Marx and engels and society
Marx and Engels were two great thinkers of their time and they believed in subdividing society into several classes. Their thoughts were quite different from the philosophers of the enlightenment, because the philosophers had their own thought process and they thought differently because they had different priorities and they ideally believed in the growth of Renaissance.
Marx and Engels developed the socialist theory according to which, the modern industrial world was sub-divided into classes which differentiated the entire society. The most significant classes were the bourgeois and the proletariats. While the bourgeois were the land owners who owned factories and several means of production, the proletariats were people who simply worked for wages. In an effort to succeed, the bourgeois were required to constantly revise and update their means of production in a bid to increase the capital inflow so as to build bigger cities, promoting new inventions and ensuring that they could procure cheaper commodities on a regular basis. As the means of production expanded, the value of proletariats decreases. The workers on the other hand, remained alienated and were basically on their own with no political influence to boast of. Nonetheless, they constituted a majority of the population and it is because of proletariats that the specter of communism in Industrial Europe got a boost.
The philosophers of enlightenment started a philosophical movement in the 18th century and laid emphasis on the philosophy of reason in a bid to access several proven doctrines of the past. They also brought about many humanitarian reforms. The basic aim of philosophers of enlightenment was to end the period of doubtful tradition, which was completely filled with irrationality, atrocities and superstitious behavior. Their main aim was to end the atrocities which began with the dark ages. This movement led to the French as well as the American Revolution. It helped in the rise of capitalism, socialism, fascism as well as liberalism. It also led to the rise of art and music and was denoted by logical positivism. Some of the leaders of this movement were Voltaire, David Hume and Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Engles & Marks, 1848).
Stearns, Adas, Schwartz and Gilbert 2009 argue that, during the year 1450 and 1750, the Western Civilization changed dramatically and from a generally agrarian society, the west was transformed into a manufacturing society. It was the onset of Renaissance which brought about drastic changes in terms of culture and commerce and paved the way for Italian Renaissance before moving northwards to Spain, England and other parts of Europe. It also led to the changes in family and technology and gave rise to the protestant and catholic reformations. It also led to the end of Christian unity in the western world, gave rise to the commercial revolution, gave birth to social protests, changed the basis of science and politics, gave birth to the Copernicus copy, provided science a new authority, gave rise to absolute and parliamentary monarchies, gave rise to a nation state, changed the existing political patterns, enlightened thought and popular culture, changed the existing manufacturing and commerce patterns and connected Europe with the remaining world. In this era, thinkers continued to think with special regards to scientific reasoning and there was a stage wherein the human society as a whole started being studied on the basis of applied scientific methods. People strived for economic equality and abolishment of private property and they even argued for the growth of women rights. The only unfortunate resultant of this movement was that Europeans started to believe that they were far superior to others and this thought had a great impact on the development of the European culture as a whole.
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