Introduction to Mobile and Wireless Networks:
The wireless network defines some type of computer network which is wireless and It is commonly associated with the telecommunications. The connections between the nodes of the network will be implemented without using wires. These networks will implement in the types of remote transfer of the data using radio waves, electromagnetic waves to carry the data. It will locate at the layer of the network
Wireless PAN :
Wireless personal Area network is the one type of network that will interconnects the devices within the small area using wireless connectivity. For example the WPAN connects the laptop to the headset through Interconnectivity of Bluetooth.
Wireless Local area network is the alternative wireless to the computer LAN that will use radio instead of the wires to data transmission between the computer in small areas like school, office etc. In the purpose of the internet Wi Fi is the common network, which is used to establish a connection to the internet. Fixed wireless data was also implemented through the microwaves for connectivity.
Wireless Metropolitan Area network is used to connect the various wireless LAN’s.
Mobile Device Networks :
GSM - Global System for Mobile Communication:
M GSM was divided into 3 major parts. They are base station system, support system and the Operational system. GSM is mostly used in the mobile phones and it will be use in the call transferring process.
PSM - Personal Communication System:
PSM is used in North America for mobile phones, which is a radio band. Sprint is the first one to launch this technology.
D – AMPS – Digital Advanced mobile phone Service:
It is the advanced version of the AMPS Technology. But it is eliminated due to advancement in technology services.
2. Research on Implementation Process:
Bluetooth Technology :
Bluetooth is the new way of implementing technology solutions. Bluetooth is a protocol of open wireless system to exchange the data between mobiles devices and less distance fixed devices. It is a wireless protocol to creating the new personal area networks too. It was previously considered as an alternative approach to RS232 data cables. It is mainly used to upgrade the technology solutions and to achieve the problems of synchronization. It is mainly use the communication protocols to gather that in one standard. Bluetooth usually uses the radio technology to transmit the data up to 79 frequencies. This is called as frequency hopping spread spectrum. The basic mode, the modulation is GFSK – Gaussian frequency shift keying with the data rate of the 1 mb per sec.
Bluetooth is a new way of technology to exchange the data between the particular devices like global positioning system, telephones, mobile phones, personal computers, laptops, digital cameras, printers, video game consoles through globally unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical through secure 2.4 GHz short distance radio frequency bandwidth. It is all about to consider that the SIG is a group that developed the specifications to Bluetooth. There are come companies consists of computing, consumer electronics, networking and telecommunications in SIG.
Bluetooth is designed to low consumption with the low distance like 1 meter to 100 meters. There are low cost microchips and transceivers are built in that device. There would be different ranges as per the radio frequencies. These are described as classes. In class 1 the range is 100 meters with the power of 100 m W. In the class3 was 1 meter with 1m W power and finally the middle class 2 was 10meters with 2.5 m W power approximately. In this Bluetooth technology there is architecture and the types of layers and profiles were stand. We have to distinguish the process of technology developed and the basic things of the development process and features.
2.2 Block Diagram of Bluetooth System:
2.3 Technological Evolution in Bluetooth - Profiles:
The Application of the Bluetooth they define a particular elements compulsory and the specifications also mandatory. Then it prevents with a little bit processing and memory power implementing the stack of Bluetooth efficiently. Strongly reduced protocols will used to implement the complicated things with high definition like headset devices. Blue tooth profiles are represented in a particular manner to recognize the events occurred, to explain something about the speeding development process of the lifecycle and development costs.
The specification of Bluetooth was developed by Sven Mattisson and Jaap Haartsen in the year of 1994, where as they worked in Ericsson mobile platforms in Sweden. Frequency hopping technology is the main thing in Specification process. These specifications are get registered by SIG. SIG was announced formally on 20th May 1998. It is the one of the biggest membership of 11000 companies internationally. There are many companies joined in the Membership process.
2.3.1 Bluetooth 1.0 and 1.0 B:
In these versions they faced some problems in the manufacturing product. Compulsory hardware device address as BD_ADDR was process with the transmission in the connecting process whereas it is the major setback for planned services to usage in environments of the Bluetooth.
2.3.2 Bluetooth 1.1:
This version was produced in the standard of IEEE 802.15.1 – 2002. The previous problems what they faced already in the version 1.0 and 1.0 B were achieved in this version. They are giving support to the channels where they are as Non encrypted. In this there is another feature adopted like RSSI, which is received signal strength indicator.
2.3.3 Bluetooth 1.2:
There are some major features included in this one. This is the backward compatible to the version 1.1 and some enhancements were done too. It will work faster and the process of the connection was good and the speed limit was high with certain discovery features. To avoid the usage of crowded frequencies from hopping system, they developed frequency hopping spread spectrum technology to improve the resistance power o the radio frequency interference. The speed limit was increased to 721 Kbits per second. To increase the latency of audio and the better support in the process of concurrent transfer of data, they developed Extended Synchronous connections – ESCO. In the mean while in 1.2 they implemented, Host controller interface to the UART of 3 wire support. They did in the norms of IEE standards. For the process of L2CAP, they were introduced Retransmission modes and Flow control structures.
2.3.4 Bluetooth 2.0:
In this version, for the faster data transfer they introduced the enhanced data rate. The transferred data rate is 2.1 mbps and the EDR was 3 mbps. The things additionally used in obtaining the usage of multiple radio technologies for data transmission. Basic rate was used by GFSK – Gaussian frequency shift keying modulation radio signal with data rate 1 mbps with air gross. With the two variants, combination of phase shift keying and GDSK was used by EDR. Variants 8 DPSK and π/4-DQPSK was got data rates 3 and 3 megabits per second in air gross data. There are some benefits also there in version 2.0 features like transmission speed was 3 times faster, for bandwidth they reduced complexity of various multiple established connections. Power consumption is low with the process cycle.
2.3.5 Bluetooth 2.1:
This version was included some of the new enhancements and features and it is more compatible with version 1.2 and SIG was adopted this on 26th July 207.
Inquiry response Extended: It is developed to give better services of info like device name, supported services to the device, pairing, data and time information. It provides more information during process of the inquiry for before connection establishment filtering devices..
Sniff subrating: This feature reduces the consumption of power where the devices are in sniff low power mode especially with flows of asymmetric data. Keyboard and mouse are increased their battery life with this. In every 5 or 10 seconds the keep alive message frequencies in contrast with the specification of 2.1 versions.
Encryption process: This was implemented by an encrypted key to refresh. They are getting strong the encryption to connections, which they stayed up to 23.3 hours a day.
Security: This one improves the Bluetooth pairing experience with in the extendibility of devices on increased strength and usage of security process. It will affect on the use of Bluetooth positively.
NFC Cooperation: NFC is nothing but the near field communication. If we have the NFC radio interface then it will connect to the Bluetooth connections securely. This is one of the features in secure simple pairing. It is the different way of exchange information while put the 2 devices close (in a few centimeters).
2.3.6 Bluetooth 3.0:
This was adopted on 21st April 09 by SIG. main feature of this version is AMP, which is alternate MAC/PHY the high speed of transport of 802.11. For AMP 802.11 and UWB was anticipated with 2 technologies but in the specification UWB was missing.
This is the alternative approach to the Mac and PHY transport data by Bluetooth profile. For connection, profile configuration and discovery they are using alternative Bluetooth Radio device. In Bluetooth, Lower power connection in the system is idle and data need to be sent.
Unicast Connectionless data:
The service data to be sent as establishment L2CAP channel. This is used for the small amount of data and it is required latency low between reconnection and user action.
2.3.7 Bluetooth Future - UWB for AMP:
Bluetooth information points were enabled by Broadcast channel. This will take the drive of adoption into mobile phones. Topology management can get the configuration of the piconet especially in the situations where it is scatternet. This is based on 802.11 with high speed AMP. In the WiMedia Alliance, which is announced the entered into technology transformer agreements for UWB features. After the technology transfer, Wimedia Alliance related items will close the operations.
2.4 Bluetooth IEEE 802.15.1 vs. Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11:
Now a day in offices, Wi Fi and Bluetooth has many applications. They will process the many works like printing, setting up the networks and inter transfer the files from computers and PDAs. Wi Fi has well established equipment and in the application part it has the various features. The WLAN is the outlined part of the process. Wi Fi is the replacement of the ordinary general cable connections. By this we can get the information with out wire and the processing speed ill be faster than the cabling. Bluetooth is residing at the part of non resident wise equipment of the applications. These are getting outlined as the WPAN. This is the process of carrying of applications in any time.
Mobile Phone Headset
Bluetooth USB with range – 100m
The Bluetooth system is very powerful, why so we have to get communicated with other device with in the seconds of time. It exists in Lego Mindstorms NXT, telephones, play station 3 and Wii and in the watches with high definition, headsets and modems. It is mainly used to send audio data with phones and transferring files. The protocols will simplify the service between the appropriate devices. In this services they can able to be easier of security, permission configuration and network address automated with some other network process types.
2.4.2 System Requirements:
Internal Notebook Card:
A computer, which is going to communicate with the other devices, must need the adapter. Some new computers are getting built in adapters; by this there is no need to put an external adapter. It has a predecessor, which is going to tell that for each device they need separate adapter. There is a facility that, Bluetooth will allow various multiple devices to communicate on the single adapter.
2.4.3 Supported Operating system details:
From 2002n onwards apple is going to be supported Bluetooth. The operating system from apple was MAC OS X v10.2. in Microsoft products, the windows xp of service pack 2 and later versions get supported. Linux has popular two Bluetooth stacks, Affix and BlueZ. Since 5.0 release Bluetooth supports free BSD features.
3. Research on Bluetooth Architecture & Operational process:
Protocol stack of Bluetooth :
This protocol stack is defined as a serial series of layers and there is some layers which cross some features. The Device supports to the Bluetooth which is made up by 2 parts. Implementing the higher layers will be of to the host and the lower layers will be implemented by the module. This was done because of the several reasons. Bluetooth is layer protocol architecture with the core protocols, adopted protocols, telephony control protocols and cable replacement protocols.
Compulsory protocols for all the Bluetooth stacks are: SDP, L2CAP and LMP.
Additionally, these protocols are supported: RFCOMM and HCI.
Link management Protocol – LMP
Link manager protocol was used to control the all areas while connected to other devices. This will include the logical, transport links and to the control of the physical links. LMP Protocol is used to communicate with the devices, which are connected through the ACL logical transportation.
General rules: LMP messages are going to carry the messages only on the ACL logical transport and in exchange over the link of ACL – C. It has the higher priority than the other traffic. LMP has doesn’t guaranty to transfer and acknowledgement of the messages in time. In this type of the procedures where the synchronizing states can changes in the two devices. This can do the operations through the name of transactions. To achieve a particular purpose then it can connect to the set of message.
By the LMP bit of feature all specifications will be done according to the version 1.1. Actually the mandatory features will be process but the LM still stays that thing as optional one. Whenever they are going to be transferred LMP as the bit mask then the features will be represented.
Service discovery protocol :
One of the most popular members of Bluetooth protocol stack was Service Discovery Protocol (SDP). It provides a solution for an SDP client to get the information about the services which are offered by SDP servers. An SDP server can be any Bluetooth device, which is going to offer services to the other Bluetooth devices as well. Info about the services was organized in the SDP databases. There was no centralized database in the process, and then the each SDP server will maintain its own ready database.
The basic SDP database was simply a set of possible records which tells all about the services of which a Bluetooth device can provide to another Bluetooth device, and the service discovery protocol would offer a means for another device to the basic look at these transaction records. For that to make it easier to find services you need, services will be arranged in a hierarchy as a tree, which it can be browsed. Individual services will be properly described.
Stages in Setting up an SDP Session:
Logical link control and Adaptation control:
This is used to describe the multiple logical of multiplex connections using 2 devices with the different high level protocols. This can be able t get the info of the air packets and the segmentation structure.L2CAP provides the various reliable configure payload up to 64 kilo bites with the 672 bytes of the min compulsory supposed size. In flow control models and the re transmission models, the L2CAP can be able to configure and data as per the particular channel of the re transmissions and the timeout. The EL2CAP was the specification another model of the enhanced mode to the core specification, which was the improved possible version of the flow control.
3.1.4 Host / Controller Interface:
It is the process of the normal basic communication between the controller and the host stack. It will swap with the minimum knowledge of the adaptation. There were several commands to transfer the same information in different types according to the feasibility. Events and the data packets will issue in the mean time of the processing commands. The most possible common used things are UART and the USB.
Bluetooth Network Encapsulation Protocol :
Bluetooth can use the transfer protocol another stack data with in the L2CAP channel. Transmission the IP packets in the networking profile of personal area was the main theme of this protocol. This is almost performed like the functionality of the wireless LAN SNAP.
Cable replacement Protocol:
The Radio frequency communications was the cable replacement protocol used to create a virtual economical serial data stream. RFCOMM is going to provide the binary data transport and emulates EIA-232 control the signals over the bandwidth..
RFCOMM provides the possible simple reliable telephone lines with the basic Bluetooth connectivity over the RFCOMM.
Audio/Visual Data Transport Protocol:
It is intended to be used by the distribution profile of video. It is in the stream of music to stereo headsets for the L2CAP channel.
Audio/Visual Control Transport Protocol:
It is used to transfer the AV or C command to an L2CAP channel. Using this protocol, the buttons on the stereo headset will control the music player.
Adopted protocols :
Adopted protocols were defined to the making organizations and incorporated into Bluetooth’s protocol stack, allowing Bluetooth while in the process of create protocols only when it necessary.
Point-to-Point Protocol – Used to transport the IP datagram’s in the Point to point link.
TCP/IP/UDP – TCP/IP protocol suite of the foundation one.
Objects Exchange Protocol – For the object and operation presentation, session layer protocol is for exchanging the objects.
Telephone Control Protocol:
The telephony control protocol binary that suits the signal controlling for the voice and data calls establishment devices. The mobility procedures can be defining for the handling TCS devices groups.
4. Security Issues:
Bluetooth implements the authentication, Confidentiality and key derivation with algorithms based on the basic Block Chipper and the Safer. In Bluetooth, key generation will be generally based on Bluetooth PIN, which we must need to enter in to both devices. This procedure would be modified if one device has a fixed PIN, for example the headsets with protected user interface. In pairing the initialization key or master key generated using the algorithm E22. The EO stream is used for encryption of packets.
The blue jacking is the sending a picture from one user to another user through Bluetooth wireless technology.
Jacobson and Wetzel from Bell Laboratories founded the flaws in pairing protocol of Bluetooth, and they also pointed to the vulnerabilities of encryption in 2001.
Recently in the month of October, at the Luxemburgish was Hack.Lu security in Conference, on MAC OS X V 10.3.9 and V 10.4 Kevin Finistere and Thierry Zoller was demonstrated the remote root shell via Bluetooth. Based on the research of Wool and Shaked they also explained Linkkeys cracker and Bluetooth Pin.
5. Future Possible Applications:
In the voice over IP the Bluetooth technology will be used. By the technological evolutions, Telephonic system is there but the Voice over IP is mainly new thing in the present business market. Bluetooth would be the end up of the communication between the computer and the cordless phone where we listen for VOIP, the base of the cordless phone will be acted by an infrared PCI card. Then Just the Cradle was required to charge the cordless phone. Bluetooth will be in future likely to be used for remote sales in commercial enterprises, wireless access to the basic vending machines.
The Bluetooth already meets the basic needs of the close connectivity range; it has the bright future that it can be now taken the initiation from the major IT giants like 3 –COM, Lucent, Sony, IBM, Microsoft, Nokia .Since the forming of the initial and the prospective group, more than 1800 manufacturing industries were joined in the first initiative. From the fantastic success of the wireless area protocol, the Bluetooth had a impact on our daily lives like handheld device and smart mobile phones.
In future, the connectivity and the seamless integration would make it possible to transfer the services towards the high range of interactive which were quite dream because of the flexibility and complexity involved by making such devices get communicated each other.
Even though there is walls and the obstructions the Bluetooth will provide the better accessing quality of data. Actually the infrared is the biggest and one of the competitors in the industry to Bluetooth. But the technology innovations of the Bluetooth, it was overcome everything with better technology resources.
Mobile e- Commerce and Retail:
As per the Bluetooth technology it has already incorporated with the mobile devices. The future applications will be like to make payment the services and goods through Bluetooth. If we connect the Bluetooth to the Soda machine then give the link to Bluetooth then we can automatically pay for the Soda from our mobile Phone. If suppose we connect Bluetooth to the cashier registers that we can pay directly at the shopping malls and grocery stores and restaurants.
As per the practice of medicine would becomes more complex and sophisticated, new technology is widely used in this area. Here we recommended 3 possible applications of the Bluetooth as the wireless technology evolution in the medical domain like wireless biometric data, medicine dispensers and remote patient monitoring.
The Patient monitoring of the things are like possible signs outside of the medical environments like hospitals would becoming increased commonly. Patients would be measure certain possible body functions and the periodically access of the reports these to a medical service care provider, It can be done in the form of electronic, and if so, this would might involved in the manual data entry or the possible cables by Measuring equipment; the data would be transmitted over the secure dial-up network connection. Bluetooth wireless technology would be improve the process by automation of the data transfer from devices to other’s and the transfer of the data should be more convenient, using wireless dial-up networking.
The travel industry would be always seeking new path to save time and provide better convenience for travelers.
In airline industry, the use of electronic tickets is becoming like common things. Self-service check in has begin to appear in the airports.
However the electronic tickets should be processed like the insurance of the boarding pass in the many issues. This might require every time the credit card.
If the person has the Bluetooth device with this facility, then there is no need to open and show the card and check the details every time. While at the time of boarding we need to show the boarding pass, if suppose we have a Bluetooth device then it can make automatically connect to the nearest system and send our details to the concerned authority.
In the hotel industry if suppose they maintained the Bluetooth device and maintaining appropriate data then they record our details at the time of accommodation after that there is no need to show the identification every time, why so we also maintain the same device then it will check whether the person was proper person or not. If the person was no the proper one then it will tell the organizer that there is no details found. The communication in the Bluetooth technology will be easy and we have to maintain the basic needs of the Customers .if you want to check whether there is any vacancy in the hotel then your Bluetooth device will connect and check the status.
In the home networking the wireless is not at all possible in any conditions. If suppose we use the Bluetooth technology then we can able to build the better security to our things. The most convenience thing is Bluetooth why so, if we connect the mobile phone as a cordless phone with the help of the Bluetooth voice access point. The computers can use the Bluetooth in home through wireless technology. By this way Bluetooth can use as the security measure and the main gateway to make things easily in the wireless.
The Bluetooth system is the universal interface which is developed to enable electronic devices in communicate wirelessly via low distance ad hoc radio connections. This research presents general overview of the Bluetooth in the theme of radio system architecture. It focuses on a description of the Bluetooth protocol stack, which is designed to achieve better interoperability for data communication between devices. With the restrictions set by security, specification and power management and QOS are introduced to further improve this new promising technology design issue. Blue tooth will intended to be the replacement of the Cable networking. In the evolution of the Personal area networks, the Bluetooth acts the major role.
There is so many future applications are bind with the Bluetooth In the Future, the technology was developed in a high range and the people will use it for the low cost. The possible upgrade innovations have to be developed in Bluetooth where in the streams of Travel, Medical, Hotels and Home entertainment Zones. There is so many possible applications will be generated in the future of the Bluetooth. As per the Health concerns, Bluetooth does not get effected to the human lives. In future there is a possibility to use everything by the Bluetooth devices. The tasks should be done automatically by the Electronic processing. . In 2001 there is 10 million devices was produced due to the market conditions. Mean while the technology was developed and the people using this Technology widely in the market. In the 2003 it became 70 million, why so the upgrade of the Bluetooth technology was implemented in a strong and proper manner. By this the technological evolution was done in this wireless area network platform.
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