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A Diagram On The Models Of Systems Information Technology Essay

Ultimately an actor has no properties other than its links to use cases. It is a logical set and nothing more. When naming actors we need to think of the role that a person takes on rather than their title. Most job titles involve the putting on of a number of different hats in different situations.

Selection of actors is on the bases of there working like what actions and functionalities these are doing and what are their responsibilities. The main actors in Youth Action Charity are there managers like finance managers, marketing managers and staff, health and safety staff and some local users and people related to Dig-it project. We cannot say that anything which belongs to the system is actor, there must something that might be belonging to some activity or some responsibility must be performed by that entity. Here some actors are in form of humans and some are in form of there performed functionality like "trusted board" and "it system control" etc.


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Diagram shows that different kind of entities are attached to the Youth Action Charity in terms of employees, service, it systems, board members volunteers and funders how finance the charity and they want to keep track and every movement of the employees and people who are getting facilitate from this charity.

There are lots of things that I consider to make this diagram like have choose main entity as Youth Action charity around which all the activates being done and everyone is associated with this main entity, without this entity there is no concept of other commoditities. Next entity is the service provided by charity that is to facilitate the youngsters and old people for solving their problems. Another one is funders who give funds to the charity they actually have the responsibility to run the charity. Next one is employees and volunteers who are directly connected to the charity and serving it. There is an entity which is trust board of members these include Chief Executive, the Finance Director, the Operations Manager, the Marketing Manager and the Director of New Business. In addition, the Regional Directors are asked to be part of the group when necessary, they make the decisions about the charity and keep an eye on each and every movement of employees and their related people.


The main focus is on IT Management System that will be use to manage all the resources and information about users and their employees. This system will take information from user and then send this information to the employees who analysis their problems and generate reports or responses for the users. This will handle some internal processes like handling finance management system, marketing management and there health and safety managements. In finance management this software will deal in managing all accounts and payments to the employees, in marketing management it will handle every kind of advertisements for charity to get attractions of people. In health and safety it deals with health insurance of employees providing some medical facilities to the employees and generating some receipts against their queries.


Each kind of data is being processed in the IT management system which will be use to managing different resources like managing fiancés, marketing, health and safety, managing users and queries response generation system. First any of the youngster or an old person will make query to the employees or volunteers then these employees will send these to the managers who will take some action regarding their problems and send response back to the employee and employee will take action regarding mangers decision. Then each and every activity of managers and employees are watched by executives. They will check all the activities what each and everyone is doing. Then there are some of the health facilities who will give some health insurances and medical treatments to the staff and related users. They will generate the receipt against each and every query so that there will be some proof of transaction.

There is one more project which will be run under IT system that is the Dig-It project which deals in different kind of problems that people faces in this there are different employees commanding by one manger who reports to the higher manager regarding all problems team faces.

B. Use case Diagram:

B1.1. Primary Scenario:

Main functionality of the system is to get queries from the users and to give response back to them. Basically this functionality is performed in Dig-It project in which data is being collected by team members and it is then send to the managers then they will analysis their requests and generate responses.

Dig-IT project use case diagram

The second functionality of the system is to keep an eye on each of the employee activity either they belong to finance, marketing, health or any other department even to track the movement of volunteers and they are all tracked by their transactions they will make.

Executive use case Diagram

B1.2. Secondary Scenario:

Other things to which this system deals are finance management in which all kind of activities related to finance is being deal like accounts management of employees, bounces, payments and taxes etc.

Finance management Use case Diagram

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Next is marketing management in which all kind of advertisement is being handled like online advertisements, ads, videos etc.

Marketing Management Use Case Diagram

There are some other local users like some of the managers and health related people who maintain the user activities and there health related issues.

Activities Management Use Case Diagram


As describe earlier

An actor:

Is always outside the system being modeled

Characterizes a role of

A person, a system or some external entity

Linked to one or more system use cases

A non-overlapping logical grouping of use cases

So on bases of these definitions of an actor I have choose all of my Use Cases Actors which are as follows:

Finance Directors (who will keep eye on all the functionalities and activities of user and employees in its own department).

Employees (these are all kinds of employees like in finance, marketing, team members and health staff).

Marketing Directors (these are the person who manages the entire task related to marketing).


By taking the scenario of Local Authorities and health staff, there are different kinds of activities that they are performing like first of all to perform different activities and to get access to the system they have to be login first. For that they have to register their selves on the system then they will be able to enter into the system and entertain the user's queries. Main responsibilities of the local authorities are to handle all the activities of the users and to provide them different kind of services according to their needs. Next is health management staff which provide health insurance to staff, youngsters and old people, they provide medicines to staff and related people on some discount bases and generate the prescription and receipt for the user. One receipt will be store in the records for backup like if there will be some problem occurs so we must have backup to sort out that problem. The discount policy is monitor by local authorities as well after confirming from these authorities the discount will be granted, this discount policy is just for avoiding the false discounts to any person or to avoid some extra discount to the relatives of any of the staff.


There are several ways; by following these ways I have analysis the uses of other service that could be use in the system. On the bases of functionalities, responsibilities and working of these activities like there are other different kinds of management subsystems which will work in the system like Finance management system. In this system first of all to interact the system finance staff must have to login into the system and for that they have to create the account on the system (for higher management and staff as well). The main responsibilities in finance are performed by the lower staffs who manage the payments but final decision is of Director who will sign the checks for payments. Then staff will manage the online transactions and handle the improper payments if any made.

Next subsystem is marketing management in which lower staff and higher management both have to create accounts on the system and then they have to login in the system. Manager will handle the duties of the staff and track the activities of the staff and staff will show their plans and strategies to managers and then apply them for advertisement.

Another subsystem is the Dig-It system in which users and mangers have to get access to the system and then user will make some queries and manger will analysis these queries and generate response against them. Here manager have another responsibility to manage the teams of staff members who will visit the customers and store their data on to the system according to their problems.

Overall access of the system is given to executives who will keep eye on all the departments like Finance, Marketing, Health, Safety, Volunteers and other staff. They can access any one`s account to check what they are doing.



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These assumptions are made on the bases of following factors:

• Control

• Environment

• Data

• Usage

• Convention

Control Assumptions:

Control assumptions are basically control the flow of data. For example if we assume that the order in which various methods, often within the single class or subprogram are invoked. A benefit of recording control assumption is that we as developers can evaluate the control assumptions to make sure they are consistent with the application flow.

Environment Assumptions:

Recording environment assumptions captures what is expected of the environment in which the application will operate. For example, applications are often developed assuming a particular database product and version for data storage. However, it is possible that these applications will eventually migrate to later versions of the database or be modified to support a different database product altogether.

Some benefits of documenting environment assumptions are below:

• A developer can capture the assumptions about the operational environment and communicate them to end users.

• A change analyst can evaluate the extent to which an implementation is dependent on an existing technology, product, or component version, and more accurately estimate the cost of a modification request concerning that component.

• A system integrator and/or system tester can trace a problem related to a particular component or try to understand why a certain method is throwing an exception or producing an error.

• A maintainer can determine what kind of environment is needed and assumed before looking at a piece of code in an application.

• A product manager can evaluate the effect of running this application in a different environment. [1]

Data Assumptions:

Data assumptions capture what is expected of input or output data. These assumptions are different from pre-conditions or post-conditions in that they do not correspond to specifications to which a developer must code, but rather conditions created by the developer under which a program will function correctly.

Usage Assumption:

In usage assumption we describe that how the system is being used what parameters are required to use the system like in here we require the information regarding all the departments and staff which will operate the system.

Conventional Assumptions:

Convention assumptions capture the standards or conventions that the developer is following.

Some benefits of it are as follows:

Change analysts can look at the impact of changes in a standard or any type of convention.

A reviewer can verify if the correct version of a standard or convention is being used.

Questions Arises:

According to these assumptions following questions arises:

What kind of data flow the company wants like from which department to which department data will be travel?

What kind of environment companies have to analysis that they need web based or desktop software?

What kind of data company wants to save in to the system it depends on the environment what kind of environment they have?

What standards company is following, what standard they want to implement on the software?

These questions will be asked to the executives and mostly by surveying the company staff who are gathering all kind of information.

C. Understanding of Technical and Environmental Needs of the System:

Technical Requirements:

In general technical requirements are based on three types of requirements that are as follows.

Usage Analysis

Use Cases

System Requirements

Usage Analysis:



Number and type of users

Identify how many users your deployment must support, and categorize those users, if necessary.

In this scenario we have different types of users like Executive users, management staff and volunteers.

Active and inactive users

Identify the usage patterns and ratios of active and inactive users.

Which users will be active and which inactive like if someone left the organization then there data must be in record but there account must be disabled.

Administrative users

Identify users that access the deployed system to monitor, update, and support the deployment.

For example here the administrative user is executive members by their decisions everyone have access or restriction on the system.

Usage patterns

Identify how users of various types will access the system and provide targets for expected usage.

User growth

Determine if the size of the user base is fixed or if the deployment expects growth in the number of users.

If in future there will be increment in the organization structure then there must be some reasonable precaution taken.

User transactions

Identify the type of user transactions that must be supported. These user transactions can be translated into use cases.

User studies and statistical data

Use pre-existing user studies and other sources to determine patterns of user behavior.

Use Cases:

Use cases model typical user interaction with the deployment you are designing, describing the complete flow of an operation from the perspective of an end user. Prioritizing design around a complete set of use cases ensures a continual focus on the delivery of expected functionality.

Each use case can include quantitative estimates about user behavior, which you can later use to determine system requirements for performance, availability, and other qualities of service. Use cases are also the starting point for designing the logical architecture

Use cases can be described at two levels.

Use case diagram

Graphical depiction of the relationships among actors and use cases.

Use case reports

Descriptions of individual use cases, including primary and alternative flows of events.

As in the part B there are different kinds of uses case discussed which show the interaction of users and system. Uses case shows who the users can interact to the system and what functionalities user can perform to get there targeted task.

System Requirements:

System must perform Following



A measure of how often a system's resources and services are accessible to end users, often expressed as the uptime of a system.

Latent Capacity

The ability of a system to handle unusual peak load usage without additional resources.


The measurement of response time and latency with respect to user load conditions.


The ability to add capacity (and users) to a deployed system over time. Scalability typically involves adding resources to the system but should not require changes to the deployment architecture.


A complex combination of factors that describe the integrity of a system and its users. Security includes authentication and authorization of users as well as the secure transport of information.


The ease by which a deployed system can be administered, including tasks such as monitoring the system, repairing problems that arise, and upgrading hardware and software components.

Service Level Requirements

Service level requirements are a set of system requirements that specify the conditions under which customer support must be provided. Service level requirements are the basis for service level agreements, which are typically signed during project approval.

As with system requirements, service level requirements derive from business requirements and represent a kind of guarantee to the customer about the overall system quality that the deployment must meet. Because the service level agreement is a contract between you and the customer, there should be no ambiguity in the specification of service level requirements. The service level requirements define exactly under what conditions the requirements are tested and precisely what constitutes failure to meet the requirements.

On the bases of these requirements system`s performance can be make better. These are the main factors by which can create our Youth Action Charity Information Management System better to be used and to perform well in the real environment. These technical factors are basically used to create the system to be use in the real environment with having difficulties although there are always some of the vulnerabilities in all systems but by analysis these requirements carefully we can overcome the weaknesses and draw backs in the system.

Environmental needs of the system:

Environmental Idea:

Recognizing that living in harmony with the global environment is a critical issue for mankind, the environmental survey conducts business with consideration to environmental conservation and works to create new scientific fields and new industrial and to show the road to true human health through research into technology and extending its application.

Environmental Policy:

The following policy must be applied while conducting environmental activities.

Establish an environmental management system to promote conservation of the earth environment by setting up and maintaining an internal organization for environmental protection.

Assess the impact on the environment by activities, products and services; constantly improve our environmental protection activities and environmental management.

Comply with environmental regulation and other requirements we have accepted and impose our own voluntary standards as necessary, to reduce the burden on the environment.

Take preventative measures for curbing environmental pollution, save energy and resources; reduce wastage of other resources that will be use in the system like just take relevant data.

Strive to raise the understanding of the environmental policy and awareness of the environmental issues among all our employees through education and an in-house publication about the environment.

Standardizing environmental management:

To making the company standardizes means that register the charity with some well know standard company like ISO. It is better to be register through any of this organization to make the charity better and apply rules according to rules that are implemented throughout the world. It will reduce the improper environmental management and reduce the environmental risks.

Achievement of registration to an Environmental Management Scheme should impress many groups of people, including:-





Regulators & Statutory Bodies

Environmental Groups

It may also concern other groups of people, particularly suppliers and sub-contractors, who may fear that in drive to improve environmental performance you may cast a critical eye on their environmental achievements. It is in this way that the cause of Environmental Management Systems has spread to date, and will continue in the future.

[2] Benefit of Environmental Need:

Cost Savings

Successful environmental management will evaluate all opportunities for cost savings, the most common benefits derive from a review of resource/ energy utilization and its efficiency, forcing full consideration of alternative energy sources and their cost effectiveness. The other primary element will be minimization of waste and result and cost of disposal.

Customer Requirements

Many companies have addressed the management system for customer requirements related to quality and ISO9000. The range and diversity of customer needs and expectations is constantly growing with many customers increasing preference for use of suppliers and sub-contractors who can demonstrate that they are good environmental citizens. No customer would want to risk a tarnished reputation (or non-compliance to legislation) from the poor environmental performance of their suppliers and sub-contractors. The safest option for the customer is to use suppliers and sub-contractors who can demonstrate their positive environmental performance.

Corporate Image

The ability to demonstrate a responsible environmental attitude can dramatically improve the image of the corporation fostering better relations with the company's stake holders. Even more importantly, adverse publicity about the organizations environmental performance is always highly damaging.


The scope and severity of environmental legislation is ever increasing. A management system that ensures recognition of the requirements and compliance with them will ensure that fines are avoided and staff is not imprisoned in addition to avoidance of the publicity that inevitably follows an environmental prosecution.

Marketing Opportunities

All companies seeking growth obviously want their product and services attractive to a widest possible market. Poor environmental performance will encourage many potential customers to decide not to buy from the company; good environmental performance will ensure continuation of the widest possible market.

The Youth Action Charity staff will check the following environmental factors and make some precautions for these factors.

• Environmental assessment and remediation.

• Incorporation of Youth Action Charity elements in design.

• Access to the Charity Group's suite of Youth Action and incident design tools and processes.

• Assessment of Youth Action Charity competencies.

• Benchmarking facilities against industry standards.

• Setting up of Youth Action Charity Information Management Systems.

• Raining of Staff and Executives and Supervisors.

Environmental protection is an increasingly pressing issue. Not only are pollution and ecological degradation becoming ever more serious, but also people are more and more unsatisfied about the situation. The speed with which we are polluting the environment far outstrips our efforts to clean it up.

In this scenario staff will collect all the data by surveying the environment and check that which things are required to make the system friendlier according to the environment. Environmental factors is very important while creating any system for any organization because the activities system will perform that depend on the environment and according to that environment system will be operate by the operators.

These were some of the main technical and environmental factors that will be used to get understanding of the IT Management System for Youth Action Charity. By using these factors we can make well formed system for the charity which will handle all the activities of this system and it will make easier for the administration (Executives and Managers) to handle the charity procedures and transactions that will be happen by the employees. By this system the executives can keep eye on each and every activity of staff as well like what they are doing and what kind of transaction they are making how many people are satisfied by the staff.

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