Client Server P2P
P2P versus Client server networks
1.1 About Peer-to-Peer network architecture & the motivating factors for the development.
In view of some resources, Peer-to-Peer which stand for P2P and it is a type of network in which each workstation has same functions and responsibilities. The difference from client or server where a few computers are devoted to serving the others. More, P2P networks are simple and the performance ,that they provided usually are not the same when under heavy load.
Apart from that, let talk about the advantages of P2P network. Because of in Peer-to-Peer there have no distinguish between server and client so that a centralized index server is not required when the peers to find the data. Besides, P2P network can enhances robustness to prevent of a failures by replicating data over multiple peers. On the other hand, many small business have to come to rely on this cost-effective solution. For example: Sharing files with co-workers and clients.
in which they can get and updated confidential files efficiently and working together when they're not located in the same office. Moreover, companies can block access to prevent somebody from internal to access the internet music and video files aim to assist in maintaining a work-oriented P2P network also it can help the company to keep clear from legal issues and it also maintains reducing the usage of the corporate bandwidth.
1.2 Three major types of P2P networks.
P2P networks can be classified by what they can be used for:
For file sharing - A type likes collaborative computing as it referred to as distributed computing, which is combines the free disk space of many computers in the network and/or rest or unused CPU processing power. This technology is very welcome for science and biotechnology organizations. An example of distributed computing can be found at GRID.ORG where United
Devices is hosing virtual screening for cancer research on the Grid MP platform. Ultimately, this
project has become into the largest computational chemistry project in history. In addition, most
distributed computing networks are created by users volunteering their unused computing resources to contribute to public interest research projects.
For communication - A type likes Instant Messaging, is a software applications such as AOL Instant Messenger, MSN Messenger... also it is a very common form of P2P networking. They allow users to chat over the internet or internal network in real-time via a text-based platform.
On top of that, now they involve other features like can see the others by using web-cams or talking to the others directly for free over the internet.
Another example - Affinity communities is the group of P2P networks that is based on file sharing and became widely known and talked about due to the public legal issues surrounding the direct file sharing group, Napster. Affinity Communities are based on users collaborating and searching other user's computers for information and files.
1.3 Three vulnerabilities particularly linked with P2P technologies.
Because of P2P is like a network free-for-all so that user can connect directly to each other therefore it may be case threatened by malicious traffic. On the other hand, when using P2P on a corporate network may face to having other P2P users downloading files from computer your may cause clog your company's network bandwidth. Moreover, P2P networks contain a mix of clients that it doesn't designed for handle heavy traffic as a dedicated server can suffer from availability issues. Also, some P2P networks can't handle the loads of their stronger client server.
In terms of security problem, while user want to sharing their files by using P2P client software to join a P2P network like Bitorrent. However, some users in order to convenience they would shared their “c “driver as their shared files folder so that everybody on the P2P network can access or see all the files and sometime they
may download some P2P network software from an unknown area which contains virus or Trojan . In short, P2P network is not secure and we should use P2P software very carefully.
In terms of confidentially, because of some P2P networks didn't provide any encryption so that the data can be decrypt by hacker. Also, P2P network can be concealed lots of malicious software and spreading viruses so that we should monitor for unwanted traffic from outside the network.
1.4 Common approaches for building trust relationship between entities on
Regarding, P2P network is not secure enough. We can control the gates of the network by authentication approach, which is the process of determining what are they and force to the users logon by their passwords in which to identify the user is authentic. Also a web of Web of authentication needs to be set up to only let trusted clients to communicate with each other. And they can be identified through certificates or key exchanges.
1.5 Software tools employed to develop trust for a client, a server and the client server network.
XML Based technologies
2.1 The difference between the server side development and service development.
The server-side development is designed for putting software components that serve the visitors visiting a particular website sometime it is used to provide interactive web sites that interface to database or other date stores whereas, in service centric developed can be
Put into distributed servers that can be invoked anywhere within a network.
- The difference between the deployment objectives of XML and HTML.
XML was designed to transport and store date whereas HTML was designed to display data.. The difference between XML and HTML are XML is a markup language similar to HTML and its tags are case sensitive, but XML can't replace HTML because they were designed with different sakes. Where HTML was designed focus on how data looks, while XML was designed focus on what date is. In short, HTML is about displaying information, while XML is about carrying information. And XML has an unique characteristic which can allow you invent your own tags whereas HTML can only allow you using their standard tags. XML can be used in HTML document and you can separates data from HTML by using XML, so that data can be stored in a separate XML files can let you concentrate on your layout by using HTML.
- Why a well formed XML document may, or may not, be a valid document.
A Well formed XML document means it has correct syntax while a valid document means it has well formed characteristic also conforms to the rules of a Document Type
Definition (DTD) or XML Schema. So that a well formed XML document without against a DTD or XML Schema then we can't say it is a valid document. The following are showing the difference more clearly.
<!ELEMENT Student ( Student+ ) >
<!ELEMENT Student ( Name, Projects, Email, PhoneNumbers, Address ) >
<!ATTLIST Student sex NMTOKEN #REQUIRED >
<!ELEMENT Name ( First, Last ) >
<!ELEMENT First ( #PCDATA ) >
<!ELEMENT Last ( #PCDATA ) >
<!ELEMENT Title ( #PCDATA ) >
<!ELEMENT Projects ( Project+ ) >
<!ELEMENT Project ( #PCDATA ) >
<!ELEMENT Email ( #PCDATA ) >
<!ELEMENT PhoneNumbers ( Home, Office, Cell ) >
<!ELEMENT Home ( #PCDATA ) >
<!ELEMENT Office ( #PCDATA ) >
<!ELEMENT Cell ( #PCDATA ) >
<!ELEMENT Address ( Street, City, State, Zip ) >
<!ELEMENT Street ( #PCDATA ) >
<!ELEMENT City ( #PCDATA ) >
<!ELEMENT State ( #PCDATA ) >
<!ELEMENT Zip ( #PCDATA ) >
<?xml version='1.0' standalone='yes'?>
<Street>11 London Street</Street>
Does it show valid? It looks like valid because it conforms to DTD. However , because it doesn't contain a document type declaration also the parser contains no DTD to compare with the document instance also we can't to determine its validity. Therefore, it is not valid but it is well formed.
<?xml version='1.0' standalone='no'?>
<!DOCTYPE Employees SYSTEM "employee.dtd" >
<!-- aka: Melanie Haber, Audrey Farber, Susan Underhill, Nancy -->
<Street>321 Carmel Court</Street>
For this document is well formed and valid because it conforms to the structure defined by the DTD.
History of HTML
HTMLwas developed from the prototype written by Tim Berners-Lee in 1992, who was the inventor of the Web.
Extensible Markup Language, abbreviated XML, describes a class of data objects called XML documents and partially describes the behavior of computer programs which process them. XML is an application profile or restricted form of SGML, the Standard Generalized Markup Language [ISO 8879]. By construction, XML documents are conforming SGML documents.( http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml/#sec-intro)
Differences between XML and HTML
· XML allows new elements to be defined by the programmer.
· XML separates presentation from data
· Web browsers forgive poor html, but you can not form bad xml.
· XML is case-sensitive.
· HTML is for web browsers, XML is for any sort of data transfer.
· It is harder to present data given as XML.
XML is not a replacement for HTML. XML and HTML were designed with different goals:
XML was designed to describe data and to focus on what data is. HTML was designed to display data and to focus on how data looks.
HTML is about displaying information, XML is about describing information.
3. Task 3 DNS
3.1 Define the terms network ID and subnet mask.
Let me introduce to subnet before introducing network ID. The subnet is short form for sub-network, is a smaller network within a larger one. And a “broadcast domain”, means the smallest subnet that contains no subdivisions and directly relate with a single LAN segment on an Ethernet switch.
And Subnets are divided into two parts, the number at the first part is always even and the other part is always odd. In fact, the first part is the Network ID and the other part is called Broadcast ID. And they both have special meaning with special purpose in which you are not allowed to use. The Network ID is designed for a particular subnet, and the Broadcast ID is listened by every device on a subnet.
In terms of subnet mask, which is a number used to determined using binary and used to determine the size of a subnet.. On the other hand, it can determine all of the end points on the subnet. Because of its function is literally masks out the host bits and leaves only the beginning of Network ID of the subnet so that it is called a subnet mask. And you can know how big of the subnet that you have known the beginning of the subnet. Also you can determine the end of the Broadcast ID.
3.2 Identify the class of IP addresses that will be used for an organization having a network of computers between 1000 to 1500.
In my opinion, I think class B would be suitable whereas class A has about 16.7 million host addresses because of its default subnet is 255.0.0.0 so that it is too much for that case. Moreover, class C has 256 hosts and its default subnet is 255.255.255.0 so that it is not enough for 1000- 1500 host addresses. So class B is the best choice.
3.3 Using the site http://www.4domains.com, check that the domain name you desire is
The follows diagram showing the domain of isa2008.com has been taken by others.
The follows diagram showing the domain of cae2008.com is available for you to register.
3. 4 Design a subnetting system for the organization in question, each subnet should
contain no more than 100 computers.
An identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. Networks using the TCP/IP protocol route messages based on the IP address of the destination. The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four numbers separated by periods. Each number can be zero to 255. For example, 22.214.171.124 could be an IP address.
Within an isolated network, you can assign IP addresses at random as long as each one is unique. However, connecting a private network to the Internet requires using registered IP addresses (called Internet addresses) to avoid duplicates.
The four numbers in an IP address are used in different ways to identify a particular network and a host on that network. Four regional Internet registries -- ARIN, RIPE NCC, LACNIC and APNIC -- assign Internet addresses from the following three classes.
· Class A - supports 16 million hosts on each of 126 networks
· Class B - supports 65,000 hosts on each of 16,000 networks
· Class C - supports 254 hosts on each of 2 million networks
The number of unassigned Internet addresses is running out, so a new classless scheme called CIDR is gradually replacing the system based on classes A, B, and C and is tied to adoption of IPv6. (http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/IP_address.html)
Task 4 IIS Installation
Steps for Installing II2 on Windows XP professional
Firstly, ensuring that you are using Windows XP Professional currently, then you can for free to install Microsoft's web server, Internet Information Server 5.1 from your windows XP professional installation CD and you can configure it by the follows step:-
- Inserting your windows XP Professional CD into your CD-Rom Drive.
- Then go to Start à Setting à Control Panel à Add or Remove programs à Add
New Programs then you can see the ‘Internet Information Services' (IIS) see picture1
- After, you check box of the Internet Information Services by clicking it, then leaving
all the installation setting unchanged.
- Now your IIS is installed successfully on your machine and you can go to the web browser typing ‘http://localhost' then you could see your home page in it. Incidentally, you should be looking at the default IIS pages that if you haven't put your web site into the default directory . And you can enter the name of your computer instead of by entering ‘http://localhost'.
- Furthermore, you can check your computer name by right-click on the ‘My Computer' icon where on your desktop, select ‘Properties' from the display box and click on the ‘Computer Name' tab
- Regarding your default web directory which is placed in ‘C:\Inetpub\wwwroot', you can place your web site in here. However if you don't want to replace the IIS default documentation that in this directory you can establish a virtual directory though the 'Internet Information Services' console. See picture
- Starting your IIS console, you can find your IIS console at Control Panel à Administrative Tools à Internet Information Services. see picture
- While you click on the ‘Internet Information Services' console as you will see any
IIS web services you have running on your machine including the FTP server and the SMTP server, if you want to install them with IIS.
8a. Stopping your IIS by click on the tool bar with ‘Stop Item' button. Moreover, you
enable your IIS anytime by clicking the ‘Start Item' button on the tool bar.
- If you want to edit your default web page in the IIS. Firstly, click on your ‘Default
Web Sit' then right click on it then click ‘Properties‘ and then click on ‘Documents' tag select ‘Add ‘ button and then input your default document name. After, you added your default documents then make sure that your document has been arranged on top of the list by using after that to finish it by click Apply see picture Conversely, you can remove the unused default document by using ‘Remove' button then click Apply when you finished. The following show Change of default web page.
10. Step to create virtual directory
You can create a new virtual directory right click on the ‘Default Web Site' and choose ‘new' and then click on ‘Virtual Directory', from the drop down box.
Now you will see the ‘Virtual Directory Creation Wizard', then by click ‘Next' to
Then, you will go to next step which ask you to type in an ‘Alias' that the name which is you want to access the virtual directory from your web browser.
- Then again you will be asked to select the directory by clicking a ‘Browse' button, after you decided you can click on the ‘Next' button to continue.
- Next you will see a series of boxes, if you don't care about security then you can select all of them, if you want to run ASP scripts then click the first two boxes, then
Click on the ‘Next' button to finish the final part of the virtual directory wizard.
- Congratulation, now you can view your web page which is stored in virtual directory
by using your web browser
Need an essay? You can buy essay help from us today!