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The After Effects Of World War One History Essay

World War I has been an event of the great significance for its times. According to its dimensions and after effects it did not have the equalities within the previous history of the humanity. The First World War lasted 4 years 3 months and 10 days (from August 1, 1914 till November 11, 1918), 38 countries were involved within the war processes, at that times nearly 1,5 milliard, approximately two thirds of all the Earth’s population, people dwelled within these countries [1] . The multimillion armies took parts within the battlefield processes, which used the newest technologies of the military powers. It is a well known fact that a number of so called inhumane weapons (it is contemporary relation to such military forces and techniques) was tested during the World War I and used for the later military conflicts. General number of the soldiers participating within the WWI reached 73,5 million people and the war brought very significant damage to the civilians dwelling on the territories the war occupied. 10 million people were killed during the conflict (historian, investigating the subject came to the conclusion that so many number of people were killed during the military conflicts in a period of a thousand years, which were held within the European continent) and 20 million of injured these are the results of these conflicts. According to the data provided within the investigations on the subject the direct expenses of participating in the conflict countries were nearly 208 milliards of dollars, which is 10 times larger than the cost of the wars lasting since 1793 to 1907 [2] .The war provided a significant impact on the whole development of the historical processes: it caused the sharpening of the class fight, activation of the nationalist movements; the war was one of the main reasons that increased rising of objective pre-conditions of the socialist revolution in the Russian empire. Some left-oriented historians considered that the World War I and the Revolution of 1917 in Russia caused the total crisis of capitalism and it was one of the most significant after effects that impacted the history development within the countries involved in the conflict. The history of the WWI attracted attention of the numerous investigators, from different countries in the whole world. The writers were intended to analyze the reasons from different aspects, economical sociological military and examined it after effects. They analyzed cardinal questions dealing with the roots, processes and lessons of the war lasting during the 1914 – 1918, its impact on the further economical development, socio-political life of the conflicting countries, the role of the every participant and the character of the military operations and military tactic arts. The investigation of the First World War is still acute within the contemporary realities as it strongly deals to the one of the most significant, even burning questions – the problem of the peace and the war. The generation of people living in age of nuclear missiles turn to the past for the better understanding the present day events. We and our contemporaries are eager to learn what the reasons were and what newest military missiles were used during the war in order to understand present day’s events.

Creating of the military political groups in Europe and armament race sharpened the difficult relation between the imperialistic countries more and more. They provided tensions within the international relations and rather calm world history changed on the more conflict, catastrophic and irregular policy of relations between the countries. It goes without saying that the sharpening of the imperialist confrontations started earlier than the war. It was already observed during the Morocco Crisis in 1905 – 1906 and 1911; Bosnia crisis of the 1908 – 1909; Italy – Turkish was lasting during the 1911 – 1912, Balkan wars of 1912 -1913. The most significant confrontation of that period was sending the military mission to Turkey by German government, it was headed by general von Sanders and aimed on reorganization and tutoring of the Turkish army (the events happened in December 1913).

Preparing for the war the governing rows of imperialistic government created powerful military industry, the basis of which were the most big and significant governmental plants – ordnance factories, gunpowder factories, ammunition factories, cartridge-manufacturing plants, shipbuilding yards and many others. The private enterprises were involved to the process of military goods and production – in Germany there were Krupp factories and plant, in Austria – Hungary – Schneider – Krezo and St. Chaumont, in Great Britain Wickers and Armstrong – Whitworth, in Russia – Putilov’s factory and many other private manufacturers.

The imperialists of both confronting coalitions were faithfully supporting the military industry, they energetically fixed their defense powers and it is essential that all the contemporary investigations and discoveries of science and techniques were aimed on the providing and supporting military industry and helped to developed radically new tactics of military conflicts. The newer, more perfect armor appeared: rapid rate rifles and machine guns, which provided increasing of the firing powers of the infantry forces; within the artillery arms there was observed significant growth of the quantity in rifled-barrel guns of the newest systems. It goes without saying that the development of railroads had also been a part of the strategic plan. Their role was strategically very significant as they helped to fasten the centralization and deploying for action of the large military masses by the human inputs and any other type of material and technical supports of the army. The role of automobile transport also started to increase. The military air forces appeared – it was really the first military conflict where aviation was used as a military force for bombing, it was innovation that changed the whole idea of the contemporary military confrontation. The usage of the newest means of communication such as telephone, telegraph and radio helped the leaders of the military troops to provide all the necessary arrangements within the army they were leading. The number of soldiers was increasing significantly and well-taught arrearage forces had also appeared during this period of the military development. It goes without saying that imperialist nature of the majority states involved in the WWI was playing probably one of the most significant roles in the military development of the countries. In the field of naval military forces there was severe confrontation between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Germany. Both countries provided huge expenses for supporting their military naval forces. From the 1905 the new type of military ships was involved – the dreadnought type of ships. Up to the 1914 the German naval forces firmly occupied the second place in the highly developed naval forces after the United Kingdom. It goes without saying that the other countries were also intended to develop their naval forces, but financial and economical facilities did not let them to provide the set shipbuilding programs. The increased armament drive was overwhelming and as a result it needed significant financial inputs as it usually happened the labor class was supporting all these expenses.

The wide spread was provided to the ideological support and preparation to the First World War. The Imperialist leaders tried to persuade the nations about inability to avoid serious military confrontation between the states, the militarism became a part of the propaganda and was forced into the applications, chauvinism has also became a significant force for militarism propaganda the leaders of empires used to reach the set aims. It goes without saying that all means of propaganda were used: public means, literature, arts, church are among the most influential and significant for that period. Bourgeoisie of all the states, playing with the patriotic feelings of the different nations, found the real justification for armament race, providing a perfect mask for the expansionist policies by the massaging the theme of the necessity to defend their motherland from the external enemies (i. e. the other countries taking the leading positions on the armament drive).

It goes without saying that the governmental forces at those times, supported by the biggest manufacturers of their countries were intended to solve certain problems with the help of the War. It goes without saying that German government (supported by Krupp manufacturing powers) were intended to enlarge the territory of the state as Germany being separated for quite long period of time did not participated on the military arena and did not take part in the carving up the colonies and territories. German Kaiser Wilhelm II was very ambitious person and supported by the key industrialists he promoted his expanding policy. The internal policy of the Germany at the time of so called “The Long Fuse” by historians was also aimed on concentration the powers within the Kaiser’s hands. He was the one who set his ideas as seeking for the place in the sun for the German nation. Kaiser was the one who found explanation of his policy within the national interest. He built strong military machine due to the Tirpitz plan and was without any doubts successfully confronting British fleet. Being one of the most significant figure in the war Wilhelm II was not the one who forced the events, he just did not prevented the activity of Austria – Hungary. The same time he did not paid enough attention to control the socialist movements in Germany, which also played a significant role and provided an impact on the World War I and made Kaiser to refuse from his title and leave the country. According to Versailles Peace Act Wilhelm II was called the main war criminal, who was supporting the conflict.

It would be necessary to say that all the leaders of some imperialist countries (the core participant in WWI) were relatives – Kaiser, Russian king, Nicholas II and British King George V. It goes without saying that confrontation between the Germany and Britain made both George V and Kaiser seek for the suitable their region politics. George V refused all the German titles when the war broke up.

Alongside with the imperialist leaders there should be mentioned alternative forces. The real force that could prevent the expansion policy of the imperialist government was so called international labor class, which consisted of nearly 150 million people. The labor movement in the worldly measures was headed by the International, which united 41 socio-democratic parties from 27 world countries consisting of 3,4 million members. But the opportunist leaders of the socio-democratic parties from Europe could do nothing for providing in life the anti-military decision of the 2nd International congresses, which took place accurately before the WWI started. As it usually happened the strong political forces supported the governmental policies of their imperialist leaders and voted in the parliaments for supporting the military credits. The Socialist leaders of France, Great Britain and Belgium even took part participating within the bourgeoisie military governments. 2nd International ideology was ruined and it stopped its existence. It should be noted that the left oriented parties of Russia and Germany were the ones that kept on the anti-militarist policy and did not supported the war.

The Russian scenario is well known all over the world. At first the leftists did not supported the military strategy provided by the king, strongly criticizing the intension of the Russian leaders to participate in the WWI and finally it ended by the Revolution of 1917, refuse for further participation in the WWI and Civil war in Russia. The Leftists were supporting the idea that the war is imperialist and do not have any brighter perspectives for the working class all over the world. They were supported by the German social-democrats and some French socialist leaders. The revolutionary ideas provided also very significant impact on the WWI and further development of European history. The German November Revolution was the one that played significant role for the whole war processes and the people can’t stand oppressive military policy anymore. It would be hardly to define was it good or was it not but it is the historical lesson. Kaiser, even supported by manufacturers could do nothing with the growing indignation from the masses. The German scenario did not cost so many ruins for the country as the Russian one, but it was a total loss of the campaign. The united European power oppressed Kaiser and he could not keep on anymore. It goes without saying that all the united factors started the war and the united factors ended it. The most powerful world states were involved in the conflicts and it was looking like the demonstration of scientific and technical achievements of the confronting sides [3] , expanding policies of the country that did not took part in the main division of the colonies and the participation of the private companies in the supporting the war processes.

In the end I would like to return to the very beginning. The represented statistical data, the death rates, the appearing of inhuman weapons that is still become a very contradictory question. The whole WWI was the shift moment in the world and especially European history. It showed who actually who is, the demonstration of power and forces showed the equipment and the results of armament rate. The revolution and socialist leaders and ambivalent figure of Lenin in Russian Revolution of 1917 all these were powers involved in the WWI, the results of which are really significant if we look back to observe them. The start of the new division and the expansion policies could be hardly accepted by contemporary society but the case of Kaiser Wilhelm II and other military leaders, who were intended to demonstrate the powers, the united powers that stressed Europe are really good lessons from the history. The after effects were different for the many countries. But we know that in the end there was significant crisis in Europe and US and other countries involved in WWI. Understanding the core ideas and lessons of the First World War is really important for contemporary world. The First World War gave a strong push to the development of missiles of massive attacks and the first weapons of mass destruction were tried. Personally I think that in the present day world such type of conflicts is impossible as the results were undertaken. Historians still argue of the roots of WWI conflict that stressed all the European powers and make them either unite or confront and the common reason is one. During the 10 years Europe was living under the tension and stress, the small attempts of the territory fights were not enough for the countries growing their weapons and making significant inputs into the military and defense industry (it should be noted that manufacturers also supported the idea of the military conflict and took an active part in supporting the governmental forces). They need to demonstrate the power and start the re-division, more significant than Morocco crisis and the result was WWI engaging the strongest European forces.

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