The Creating Of Anglo America History Essay
Taking a look at how the expansion of England grew in the new world, also the laws they set out in England for the new world. The effects it has on the settler's that came to have all the land promised to them. Examining the Mercantilism System and whether or not it was benefiting everyone or just some. Also whether it was fair to control the trade. What the Royal African Company had to do with the Mercantilism System and what they have done to be important around this time. I will also be looking into where the Quakers came from, what they were expecting, what they received and their rights in the new world. I am interested in knowing the exact origins of the American Slavery. So I will break down why the English thought of the African's as slaves and how they came up with the concept to take Africans to the new world to be slaves. Whether or not there was previous slavery in history, before the new found land was discovered and who were the first slaves. What the Chesapeake Slavery was and why it rose quickly to use slaves. The colonies in crisis will break down the wars and the changes made in New England, also about important people during these times. How the Salem Witch Trials came about, and why people believed others were witches. The growth of Colonial America will be about the population and how diverse it was, did everyone get along or was it still chaotic. The bribes uses to attract people from Europe to come to America and what was promised that some might have not gotten. Reasons why the Germans migrated to America during that time. How the social classes were during this time period, whether the women had any say in society. How the South Carolina planters were one of the wealthiest during this time period and how they lived.
Mercantilism System is the economic system to increase a nation's wealth by having government rules for all the nations imports and exports. This system was used in Western European economic structure, it was used from the sixteenth through the late eighteenth century. The goal was to achieve a balance between trades that would bring silver and gold into the country, and also keep people employed. The contributing factor for the Mercantilism System was that there was establishment outside of Europe. The mercantilist policies were the outgrowth of the relationship between the nations and the mercantilists classes. These policies that were created took on many types of forms. Governments domestically would provide financial assistance to the new industries, while exempting them from rules and taxes. They also established monopolies over local and colonial markets. During this period shipping was very important. Due to the growth of the Colonies in the New World. Control over the oceans was considered power. In England, the Navigation Act of 1651 prohibited foreign vessels from engaging in coastal trade in England, and required that all goods imported from the continent of Europe be carried on either an English vessel or a vessel registered in the country of origin of the goods. The staple act of 1663 extended the Navigation Act by requiring that all exports to Europe pass through an English port and loading onto an English ship before continuing the route. During the Mercantilist Era it was often said that the benefit of the foreign trade is the gold and silver that was being transported. In the early part of the 17th century, British merchants and Parliament were not fond of the idea of slavery being acceptable in any part of their empire. But as trade with the Caribbean colonies began to grow, it became obvious that there was a shortage of labor. Which somehow would need be taken care off. In 1672 a new company was formed The Royal African Company. They were compiled of merchants from London who were granted exclusive rights. They had built forts on the West African coast to protect their trade and to provide holding pens for the slaves. Any other slave traders, would have to pay tax to the Royal African Company. Through the years of 1680 and 1686, almost 5000 slaves were transported to the Caribbean. Royally chartered companies like this one were important tools in opening the African continent to slavery. The reason African slaves were chosen to be the slaves is because they were more immune to the European diseases, unlike the Native Americans who were not immune. Also because Africans were more advanced and skilled than the Native Americans. The Native Americans were just food gatherers, they never really stayed in one place too long to learn the skills to farm. The Africans on the other hand knew how to farm, and in very tropical conditions. Although not all were farmers others were miners, and carpenters. Throughout African history it is believed that they have been trading each other for centuries. Most slaves that were sold at auctions were working in sugar plantations or sugar mills. Once they come to their owner they were branded to mark which plantation they came from. That is the same type of branding used on cattle's.
The Glorious revolution was the overthrow of James II of England. It is also known as the bloodless revolution. Parliament replaced him with his daughter Mary and her husband, William of Orange. The American colonists greeted the news with excitement because James II had sought to check the growing American trend toward self-governance. Besides using the Navigation Acts to reduce colonial economic independence, he had revoked many of the privileges granted in the early colonial charters. The chief target of this new reform was Puritan New England, which had refused to allow freedom of religion and had signed many laws that conflicted with English practice. In 1686 all the colonies from New Jersey to Maine had been incorporated into the Dominion of New England with the autocratic Sir Edmund Andros as governor. One of the issues James II faced was that he wanted to reinstate the Catholic religion which bothered the English people. He was also prepared to sacrificed his throne to bring back Catholicism. The Test Act were passed during the timing of Charles II. The requirement was that every person who wanted civil or military posts had to accept the Anglican Church. James II was a Roman Catholic. He also took special care of his religious believers often giving them high positions in the state then any other person. James II invited the Pope of Rome to England and restored his old position officially on him. James II issued his first Declaration of Indulgence in 1687 which he suspended wholesale the penal laws against the Roman Catholics. The result was that the Roman Catholics and other Dissenters began to worship openly. The Tories, who stood for the Church of England, were exasperated. They were scared that James II was supporting Catholicism under the religious toleration. James wanted to spread Catholicism in the universities also. For pushing the Catholics to high positions, James used many unfair means. For instance, the post of Head of Megdallan College of Oxford University was vacated and one James Parker, a Catholic was appointed. He even dismissed the vice-chancellor of Cambridge University because he had refused to accommodate a Catholic in the University. The Parliament could not tolerate this high-handedness of the monarch. Moreover the university people also disliked it
One of the people responsible for why the colonists in the Dominion of England came to rebel was because of one man. His name was James II, the last Catholic monarch to ever rule over Scotland, England and Ireland. New York Lieutenant - governor Francis Nicholson did not actually believe what was reported. So he decided to wait for a formal declaration. But in the meantime, he suppressed the information so that there would be no threats of revolution against the new ruling powers. Next, Francis Nicholson would sail to England. Colonel Henry Sloughter was made Governor of the New York Providence, even though this was not known until 1691.Jacob Leisler, a prominent trader, was made commander - in - chief under the absence of Lieutenant Governor Nicholson by members of the illegal popular party in New York. John Pell, Lord of Pelham Manor, deeded 6,100 acres of land to Leisler to establish a Huguenot community. He and the heirs of these lands were to pay John Pell and his heirs annually as acknowledgement of the Manorial feudal obligation. The End of Leisler's Rebellion would occur when British Major Richard Ingoldesby and two companies of soldiers had finally reached Fort William, which was a renaming of it from Fort James. This fort was the administration center for New York City. Leisler would refuse the order to give up the fort. Months later, a battle occurred. Two soldiers were killed while several were wounded. Two days later, Sloughter, the Governor of New York had arrived and commanded Leisler to give up the fort. He refused and was charged with treason for refusing to submit to Ingoldesby. Jacob Leisler and his son in law Jacob Milborne were later convicted of treason and were executed. Leisler's body parts were drawn and quartered. What started the Salem With Trials of 1692 was how two women started having disturbing behavior.
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