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Dumping Site Location And Condition Information Technology Essay

3.1 Introduction

There are several factors that influence negatively the SWM by the Harar municipality. Because of these negative factors the SWM system in the city is considered weak and is not to the expected level of the public in general. Focus group discussions, personal interviews with key informants and the responses collected from the selected samples for this study revealed the facts that are responsible for the prevailing status of the SWM in Harar city. This project follows aggregate analysis of the constraints identified in the selected areas of Harar city with regard to MSWM. Therefore, significance level of each independent variable upon the dependent variable (MSWM) was not tested for this study. Further, although extensive related literatures are quoted above, selected variables that had very direct and strong impact on the MSWM in the city were considered for this project that are discussed below.

The current level of MSWM at Harar city is below the expectation of the public. The following table depicts issues related to the current SWM by the Harar Municipality. Moreover, the MSWM disposes a meager amount of garbage in appropriate ways. Thus, the current status of MSWM practices carried out by Harar municipality does not live to the expectation of the public. Although, the data shown in the table below were collected through informal means like personal and friendly discussions with the workers of various sub divisions of the municipality that are responsible for SWM in the city, it can not be simply ignored such low level performance does not exist as one can see the existing poor condition of MSWM in the pictures used in this project.

Table 1 Current Status of MSWM in Harar City

Different Types of

materials Collected

Average Kilograms of SW Collected Per House Hold Per Week

Average Kilograms of SW

Piled in the Dump Site out of the Collected Amount

Calculated percentage of Appropriate Disposal of the Collected Solid Wastes

Amount of Garbage dumped in Sites

In Percentage

Dumping Site Location and Condition

Garbage Picker

Related Matters

Household Rubbish thrown at Street Corner

1.5

1.35

< 2

98.00>

Less than One Kilometer from City Outskirts and not fenced

They forage in the Sites although they are not legally allowed

Road Dust and Refuse thrown

1.8

1.65

<1.5

98.5>

Less than One Kilometer from City Outskirts

They forage in the Sites although they are not legally allowed

Garbage Collected from Containers

2.01

1.85

<1.5

98.5>

Less than One Kilometer from City Outskirts

They forage in the Sites although they are not legally allowed

Other Types of Solid Wastes

NA

NA

NA

NA

Whatever Collected is Dumped in the Sites

They forage in the Sites although they are not legally allowed

Source: Informal Information from Municipal Workers 2009-10

3.2 Land Use

The following table clearly shows the land use by different factors at Harar city is by far great. This clearly indicates the fact that a large amount of garbage is accumulated at the end of each day and it has become a Himalayan task to the municipality of Harar to collect, manage and dispose it. Due to population growth an effective SWM today may become ineffective a few years after as the quantum of garbage accumulated on daily basis is too huge to be handled. This is one of the chief reasons that the MSWM in Harar city is presently falls short of the expectation of the public.

Table 2 Land Use in Harar City

Land Cover

Surface (ha)

Calculated percentage of Total Land Area

Pure Residence

700

35.9

Administration

20

1.0

Commerce and Trade

35

1.8

Service

20

1.0

Manufacturing and storage

25

1.3

Transportation

270

13.9

Recreation

40

2.1

Agriculture

350

17.8

Forest / Trees

220

11.3

Special function

270

13.9

Total

1950

100%

Source: Land use map of the city by MCE, 2007

3.3 Population Growth

The following table shows the rate of population growth at Harar city over the years. Although the table shows decrease in percentage in the range of every five years, the overall population growth will still be higher as each percentage represents the increased population of the preceding five years. Hence, more pressure and responsibilities will be added to Harar MSWM system to maintain a cleaner city. As a matter of fact, Harar city has more population in 2010 than it had in 2005 although the expected percentage of population growth is less comparatively. Thus, increasing land use on one hand and population on the other, the SWM in Harar city is not upto the mark. In any country population increase influences MSWM greatly as it demands huge manpower, large amount of money and efficient disposal system to safeguard the interests of the public.

Table 3 Average Population Growth Rate

Range of

Years

Expected Population

Growth Rate

%

1995-2000

4.236

2000-2005

3.847

2005-2010

3.628

2010-2015

3.347

2015-2020

3.100

2020-2025

2.929

2025-2030

2.809

Source: Harar Water Supply Project Design Review Report, 2006

3.4 Organizational Arrangement and Logistics of Harar Municipality

The following is the structure of Harar Municipality of which one sector namely Department of Urban Sanitation, Beautification and Regulatory Enforcement Division is responsible for SWM in the city. Although the organizational structure is impressive as seen in the following chart, the division in charge of SWM in the city was not to the expectation of the commoner for several reasons. Let us begin with the organizational chart first. The following figure explains it.

Head office of the municipality

Department of urban sanitation, beautification and regulatory enforcement

Kebele Administration level sanitation and beautification team

Social service department

Urban sanitation team

Urban beautification and regulatory team

Supervisor

Plantation team

Social affairs team

Vital statistics team

Figure 2 Organizational Arrangement of Harar Municipality

Source: Harar Municipal Office-2010

The following table shows the available manpower at the disposal of Harar Municipality

Table 4 Staffing Structure of Sanitation Team

Serial

Number

Type of Job

Number of Staff

1

Head of Sanitation, Beautification and Regulatory Enforcement Department

1

2

Supervisors

9

3

Secretary

2

4

Driver and Driver Assistants

5

5

Janitor

1

6

Street Sweepers

135

Total

153

Source: Harar Municipal Office-2010 Statistics

Although the total numbers of staff put together may look reasonable, it does not suffice the need of the SWM in Harar city considering the daily total garbage accumulated by different actors as discussed elsewhere in this chapter. It is obvious from the table above that majority of the workers are unskilled. Their educational level ranges between illiteracy and basic literacy. Enquiries at the Municipal office revealed the fact that sick leave and other eligible leave utilized by street sweepers currently stood at 9. At times it was as high as 15. Any decrease in daily need of manpower had its negative influence on SWM such as garbage accumulated in the study area was partially collected or not at all collected. The following table further shows that logistics and equipment available at Harar municipal office towards SWM.

Further, the personal interview with manager of the municipality revealed the following facts with regard to existing man power responsible for MSWM in Harar city and available sanitation materials:

No professionals is available currently

No budget is available to recruit professional currently

Many daily wagers have left the service as they could get better pay in private sector like hospitals, factories, hotels and wholesale business houses

There exists a sever short-fall in sanitation gears such as hand gloves, masks, and uniforms specially made for street and lane cleaning and whatever available were torn, broken and withered.

Lack of implements such as forks and spades for garbage collection

Most of the wheel barrows are not in service- rendering condition

He also mentioned that public awareness with regard to MSWM in the city should be enhanced as municipality alone cannot do a commendable work in this regard without support from the public at large.

Table 5 Available municipal logistics and equipment for SWM

Serial

Number

Name of equipment

Quantity

Remark

1

Garbage trucks

3

1 non-functional

2

Communal containers

36

Functioning

3

Wheel barrows

113

No precise information available

4

Forks

15

No precise information available

5

Hoes

6

No precise information available

6

Spades

5

No precise information available

Source: Harar Municipal Office – 2010 Statistics

As we see above, the municipal handling of SWM could not be effective as there wasn’t required manpower, logistics and equipment at Harar municipal office. Therefore, there were pitfalls in SWM in the city. The following table that contains the information gathered from the sample population in this regard.

Table 6 Garbage Collection and Street Cleaning Frequency

Activity

Weekly Frequency at

Amernur Kebele

Weekly Frequency at

Jinela Kebele

Remarks

From Sample Population

Garbage Collection

From Households

Seldom

1

Household members only take the rubbish to the van

Garbage Collection

From Containers

2

2-3

There were times when garbage was not collected for two weeks

Street Cleaning

3

2

Mostly unclean due to the presence of big market

Lane Cleaning

Rare

Sometimes

They may clean sometimes upon repeated requests

Sanitizing the Containers

Very rarely

Very rarely

It is believed to be done at the Municipality by taking them in garbage trucks

Recollection of Spilled Garbage

Not seen

Not seen

Spilled refuse is just kept on the road/lane ; may be cleaned next time

Source: Own survey 2009-10

It is very clear from table 5 that the MSWM is not effective as the sanitation team could not perform their duties to the required standard and frequency as there was short falls in manpower, equipment availability and logistics at the municipality in this regard.

Moreover, the personal interview with the head, Department of urban sanitation, beautification and regulatory enforcement which is responsible for MSWM in Harar city the following facts had come to light:

With the Rapid City expansion, and increasing waste generation rate of the society, these pieces of available equipment are not sufficient to meet the daily demand. Moreover, the vehicles spent much of their time in garages for maintenance. The available vehicles meant for garbage collection effectively function only for 215 day per annum.

Further, according to Metaferia Consulting Engineering (2009), the SW collection container requirement was one waste container (8m3 capacity) is believed to serve between 2000-2500 people. Assuming that 2500 people can use one container, the total number of containers required in 2008 was 52; this means an additional 15 containers should have been made available by then to facilitate the waste collection services. Hence, the present requirement is much higher than what was required in 2008 as more people had come into the city for their livelihoods. This factor is presently the chief contributor towards ineffectiveness of MSWM in Harar city.

A group discussion was held with 20 workers drawn from all the sub-divisions who volunteered to share their opinions and views on MSWM. All the points discussed above with regard to solid waste management of Harar municipality were raised in the discussion and the responses from all the participants were near similar. The group selected one senior member as their representative to reflect their collective views in this regard. The box below contains the collective views of the group as expressed by the representative of the group.

The municipality is very sincere and hard working towards SWM. It is our duty to keep the city neat and clean. The public has given us the mandate in this regard. People complain that the city is full of solid waste which is not true. We keep containers in several places for the public to put their accumulated waste into them. However, some of the people misuse it for which we should not be held responsible. Some voluntarily bring their animals and let them forage in the containers. Many times we told the petty traders who sit near the waste containers and sell their things to clear away from those places. When they see us, they move away. However, within minutes they are back there. It is the problem of attitude of people. We are indeed hard working. However, the support from concerned quarters that we should have sometimes is minimum or below requirement. The availability of vehicles and implements are cases in point. Some of our vehicles are too old to be operated effectively. They visit garage several times for maintenance. Some of the implements are either damaged or under repair. The wheels of several barrows are not in order. The available manpower is not in proportion to the ever growing population and increasing solid waste generation in the city. New hospitals and several new hotels have emerged. They produce a lot of solid waste. Building construction and road maintenance also produce solid wastes on daily basis. On the other hand, the man power available in the municipality for MSWM and the budget remain static for several years now. Moreover, the public does not cooperate with us. Some of them look upon us as if sanitation workers are low grade people with inferior quality. We are not motivated by public. Further, the compensation we get for our work is not attractive. People work in private sector doing the same job are getting better salaries than we do and they get additional benefits such as over-time payments and health allowances. No training is offered to us to upgrade our skills. The contract employers among us are always worried about their continuation in the job as their jobs are not yet made permanent. It is true that the municipal authorities are always trying their best to improve the working condition for us. Yet, the amount of garbage that we have to collect and dispose is no way near to the capabilities that we have. To ease the situation with regard to SWM private sector should come forward to share the responsibilities with us.

3.5 Municipal Finance for SWM

As we had discussed in the literature review, the budget allotted to state governments by the central (federal) government for MSWM practices is usually below the required amount taking into consideration the increase of garbage accumulated at the end of each day and the needed SW handling system This is true to Harar municipality also. The financial source of the sanitation team is from the annual budget allocated for building and vehicle maintenance, payments and allowances, sanitation service change, purchase of sanitation equipment and stationery, fuel expenditure and salaries of the employees of the sanitation team. As the collected data indicates that, in 2008 the team received Birr 200,000.00 only for garbage collection services. Based on the data gathered from municipality, to effectively collect the waste generated in the city, the municipality needs around Birr 350,000.00. However, the actual annual budget allocated for collection was only Birr 237,000.00 in 2008-09 financial year that was 67.7% of the required amount. Thus, the budget allocated annually for waste collection is far from adequate and low. Moreover, no budget is available for related activities such as garbage disposal, recycling and composting. Therefore, no such activities are presently undertaken by Harar municipality except that of collecting the garbage and dumping them in sites which in turn is responsible for several socio-economic problems that we discuss in the following pages of this chapter.

Moreover, a large portion of the budget so allocated for MSWM annually is usually spent in the first few months of the financial year and a little amount of money is available for MSWM for the rest of the year. Thus, the MSWM practices loses momentum as the year progresses. When the new budget is available, highly demanding expenses such as building and vehicles maintenance and purchase of essential and basically needed materials for MSWM should be met which attracts a large sum of money.

Socio Economic Assessment

We have discussed above the ground realities that exist at Harar municipality with regard to SWM with regard to manpower, logistics, and available budget and so on. We have earlier discussed on the population increase and the degree of land use in the city/study area. These factors come upon heavily on the efficiency of MSWM in the city and could not deliver the expected quality in SWM services. Now we shall discuss the socio economic assessment influenced by the wanting MSWM in the city. the information that follows are collected from sample household survey using a mini-interview schedule, focus group discussions and interviews with key informants. The total number of household chosen was 100 (50 from each Kebele), 10 Key Informants (5 from each Kebele) and 2 focus group discussions (one time in each Kebele).

Urbanization

Urbanization is a reality in Harar city. It continues to take place almost on daily basis. Consequently, one can see a poor visual appearance of the city and it will have negative impacts on tourism and investment opportunities

Low collection coverage by the municipality, irregular collection services, and lack of appropriate land fill site are the chief causes of solid waste management system in Harar city. Public commonly misused the solid waste facilities, such as the container meant for garbage collection for human excreta especially in Amernur Kebele. The researcher observed large columns of house flies and people collect materials from the garbage that they could use for themselves or for sale to generate income in the two Kebeles studied.

Solid Waste Generated

The sample households in both Kebeles generated close to similar amount of garbage weekly. However, the SW generated by the big market in Jinela Kebele was not included. The following table shows this fact

Table 7 Weekly generation of SW by Sample HHs

Activity

Solid waste in KG

Location

Total

Amernur

Jinela

%

No of HH

%

No of HH

%

No of HH

Solid Waste generated per week

<5

6

3.

8

4

7

7

5-10

60

30

62

31

61

61

>10

34

17

30

15

32

32

Total

100

50

100

50

100

100

Source: Own Survey 2009-10

It is seen above that the households generate a huge volume of garbage at the end of each week which add more burden and pressure on the MSWM system of Harar municipality.

Moreover, the types of solid waste generated by the households, as per the information gathered for this project, were several and it will make the task of the Harar municipality hard when they start recycling process and composting activities. Moreover, then collection process is very much strained due to various shapes and sizes of different solid wastes generated by the house holds; consequently, as the municipality does not have the technical know-how , machinery and appropriately designed vehicles to collected those Solid wastes, they pile up all the SW materials together and dump it at the existing sites. The following table depicts the percentage of various solid wastes the households generate per week.

Table 8 Types of Solid Wastes Generated

Type of solid waste

Location

Average, %

Amernur

% of the total SW generated

Jinela

% of the total

SW generated

Ash

23.10

23.85

23.475

Damaged & unusable HH things

0.75

0.85

0.800

Food

16.50

17.50

17.000

Grass

2.70

1.10

1.900

Paper

12.25

11.75

12.000

Plastic

22.30

22.10

22.200

Residue of Chat

18.10

19.75

18.925

Fibers

2.20

2.05

2.125

Wood

2.10

1.05

1.625

Total

100

100

100

Source: Own Survey 2009-10

Among them, the plastic waste is a big challenge to the authorities as it will not decompose for centuries together and it pollutes the environment and is the main cause of animal owes in the study area. People who burn it are exposed to toxic gas that may be fatal to the household members. Thus, various types of SW generation negatively affect the MSWM system in Harar city.

Health Hazards

It goes without saying that improper and inadequate MSWM will result in health hazards to the local population in general and those who live in proximity to garbage containers and near to pile of rubbish at the street corner and/or in secluded places right inside the dwelling houses. It is true to the case of Harar city. It is believed that several types of disease are prevalent in the city that are caused by decaying solid waste and pungent smell generated by the decayed solid wastes that are wide-spared in the city in general and in Amernur and Jinela Kebeles in particular.

According to Metaferia Consulting Engineers Plc. (2009) the city might be one of the oldest to have a health facility starting 1894 E.C. In 1997 E.C. public hospitals alone have the capacity to provide service for 656 inpatients. The health sector has 309 medical staffs in 1997 (E.C.) of which 180 men and 129 female. According to the 1997 (2004/05) health related indicators, the region has 3 health centers, 5 hospitals, 20 health posts, 23 clinics, 4 pharmacies, 13 drug shops and 3 Rural Drug Vendors. The health institutions are equipped with 656 beds (2004/05) and more than 300 qualified staff.

Moreover, the report of Harari Health Bureau (2008) points out that in the last twelve years acute upper respiratory, pneumonia, malaria and gastro-enteritis, intestinal infection, dysentery and infection of skin & subcutaneous tissue and other diseases that have affected the people of Harar and surrounding. It is widely believed by the public and supported by health institutions that came into being in the city in recent years, the magnitude of the problem seems high and there is an indication that emergence of these diseases is associate to solid waste management. The offensive smell of some places, as mentioned earlier, mismanaged liquid and solid waste along the open ditches and waste bins could cause such diseases. The following table gives the details of the 7 prevailing diseases that are believed to have been caused by weak MSWM system.

Table 9 Diseases that are Believed to be Caused by Weak MSWM System

No

Type of Disease

1987-1996

EC

1997-1999

EC

Total

Cases Registered

1

Acute Upper Respiratory Infection

46708

16813

63521

11

Dysentery

12268

3525

15793

6

Gastro Enteritis

32780

8661

41441

12

Infection of Skin & Subcutaneous Tissue

6831

3509

10340

8

Intestinal Infection

23502

0

23502

3

Malaria

37635

12897

50532

2

Pneumonia

41305

12879

54184

Source: Harari Health Bureau, 2008

The community in Harar city is aware of the link between MSWM and emergence of various diseases. Irrespective of their educational levels and socio-economic standards, the sample population strongly believes that weak SWM is largely responsible for the diseases that the community suffers from in the city. The following table depicts the views of the sample population’ views in this regard

Table 10 Views of Sample Population on MSWM caused Diseases

Serial Number

Name of the Disease

Samples from Amernur Kebele

Samples from Jinela

Kebele

Key Informants

at Amernur

Kebele

Key Informants

At

Jinela

Kebele

FGD held in

Amernur

Kebele

FGD held in Jinela

Kebele

1

Acute Upper Respiratory Infection

5

1

---

All agreed that all diseases except the disease Infection of Skin & Subcutaneous

Tissue are caused by weak MSWM practices

All except

One

(who had doubts on the direct link between MSWM and various diseases) agreed that all diseases except the disease dysentery

Are caused by weak MSWM practices

2

Dysentery

7

---

1

3

Gastro Enteritis

3

---

---

4

Infection of Skin & Subcutaneous

Tissue

4

---

1

5

Intestinal Infection

9

3

----

---

6

Malaria

20

22

3

2

7

Pneumonia

7

6

1

1

Total Samples

50+

50= N 100

5

5

All participants

All participants

Source: Own Survey 2009-10

It is evident from the facts cited above that MSWM and the out break of certain diseases in the city are linked. The facts mentioned above are too significant to be ignored. As we have looked at the photographs in chapter one of this project where the day to day life of the city inhabitants passes on in close sorority with the garbage collection containers, there is enough room to believe that the seven diseases cited above are caused by the weakness of the MSWM system in the city. The information collected from medical institutions at Harar and the Harari Health Bureau in this regard can not be set aside. Hence, it is rational to conclude that due to the inability of Harar municipal office to meet the current huge demand of SWM, the possibility for the outbreak of the said seven diseases in the city very much exists.

Impact of Household Income on SWM and Attitude of Households towards SWM in the absence of an Effective MSWM in the City

We have discussed in chapter two (literature review) that poverty/low income influences SWM system It is an accepted fact by all actors in the filed of SWM that the level of income that a household has plays a key role in SWM. The data collected from the samples selected for this project revealed the fact that the household income of the majority in the city is considered to be low. Taking the opportunities available in the city for income generation overall yearly income in the range of Birr 5000-9000 is fixed as low, Birr 9000-15000 as medium and above Birr 15000 as high for this project. However, HH annual income below Birr 5000 was also considered to include samples who live on handouts given by government and non-government organizations and whose income was erratic as they have no fixed means of income. Moreover, the aggregate income of all earning members of the household was taken into consideration in a given range of income. The city, especially the study areas Amernur and Jinela Kebeles, comprises civil servants, traders, daily wage earners such as brokers, taxi assistants (locally known as woyalas) and unskilled workers. The average minimum salary for civil servants of different categories, the minimum daily wage payable as per ILO (International Labor Organization) guidelines for daily wage earners and the prevailing rate of payment for unskilled workers in the city were the basis for fixing the above cited annual income ranges .the following table explains clearly the relationship that exists between HH income and SWM.

Moreover, when the municipal authority responsible for SWM could not pump effective services into MSWM, the modes of household level garbage collection, storage and disposal are negatively influenced. Data collected for this study support this idea as it is

explained in then following table.

Table 11 Household Income and Modes

of Solid Waste Collection,

Storage and Disposal

Garbage Collection Methods, Storage, Disposal at Households

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k)

Samples from Kebele

N=100

(50 from each Kebele)

Annual Income

Birr

<5000

(Low)

Annual Income

Birr

5000-9000

(Medium)

Annual Income

Birr

9000-15000

(High)

Annual Income

Birr

>15000

Air-tight cans

Use and Throw

Plastic bags

That HH members put into nearby container

Back Yard Pit with lid

Plastic Bucket with / without cover

Hiring Manpower to dispose garbage to the Municipal Container

Throw

at Street

corner

covered in a paper

Burn Properly at the back yard of house at regular intervals

Put into nearby sewerage

Collect in gunny bags for days together and empty them in culverts/

under road bridges

Put the waste into house latrines

Not worried about waste management

Amernur

1+

19+

25+

5=50

2

23

2

3

1

7

3

4

2

1

2

Jinela

3+

22+

16+

9= 50

1

20

1

2

2

5

0

6

7

4

2

Total

4+

41+

41+

14=100

3

43+

3+

5+

3+

12+

3+

10+

9+

5+

4=100Source: Own Survey 2009-10

This table above clearly shows the garbage generated by the household is disposed of in different modes.

46

This was because there wasn’t any fixed mode of collection by the MSWM system. It is evident that no garbage carrying vehicles come to a fixed place in the Kebele at a given period of time in a week. Hence, households are forced to dispose of the garbage accumulated in their own ways as dictated by their economic situations. As we see in the table above, there are people whose income exceeds Birr 15000 per annum. However, their total number (14) is not represented in the better ways of garbage collection and disposal (a, c and e) at household level. This may be due to the fact that the households handles the SWM in a way they feel fit and feasible as MSWM does not have any influence on them.

It is also evident that 36 households follow very dangerous modes of accumulation and disposal (f, h, i and j) of solid waste. The study revealed the fact that besides dictated by their economic conditions the inability of MSWM in the city also contributes towards these modes of collection, storage and disposal of SW by households which in turn cause the outbreak of such diseases we discussed in 3.6.3 above.

However, the table indicates the economic impact on SWM by household as we see only 3 out 100 samples selected hire manpower to carry the rubbish from their houses to the available garbage containers placed by municipal authorities which are in fact in appalling conditions as we see in the photographs in chapter one.

3.7 Information Dissemination

It is an undeniable fact that information availability and exchange mechanisms are vital to any field in today’s world. It goes without saying that information plays a major role to establish an effective MSWM in any given city or town. As we have seen in the second chapter, several literature reviews supported it and suggested several ways for information dissemination. An important aspect of effective MSWM is Public Private Partnership (PPP) which did not exit in Harar city. Several factors might be responsible for this scenario. Yet, the part played by information dissemination in this regard is vital. The following table explains more on this issue.

Table 12 Sources of Information Dissemination

Serial Number

HHs Base for Obtaining Information on MSWM

Amernur Kebele

Jinela Kebele

Frequently

Sometimes

Rarely

Not At All

I do not Know

Total

Households

Frequently

Sometimes

Rarely

Not At All

I do not Know

Total

Households

1

Social Participation Such As *Iquib, Mahabir and Cultural Meetings

0

10

23

12

5

50

1

15

20

11

3

50

2

Visiting Harar Municipality

0

0

5

43

2

50

1

2

5

41

1

50

3

Through Fliers and Notices

0

24

21

2

3

50

0

28

20

1

1

50

4

Special Kebele/Municipal Meetings Convened for Information Dissemination on MSWM

0

0

1

47

2

50

0

2

3

41

4

50

5

Newspaper Features

0

0

3

42

5

50

0

0

2

45

3

50

6

Eye Catching Public Advertisements in City Centers and Places of Large Gathering Such as Cinema Hall and Entertainment Places

0

0

5

35

10

50

0

0

6

36

8

50

7

Road Shows Explaining the Dangers of Inefficient SW Handling

0

0

0

48

2

50

0

0

0

49

1

50

8

On Electronic Media Such as Television and Radio

1

6

28

9

6

50

2

9

27

8

4

50

9

Propaganda by GOs and NGOs

0

0

8

40

2

50

0

0

5

41

4

50

10

Person to Person Exchange of Information

17

27

5

1

0

50

18

29

2

0

1

50

Source: Own Survey 2009-10 *Iquib = An informal household level micro saving activity Mahabir = Recognized Association

The table above revealed very interesting facts on the sources of public awareness creation on MSWM. In a quantitative study, scores should have been given for each option and the P value could have been calculated to bring out their significance levels of influence on MSWM.

It is quite oblivious from the table above that the public in Harar city in general and the sample households for this project in particular had no reasonable exposure to information on MWSM. Public advertisement campaign on MSWM as it is done in the case of HIV/AIDS and commercial products is not prevalent in the city. There are public entertainment places at Harar city where the public watch footfall matches and other social functions and national events. Nevertheless, it is obvious from the data collected in this regard that no effective and wide spread advertisement campaign was done on the mass media on MSWM in general. One could see several posture on various issues are displayed in the city at places of public attraction such as the entrance to the city, hotels, school compounds , road cut-outs and the like. Nevertheless, one hardly sees any such display on MSWM in the city. It was reported to the researcher during data collection that students from different institutions clean the city a couple of times in year which might not suffice the need to establish a well informed and strong based MSWM in the city. It may help create awareness that waste materials should be collected but it does not help much to create awareness on how those waste materials collected are kept hygienically and disposed off scientifically. Yet, it is heartening to note that the sample households had given the information that they share information on MSWM through person to person exchange of information. Fliers and notices came second with regard to information dissemination on MSWM. The data showed electronic media, advertisements, campaigns, and propaganda were not effective in this regard. It was also obvious that the Municipality could not conduct any road shows and street briefing, rather going to each household, to create a wider awareness on SWM.

3.8 Willingness to Pay

It is fact that willing to pay for MSWM depends mainly upon the economic status of the households. Hoover, data collected for this project identified other factors that influenced WTP of the households for MSWM services. As we see in the table 10, the annual income of 14 households fell in the category of high income group. Yet, only 3 households hired labor to dispose the accumulated household garbage appropriately. Thus, factors other than income had its influence towards WTP as shown in the tables below.

When the sample households were asked the percentage of their annual income that they were willing to pay for MSWM services, the responses received revealed the fact that most of the HHs are not willing to contribute any reasonable amount of money towards MSWM in the city. The enumerators and the researcher explained the importance of effective MSWM in terms of human, animal and environmental health, pollution and socio economic problems and obligations. Nevertheless, the willingness to pay by the households for MSWM was quite low or negligible.

Table 13 Willingness to Pay in Percentage of Annual income

Kebele

Households willingness to Pay in percentage of their respective annual Income

1-3 %

4-6%

7-9%

10%>

Not willing to pay

No response

for own reasons

Total households

Amernur

4

2

1

1

5

37

50

Jinela

5

1

1

0

3

40

50

Total HHs

100

Source: Own Survey 2009-10

Upon getting this data from the household, this fact was discussed in focus group discussion and in interviews with key informants. The views expressed by members of the focus group were very much similar to that of the key informants. Many reasons were cited in this regard and finally seven major reasons were selected and the numbers of key informants who supported each of them was recorded and eventually the views were ranked. The details are shown in the table below in this regard.

Table 14 Views of Key Informants towards Payment for MSWM Services

Serial Number

Views and Opinions

Number of Key Informants Supported from Amernur Kebele

n= 05+

Number of Key Informants Supported from

Jinela

Kebele

n = 05+

Total

From both Kebeles

N= 10

Rank

It should be

Provided free of cost utilizing tax money

4

5

9

1

Payment should be voluntary and of personal interest and capability

2

1

3

4

HHs are not major contributors to SW, hence they should not pay

5

4

9

1

Industries and Hospitals should pay for it

4

3

7

2

Only hotels, both small and big; government and private should be charged

3

3

6

3

Service minded NGOs should take care of it

2

1

3

4

International

Agencies should pay for it as MSWM is bad due to global warming and climate changes

1

0

1

5

Source: Own survey 2009-10

As shown in the table above the views “It should be provided free of cost utilizing tax money” and “HHs are not major contributors to SW, hence they should not pay” rank first. The views” Industries and hospitals should pay for it” ranks second whereas the view ´ Only hotels, both small and big; government and private should be charged” ranks third. The views” Payment should be voluntary and of personal interest and capability” and “Service minded NGOs should take care of it” rank fourth. The view “International

Agencies should pay for it as MSWM is bad due to global warming and climate changes” ranks fifth. As literature reviews suggest WTP is not only motivated by the economic standard of the HH, but also other collective views and opinions of the community involved go hand in hand with the findings of this project.

3.9 The Waste Pickers at the Dump Site

The researcher hand picked persons during his visit to the dumping site. They were one elderly man believed to be in his late fifties and an elderly woman believed to be in her early fifties, a young lady believed to be in her early twenties and two young boys believed to be in their twenties. In fact they were first frightened at the sight of researcher reaching the dumping site thinking that someone came from law enforcement agencies to catch them. Upon explanation by researcher on the purpose of his visit, they were cooperative to answer the questions raised. Most of the answers were similar and the following box represents the essence of the interview that gives us a bird’s eye view of the socio economic conditions of the garbage pickers.

It is a horrible fact that all of them making a living by picking solid wastes and selling them at any price offered to them by any one. They have no social life as such. They each the dumping site early in the morning and pick solid wastes until late in the afternoon. They go to market late in the afternoon and try to sell whatever they picked. Mostly they pick plastics and worn out textiles, empty bottles and packaged water containers. They get a meager amount of money for these materials. They have no permanent shelter and they live on the pavements. They beg in the street when they could not get o site due to rain and other reasons. It is physically visible that all of them are suffering from both chronic and acute diseases and they openly admit that they have diseases. They are well aware that what they do is a dangerous job and they continue doing it as they have no alternatives for their livelihood. All of them are illiterates and they have no family as such. They are greatly exposed to toxic gas emission from the dump and quite frequently they are injured in the process of collection by broken glasses and other sharp edged materials; yet, they can not give it up as their very survival very much depends on the job they are doing. They are exposed to social evils and the women especially are exposed to sexual abuses and molestation. Moreover, they believe that they are out-castes and the community looks down on them. It is also a fact that they are greatly interested to get away from solid waste picking from the garbage dump and go for an alternate livelihood. However, no such opportunity is available at present to rehabilitate them. They have no access to any medical facility as such. Occasionally they treated at government hospitals. Presently No non government organization works in the city to assist peoples of these kinds. Very rarely they are given food handouts by any donor agencies. Their life is a pity to all; nevertheless, none comes forward to reduce their social and physical agony. Despite the facts mentioned above, they remain grateful to some individuals who extend them helping hands at times. They said it natural that they fight among themselves, if not frequently, on the issue of ownership for the solid waste picked especially when the picked item is expected to fetch good price such as a small gold or silver ornament or a valet that contains money. The two elderly individuals involved in this job for over 30 years.

3.10 The Dump Sites

The dump sites are not far away from the city. It is fact that no body wants it at the back of their houses. Yet, the present dump sites are very close to the out skirts of the city. As the city is fast expanding, very soon these dump sites will become part of the city. As we discussed in chapter one, during rainy seasons they contaminate the water supply, thus pose health hazards to the public. The toxic substances that come out these dump sites are believed to be great. The dump sites are not even properly fenced; hence wind and animals bring the rubbish back into the city. As any effective disposal mechanism does not exist in the city at present, these garbage dumps decay in time and pollute the air that the public breathe. They also breed misquotes. The sample households, key informants and the municipal workers have expressed their serious concern in this regard. All expect that this problem should be addressed sooner than later taking the well being of the public into consideration. Moreover, the rubbish in the dump site is burnt by the garbage collectors for several reasons at regular intervals. Thus, there is ample chance that the fire may spread to the neighborhood if it is not properly extinguished. Further, when the hard plastic pieces are burnt, they emanate hazardous gases that are very much dangerous to human health when breathed. Some air-born diseases are spread by the dump sites frequently during climate changes. Some vipers make the dump site as their home and threaten humans. Domestic animals such as cows and oxen stray over the dump sites and eat the plastic bags that make them sick. The foul smell comes out of the dumps spreads common clod and allergy to scores of people in the city. Harar is a historical city of international fame and the very sight of these dump sites would be unpleasant to the eyes of the tourists who bring in considerable amount of foreign currency. The oozing liquid from the dump site slowly but steadily seeps into the nearby all weather and asphalted roads and lesson their span of life. As the amount of garbage increases at the end of each day, it is obvious the number of dump sites will also increase and eventually necklace the city to the interest and liking of none. All the households, members of focus group discussions and the personnel interviewed for this project are well aware of this problem and apprehensive about the well being of Harar of tomorrow.

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