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Computer Forensics And Security Of The Network Information Technology Essay

Abstract

Project Plan

I intend to investigate the existing computer network in the assistive technology suite in LSS (Newcastle College Learning Support Service). The focus will be on security issues where I can act in a consultancy role.

I had an introduction meeting with the co-ordinator of LSS assistive technology (Mr. Ian Slater) who agreed the exercise will be useful. Date 10th November 2010

I have allocated time slots for the different aspects of the investigations and recommendations as shown in the Gantt chart in appendix 1.

My end product will be recommendations in a report form:

I will be investigating their computer security for example does it have URL website blocking, any anti-virus programs, what firewalls they are using, end users passwords and security for administrators and students. This should highlight areas for improvements in my opinion and how secure their website security is and what recommendations I can or will give for their needs

Is their physical security good enough, if not I can give some thoughts for improvements for physical security.

What type of network topology are they using, do they prefer to have that topology or a different type of topology

Examples of areas I could look at include:-

What passwords and password protection are in place

Any software or hard ware blocking activity on any of the ports

What Anti-Virus programs are used on the system (anti - virus programs scan files and memory for viruses but not hackers)

Bandwidth – is there bandwidth management? Bandwidth controls should be in place to stop bandwidth guzzling downloads and resulting in congestion of the system (cyber-roam burs table bandwidth managements can prevent this)

Location of routers or switches, location of servers

Firewalls/additional firewalls - (firewalls are used to stop hackers mostly VIA the internet but also via the LAN but it must not block authorised access) e.g. Black Ice Defender or Zone Alarm Pro. Zone alarm Pro can also block pop-ups. Pop – ups can slow down your internet connection as they increase the amount of data to be downloaded

Internet access – filters or blacklist sites

Network Cabling – Check that the system is well set out with neat minimal cabling installed

Would it be wireless or Ethernet or both

Type of download speeds – Is the internet switched on all the time (is there a modem left running so the system keeps the same IP address for long periods? This would give the hackers more opportunities to return to the system)

What topology are they using? star, bus, ring, mesh or tree

Type of download speeds – internet is switched on all the time (is there a modem left running so the system keeps the same address for long periods? This would give the hackers more opportunities to return to the system)

Analysis of existing system

The overall college system network is staffed by group I.T. development manager (Neil Gow). IT development manager (Neale White). 5th floor Parsons other Personnel with various responsibilities.

The LSS Network is part of a much larger system. It is only a small sector of the network which covers the Newcastle College main site, West End College, the Sandeford site, Ormskirk and Skelmersdale Colleges in Lancashire and the Sheffield based National Training and Employability Organisation “in training”. So there is an estimate of 75,000 computers around the site. There is a blackboard network, one for student’s access and one for the administrative staff.

Ian traced to me their switch which was outside of the room and straight on to the next class room about 20 meters, in that class room there was a cupboard with a switch inside. For some details the class room wasn’t locked and the cupboard wasn’t as well

In the LSS suite is the following equipment:-

20 desk top Computers

Scanners

An alternate formats production area

Printers

Fax

Other specialist software and equipment available for students which the assistive technology department provides is:-

Hardware:

Laptop Computers - Available to any students who have been assessed as requiring one.

Specialist Keyboards and Mouse Alternatives

19" TFT Displays - Eliminates glare from the screen

Software:

Screen Reading and Magnification Software for computer users who are blind or partially sighted. Currently this includes Jaws, Zoom text and Supernova

Specialist software for dyslexic students - Text help Read, Write Gold, Inspiration and Kurzweil

Specialist Voice Input Software - Trains your voice and then inputs your words onto the computer; this includes Dragon Dictate

EaseReader Software - Enables user to listen and navigate audio files.

Other Equipment:

Portable Electronic Magnification Devices - A range of portable magnifiers, which can be used to read text etc.

Audio Electronic Spellchecker/Dictionary/Thesaurus

Audio calculators and talking scientific calculator

Dictaphones/Digital recorders and transcription pedals.

Students will also have access to or will benefit from:

Closed Circuit Televisions (CCTVs) - To enlarge text and pictures on screen

Braille Embosser - To convert documents to Braille format

Hotspot Thermo-fuser - To produce tactile diagrams

Dolphin Producer Software - Converts Word files into audio format

Scanners/OCR software - To convert documents to a preferred format

The physical computer security doesn’t have any chains to secure their Desktop and monitor, therefore their Desktop can be unscrewed the same goes for the monitor, but it can be locked at night.

As part of my analysis of the present system I performed the following tasks:-

Checked the firewall security (from a website called www.auditmypc.com

Date scanned: Wednesday December 1st, 2010 - 11:02:38 AM

Firewall results

Congratulations! None of the ports you scanned for were open!

Symantec AntiVirus

Cannot do much since I have restricted access to use the PC, meaning limited access for downloading, changing settings, or breaking into the system as it was saying to display these settings you would have to access to an administrator to change its settings.

Which browser is being used?

If it is Microsoft Explorer which predefined security level is it set at (see screen shot p77)

Have there been any security problems with the present system – either in LSS or in the wider college network?

Where is the server room? Is it in a secure room? Who has access to the room, security cameras?

Track user activity using the event viewer to find audit logs. Checking for any suspicious activity (see p506 scene of the Cybercrime) and websites http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc751488.aspx

This explains how you can get an auditing security events overview

There are some software tools that you can buy to see if your computer is secure such as Microsoft baseline security analyser (MBSA) for Windows XP and Vista. After the scan it gives you a report. You can install it on:-

http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=B1E76BBE-71DF-41E8-8B52-C871D012BA78

Recommendations (Product) for security improvements or concerns with the present system

I tried to consider the type of data that needs to be secured, but it is difficult to decide what data can be more valuable than other data, e.g. should student’s data be better protected than college administrator’s data?

The more you tighten data security e.g. with high level encryption the less accessible it is to students or administrative staff. A balance has to be struck with the possibility of different layers of security, with extra security for certain types of data. Should users have quicker access and less security or more security and slower access? I noted that the physical security could be improved. The Ethernet cable is clearly visible outside the LSS room where the cable links to the switch cabinet. Data signals could be intercepted here. I would recommend that when fibre optic cable becomes more widely available this should be used. Fibre optic is difficult to tap into as it uses pulses of light rather than electrical pulses to represent the binary 0’s and 1’s, but keep the cable well hidden. The switches cabinet was in a lockable room (I presume the servers, hubs and routers are in locked secure rooms)

Firewalls and password protection are present on all computers used by students in the LSS suite. This should keep unauthorised users out of the system, but for added safety, just in case a hacker breaks into the system, I would recommend some method of encryption of certain sensitive or even all data. This could be as simple as using an algorithm to change all text into meaningless symbols to anyone who hasn’t a decryption key.

I would advised that the manager looks at “RFC 2196 Network Security Recommendations” it explains in detail about the importance of firewalls and how firewalls often consist of 2 components – filtering routers and proxy servers. Where the proxy server can be configured to encrypt data streams, or filter traffic for example by IP Address, if everything is alright the proxy server will connect a client with the sever they requested. If the proxy server doesn’t validate the requests then the client will not be connected to the requested website or files.

(http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2196.html)

I would also recommend that the LSS administrators look at the METASPLOIT toolkit version 3.5.1 which is a fully integrated suite of tools to test the vulnerability of your software, especially penetration testing rather than web based vulnerabilities.

(See www.dbeBooks.com- an EBook library for free EBook download)

For example this provides tools to enable the administrator to give a patch check to see if they have all been installed to make the machines less vulnerable. It will also test firewalls and other installed software security tools, such as one tool that lets you launch an attack on a treat.

METASPLOIT also interface with other scanners such as Nmap and Nessus, the only drawback is that it does not give the tester a comprehensive report of the vulnerabilities discovered. The older version on METASPLOIT were written in Perl code but the newer version 3.5.1 was written in Ruby, the supported platforms include Windows but you do need version 1.8.1 of the Ruby Interpreter.

The assistive technology network is already subject to the following checks:-

Web Blocker/filter Reports

Top 20 report showing the top 20 domains visited by users

Blocked URL attempts showing users who have attempted to access blocked URLs

Content Management

Inappropriate content report to identify inappropriate content, the location of the file, user who created it

Scan for MP3 and MPEG Report –specified categories of files (which has a major impact on legal liability and storage capacity)

Security Reports

File Scan on Threats Report showing files posing a danger to network security

Threat Alerts which automatically alerts Network Services when an identifiable threat has been introduced onto any component of the network

IT asset Management

Installed Software Summary showing all installed software on a particular machine

Operating System Summary showing all installed operating systems, serial numbers and service packs

Hardware/Software changes showing these changes over a given period

Machine Configuration an overview of each machine’s installed software, hardware, and summary of disk usage

E-mail Filter (to block inappropriate content and spam)

Biggest emails sent

Largest volume of email sent

Most emails received

Most emails sent

Spam summary

The idea is to cut college costs involving the unnecessary storage of multi-media content e.g. personal data, and Music as well as security. I would also recommend a sector of wireless networking, but because this technology uses radio frequencies it can make hacking easier to do than in a cabled network. This is because signals are not contained within the walls of a building, but wireless technology security is improving with wireless connectivity requiring extra identification from a user, also they often use more sophisticated encryption of data. There are also some issues with Hotspots as everyone is now using hotspots with their laptops, Iphones or any wireless equipment.

Advantages of wireless

If the college buys a brand new laptop for the LSS, whatever model or brand the laptop is it will almost certainly have a wireless support device built in e.g. wireless network adapter.

It doesn’t require any network plug – Ethernet

At first you need to have a DSL or cable modem, if you have one of them, then the wireless gateway will operate.

The wireless gateway is a device that allows a computer or any other internet devices to access to the internet connection.

It sometimes has a firewall function. The firewall isolates a PC from someone trying to access the connection by unauthorized computers on the internet, while you still can access the internet

A router is a hardware device or a software program that allows communication between computers on the personal network and the Internet.

You can get yourself any type of router gateway that works with a built in 802.11b, this will work for most wireless laptops

If you have a router the laptop will search for its SSID (Service Set Identifier) by any wireless manufactures and it is a case-sensitive name that uniquely identifies the network.

For my recommendations for routers would be CISCO as it’s the most popular and widely known Network Company

http://www.cisco.com/cisco/web/UK/solutions/small_business/products/wireless/small_business_wireless_access_points/index.html-tab-Models

Once you have set up the connection you should always set up a WEP (Wireless Encryption Password) key as this prevents casual snoopers from accessing into the network But

To be really secure I would recommend the Wi-Fi Protected Access System (WPA).

See Appendix A

The WEP key would be at the back for the router or you would get a card with a WEP key on it so you can type down the WEP to connect to the internet

Another way to limit your exposure to casual snoopers on your wireless network is to configure the wireless gateway to only allow specific wireless cards to connect to it.

This is done by using physical or media access control (MAC) address access control lists. Each manufacturer of wireless gateways has a slightly different way of doing it, but virtually all of them let you create a list of MAC addresses that can use your gateway.

If you are really interested in Wi-Fi security as I am, you could look into the use of public key certificates.

See Appendix B

I would also recommend checking that the windows encrypting system is on

File System in Windows have a built in Encrypting File System

Encrypting offline files in Windows XP, you can encrypt downloaded files which are copied to a folder onto the hard disk of your local computer for added security. In Windows XP Professional theses offline files are stored in a client-side cache. To encrypt the offline files database on your Windows XP computer (all the files in the database will be encrypted not just selected ones).

Click start

Click control panel

Click folder options

Click offline files

Click enable offline files option

Click encrypt offline files to secure data

Click ok

But EFS does not protect data while it is being transferred across a network, it only protects stored data in the client-side cache. A user has to have the key to open a file. If they don’t have the key an “Access Denied” error message pops up. During transport the file travels in decrypted plain text form. If keys or data is lost or damaged in Windows XP there are recovery agent’s procedures using EFS. The advanced file properties in Windows XP give you this information. You can disable EFS for Windows XP Professional by clearing the checkboxes in the property page of the local security policy public key policy.

EFS keys are protected by user’s password. Any user who can obtain the user ID and password can log on as that user and decrypt that user’s files. Therefore, a strong password policy is needed alongside the encryption.

Summary of Advantages

So the advantages are that it is cable free with no clumsiness , as there is no need for Ethernet cable to connect computers to each other

You can use the laptop around the LSS, can be around anywhere so access to the network can be from anywhere within range of an access point.

Easier to download patches and other material onto the laptops if wireless.

It is easier to add or move workstations.

Installation is fast and easy, and it can eliminate the need to pull cable through walls and ceilings

A WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) can avoid the need to drill holes in walls in the college campus.

Disadvantages

As the number of laptops being used with the network increases, the data transfer rate to each computer will decrease accordingly.

If you have an older laptop the standard will change so is it possible to replace the wireless cards or access points?

The lower wireless bandwidth, some applications like videos streaming will be more effective on a wired LAN.

Sometimes the security is more difficult and does require some configurations

Some devices have limited working distance from an access point, so depending on the distance, intervening buildings and other obstacles between the access point and the user, the lower the signal your connection has.

Attack Trees

I have tried to find the most vulnerable areas which could be open to attack, these are:-

Virus runs as an administrator

Virus infects a file

Virus runs as normal person

Other infected programs

Virus infects install package

Admin downloads and runs infected naked binary

Virus exploits root hole

Virus runs by an admin

User downloads and runs infected naked binary

Other infected programs

Learn Password

Computer System

Hack into the system

Find a way

Take the Computer system

Found password

Retrieve files

Bribe some one

Brute force

Find ports

Use software Nmap

Plant virus

Gain access to their system

Gain access via internet

Find sensitive information from the database server

Gain physical access to data centre

Server’s subnet generally accessible

Port 1434 open for General Traffic though Firewall

Access server from workstation

Evaluation and Conclusion of the Report

I followed some quality management principles:-

I involved my client by meeting him on various occasions in the LSS

My client was happy with the security issues I was investigating and was enthusiastic about introducing wireless network.

My project was an individual effort by myself so I hadn’t to motivate a team or a complicated Gantt chart

My advice on security was my product i.e. the report

I was self motivated and obtained good ideas from research on the internet, books and guidance from my course lectures

I observed end users of the LSS computers but didn’t involve them in my security research as it wasn’t going to change their work pattern in the near future. If the proposals were definitely taking place in the future I would have costed it out, but felt it wasn’t too appropriate in the present scenario I would discuss this in the future if my recommendations were acted on, if installed the system could be modified as technology changes and future products come on the market. I think I have a good relationship with my client and could meet any future needs of his network security, and deal with them in a professional manner.

After our meetings and reading the recommendations Ian said he was now more aware of the security threats, malware detection and software tools. Although Ian doesn’t know if there is much hacking at the moment as this information would be confidential.

LSS have locked down data bases which contain confidential student’s details (background information on students very confidential). College is keen on locking down and allowing limited and differential access, in college you have to agree to the uses policy.

He was interested to know the sources of some of the information and I explained that I had spoken to other I.T. administrative staff in college e.g. computer help desk staff.

Ian did say that Newcastle College LSS assistive technology only buys into the service from the College group’s service. He thought the report for security is in depth and looks at different areas and likes the idea of wireless, for easier access for students.

Ian still thinks a new system should be all wireless e.g. smart devices, checking E-mails ,blackboard for course details and communicating with tutors.

Although I have enjoyed my experience and the co-operation I have received during my investigation in the LSS, I cannot really test many of my thoughts on how to make the present system more secure. Ideally, if I had access to more specialist tools, I should be able to justify my recommendations by doing some common attacks that real hackers use, such as key loggers etc, but I have done some security auditing using the inbuilt XP software, I have also made attack trees to illustrate how 24/7 broadband connections can be attacked. Also how web browsers and web servers are vulnerable to attacks. I checked whether the LSS web server was secure from the LSS local area network, also I checked whether the operating system received up to date patches to help keep the LAN secure. I used audit logs to demonstrate how you can track user’s activity on the Windows XP System and look for any suspicious behaviour. The event viewer is a starting point to look for any suspicious activity. If an investigator gets overwhelmed with data I showed how filters could be used such as displaying only events that occurred on a specific date. (See p506 – scene of the cyber crime)

www.microsoft.com/TechNet/prodtechnol/winxppro/proddocs/audit_overview.asp

For XP configuration via the “system monitor” in the “performance administrative tool” or get a software package such as IPsentry – this monitors event logs and sends alerts when needed. (www.IPsentry.com)

Reflective diary

Reflective diary

1st December

LSS Observation of the present system

List of facilities –

Computer Hard ware

Software

Security features

Interact with users or observe users

What I found –

Today I went down to the LSS to have a meeting with Ian Slater to discuss the facilities.

The LSS Network is part of a much larger intranet system. It is only a small sector of the network which covers the Newcastle College main site, West End College, the Sandeford site, Ormskirk and Skelmersdale Colleges in Lancashire. So an estimate of 75,000 computers around the site.

Ian traced to me their switch which was outside of the room and straight on to the next class room about 20 meters, in that class room there was a cupboard with a switch inside. For some details the class room wasn’t locked although the cupboard wasn’t as well

In the LSS suite is the following equipment has:-

20 desk top Computers

Operating system - XP

Scanners

An alternate formats production area

Printers

Fax

Other specialist software and equipment available for students which the assistive technology department provides is:-

Hardware:

Laptop Computers - Available to any students who have been assessed as requiring one.

Specialist Keyboards and Mouse Alternatives

19" TFT Displays - Eliminates glare from the screen

Software:

Screen Reading and Magnification Software for computer users who are blind or partially sighted. Currently this includes Jaws, Zoom text and Supernova

Specialist software for dyslexic students - Text help Read, Write Gold, Inspiration and Kurzweil

Specialist Voice Input Software - Trains your voice and then inputs your words onto the computer; this includes Dragon Dictate

EaseReader Software - Enables user to listen and navigate audio files.

Other Equipment:

Portable Electronic Magnification Devices - A range of portable magnifiers, which can be used to read text etc.

Audio Electronic Spellchecker/Dictionary/Thesaurus

Audio calculators and talking scientific calculator

Dictaphones/Digital recorders and transcription pedals.

Students will also have access to or will benefit from:

Closed Circuit Televisions (CCTVs) - To enlarge text and pictures on screen

Braille Embosser - To convert documents to Braille format

Hotspot Thermo-fuser - To produce tactile diagrams

Dolphin Producer Software - Converts Word files into audio format

Scanners/OCR software - To convert documents to a preferred format

The physical computer security doesn’t have any chains to secure their Desktop and monitor, therefore their Desktop can be unscrewed same goes to the monitor, but it can be locked at night

I have scanned for firewall tests with a quick scan from a website called www.Auditmypc.com, the results were:-

Scan Results for 212.219.49.2

Date scanned: Wednesday December 1st, 2010 - 11:02:38 AM

Firewall results

Congratulations! None of the ports you scanned for were open!

Symantec AntiVirus

Cannot do much since I have restricted access to use the PC, meaning limited access for downloading, changing settings, or breaking into the system as it was saying to display these settings you would have to access to an administrator to change its settings.

08 December 2010

A meeting with Ian, some questions to ask and investigate:-

Questions

I would like to find out the extent of connectivity of the intranet to find the internet, and if this is 24/7 connectivity. 24/7 connectivity does make the network more vulnerable to outside attacks.

Also if you don’t “power down” your system it gives a hacker more time to carry out a “Brute Force Attack” (appendix explaining these?) to find your password or find out which ports are open to attack.

What are the broadband speeds? – high speeds allow hackers to download data very quickly and you need high levels of security

Each host computer in LSS seems connected to the internet which probably means their IP (do appendix on IP and Mac addresses) addresses doesn’t change which may allow hackers to have easier access to your files, some broadband providers can provide dynamic IP addresses that change on a regular basis e.g. every day. This would prevent someone attacking your data over long periods. Windows XP does come with built in Firewall software (see screenshot)

The present LSS network is built in Ethernet cabling. Are there any plans for or is there already any wireless networking? (see p68 in scene of the Cybercrime – Debra and Littlejohn Shinder)

How to protect the wireless connection p71 and chapter 8

Which browser is being used?

If it is Microsoft Explorer which predefined security level is it set at (see screen shot p77)

Have there been any security problems with the present system – either in LSS or in the wider college network?

Where is the server room? Is it in a secure room? Who has access to the room, security cameras?

Track user activity using the event viewer to find audit logs. Checking for any suspicious activity (see p506 scene of the Cybercrime) and websites http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc751488.aspx this explains how you can get an auditing security events overview

There are some software tools that you can buy to see if your computer is secure such as Microsoft baseline security analyser (MBSA) for Windows XP and Vista. After the scan it gives you a report. You can install it on:-

http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.aspx?FamilyID=B1E76BBE-71DF-41E8-8B52-C871D012BA78

16th December 2010

Asked if LSS has wireless? – Answer was no!

They can’t update the software on the laptops because of patches security etc.

They lend students laptops but they haven’t got wireless on them although the library has wireless but not in the LSS

As Ian said that he would love to have wireless in the LSS and Ian would like to know the advantages of the wireless e.g.

Downloading software updates on to the laptops,

How many laptops they have top loan out

What type of laptops they have got

6th January 2011

Asked Ian for some information on some of the existing system - e.g. hardware, software and other equipments

20 desk top Computers

Scanners

An alternate formats production area

Printers

Fax

12th January 2011

Ian Slater (LSS Assistive Technology co-ordinator) – 12/1/11

Hello Ian,

I would be very grateful if you would read my recommendations and give me a bit of feedbacks. (Even criticisms will be welcome!)

Regards

James Weetman

Comments

*updated* read the next page from the feedback given from Ian

20th January 2011

Minutes of meeting with Ian Slater

Submitted to Ian my recommendations for the Assistive Technology part of the Learning Support Service. I outlined briefly what the main recommendations were. I said that I had focused mainly on wireless security as Ian was particularly interested in this area. Ian thought wireless networks were the future using Iphones, Blackberries, notebook, and Ipads. I left a hard copy of the recommendations as he wanted to study them and give proper feedback at our next meeting scheduled for 20th January 2011.

20th January 2011

Minutes of final project feedback meeting with Ian Slater

Ian said he thought the report could provide useful information for the future expansion and update of his system. He did comment that his assistive technology dept only buys into the service provided by the Newcastle College Group and he could only give suggestions to the head of service. We discussed the importance of student’s details and data security.

if there was much hacking at the moment

he was interested in the sources of my information

we discussed wireless technology and that this is still the way forward in his opinion

Appendices

Appendix A

If you need a high level of security I would recommend WPA or even WPA2 rather than WEP.

Problems with WEP

Initialisation Vector (IV) values can be reused, weak IV’s do not produce sufficiently random data for the first few bytes. WEP keys give hackers a lot of time as they don’t change frequently as it is difficult to change them so users often don’t bother.

There are two kinds of WEP keys 64 Bits and 128 Bits encryption keys, the longer the key the higher the level of security would be.

WPA

WPA used TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) TKIP is designed to allow WEP to be upgraded, IV values can be reused. Different secret key are used for each packet of data. The master keys are never used directly in WPA, WPA uses a message integrity check (MIC). In theory there is a one in a million chance of guessing the code

WPA2

WPA2 offers the best long term Wi–Fi Security solution, this is the new 802.11i standard. It is incompatible with existing WEP equipment. It has AES, CCMP (Advanced Encryption Standard is the standard use by RSN.) CCMP is the security protocol used by AES, it is the equivalent of TKIP in WPA. One of the worst aspects of WEP was the management of the secret keys.

Appendix B

Public Key Certificates

These are digital certificates. They are electronic credentials that are used to certify the online identities of individuals, computers and other entities on a network. Digital certificates function similarly to ID cards such as passport and driving licenses, they are issued by certificates authorities (CA) used in encryption and digital signing.

The protocol in 802.1X is called EAP ,authenticating data passing over a wired or wireless LAN.

EAP (Extendible Authentication Protocol Transport Layer Security)

With 802.1X you package EAP messages to Ethernet frames and don’t use Point to Point Protocol. (PPP)

EAP data is first encapsulated in EAPOL frames between the Supplicant and Authenticator, and then re-encapsulated between the Authenticator and the Authentication server using RADIUS or Diameter. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802.1X) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1f/802.1X_wired_protocols.png

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