer. Team leader think "No new system". All are additional work. New system is not effective for young person.
Alliance name expand
Information Quality Officer
Administrative Service Director
Head of HR
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