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The History Of Cuban Revolution History Essay

It all started with the forceful removal of the then president of cuba, Carlos Prio Socarras, by General Fulgencio Batista on 10th march 1952. Batista further cancelled all the future elections and brought complete anarchy by declaring himself as the Dictator of CUBA. It was the widespread apathy that turned a lawyer into a revolutionary, his name was Fidel Castro. Cuban revolution faced several hurdles from the forces of Batista.

The Revolution

The first planned attack was made on 26th july,1953 when the rebels under the leadership of Fidel Castro attacked the Moncada Barracks in Santiago and Bayamo. Castro led a few handful but brave rebels against the trained army. More than 65 revolutionary gave their life to end the tyranny of Batista. Abel Santamaria, who was the second in command and very close to Castro, was held captive and tortured to the limit of death. Fidel Castro, Raul Castro(his brother)and a few rebels managed to escape but were captured afterwards and trials were held against them. Fidel Castro was sentenced to 15 years of imprisonment and Raul Castro was awarded 13 years of imprisonment.

Within two years, political unrest gripped Cuba and Batista was forced to free all the political prisoners. Fidel Castro and his brother were also released due to the political pressure of Christian teachers. After the release, Castro with other revolutionaries fled to Mexico and started their camps under Alberto Bayo who was a leader of Republican forces in the Spanish Civil War. In June 1955, Fidel joined forces with Ernesto “Che ” Guevara who was an Argentine revolutionary. They together named their force as the “26th of July Movement” in remembrance of their first attack against Batista. The whole group trained for almost a year and a half. On 2nd December 1956, Castro brothers, Che and 80 rebels landed on Playa Las Colorados by ayatch named ‘Granma’ completely loaded with ammunitions. But Batista’s forces proved enough for them and once again Castro was defeated. Barely 20 rebels managed to escape and saved their lives.

On March 13th,1957 a group of students headed by Jose Antonio Echeverria, a student leader, attempted to assassinate Fulgencio Batista but failed and their leader was killed brutally by the armed forces. This group of students called themselves as the member of “Revolutionary Directorate”. Although they failed in their attempt but it’s impact was huge because due to this incident America closed all the trade doors for Cuba. This resulted in deep economic crisis in Cuba and people suffered from starvation and epidemics. The common mass started to alienate with the revolution and soon Castro became the face of Cuban Revolution. Several small groups came under his leadership and the movement gained strength. They started attacking small garrisons of military and they began to get strength. A small group of rebels called ‘Escopeteras’ harassed Batista’s army in hilly and mountainous regions, this group later joined hands with Castro and the influence grew gradually in the hilly regions. Castro also established a rebel radio station called ’Rebel Radio’ in February, 1958. The radio station helped him to gather mass support and also convey the message of freedom. Some famous quotes of Catro were “I find capitalism repugnant. It is filthy, it is gross, it is alienating because it causes war, hypocrisy and competition”. One more quote which became very famous on radio was “The revolution is a dictatorship of the exploited against the exploiters”. Soon Castro’s influence grew in entire mountain regions and Batista lost control over these areas. Witnessing the developments of Fidel Castro, Batista sent a force of 12000 thousand semi-trained soldiers in the hills to bring down Castro and his men but the guerrillas in Castro army were well-trained for terrain fight. They were less in number but their tactics helped them to defeat the army of Batista for the first time in the battle of”La Plata” which lasted from 11th july to 21st of july, 1958.

Later on july 29th, Castro’s army of 300 soldiers was defeated in a dramatic manner in the battle of “Las Mercedes”. Castro applied his political mind and asked for a cease fire and it was during this time he found a way out into the mountains. Castro with the remaining rebels fled back into the mountains and once again evaded death. But till this time the political unrest had become a mass movement and several small groups stood against the armed forces. Later, on 31st December 1958 the battle of “Santa Clara” took place in which the combined forces of Che Guevara, Revolutionary Directorate and some small rebel groups managed to get control of the Santa Clara city. After this war a very strong message was sent to the common masses that now the anarchy has ended. Batista fled to Dominican Republic. This ended the seven years of brutality and anarchy of Fulgencio Batista. This also brought an end to the Cuban Revolution. On 3rd January, 1959 ‘Manuel Urutia Lleo’ was made the President of Cuba by Fidel Castro. This marked the beginning of a new era in Cuba.

The Result

All the associates of Batista were prosecuted for violation of human rights, war crimes, murder and torture. Raul Castro was given the charge for execution of Batista’s ministers. Che Guevara was appointed the supreme prosecutor in ‘La Cabana Fortress’.

Several reforms and public welfare programs were initiated by the newly formed government. Several schools, hospitals and housing facilities were developed and people’s need was given the highest priority. In 1961, the government was declared ‘atheist’ and all the land holdings under the Roman Catholic Church was nationalized and the bishops were sent in exile.

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