Kim Jong Ii Of The Soviet Union History Essay
1. Kim Jong Il was born in 1941 in the Soviet Union the eldest son of Kim Il Sung and his first wife, Kim Jong Suk. North Korea’s official biographies, however, state his year of birth as 1942 and his birthplace as Korea. He has been the leader of North Korea for over a decade. Since Kim is not actually the president, he does not have to hold elections to keep power, and has never done so. North Koreans learn that a double rainbow over the mountains and a new star in the heavens announced Kim Jong Il’s birth. They are also taught that he is the world’s greatest and kindest ruler. They call him "Dear Leader". It is extremely dangerous for any North Korean to say anything negative about him. He is leader of the world’s fourth largest army.
2. He spent the first three years of his life in the Soviet Union and was known as Yuri. Official records say he was educated in Pyongyang. Foreign reports claim he went to school in China to escape the Korean War. He was involved in political activities throughout his schooling. At university he studied Marxism, philosophy and military science. Kim has a daughter and three sons, but there is no official information about his marital history. His hobbies include collecting cars and watching movies. He has many luxury Mercedes and over 20,000 videos. His favorite films include the James Bond series. He also loves golf. North Korea’s government reports that Kim gets up to four holes-in-one every time he plays.
3. Following the death of Kim Il Sung on 08 July 1994, Kim Jong Il inherited supreme power. There had never been this kind of dynastic succession in a communist regime before. Kim Jong Il was named General Secretary of the Korean Workers' Party in October 1997, and in September 1998, the Supreme People's Assembly reconfirmed Kim Jong Il as Chairman of the National Defense Commission and declared that position as the highest office of state. Kim Jong Il micro-manages every detail of government business. Kim Jong Il created a system of summarizing an account of events from all over North Korea into a daily report format during consolidation of his power within the party. Kim Jong Il's impatience and extemporaneous behavior contrasts markedly with Kim Il Sung's magnanimity and charisma.
4. In addition, the junior Kim does not take kindly to criticism or opinions different from his own. Kim Jong Il's personality can be characterized by suspicion, and is extremely emotional in his expression of his likes and dislikes, which borders on double personality. Many of the stories about Kim Jong Il's eccentricities and decadent life-style are exaggerated, possibly circulated by South Korean intelligence to discredit the Northern regime. Kim Jong Il is a movie fanatic, and is said to have a collection of over 20,000 films.
5. A rare insight into one of the world's most feared leaders from his goose-stepping military parades to his clownish macho swagger, North Korea's Kim Jong Il seems a strange amalgam of political caricature and genuine global menace. Ruler of a country of 23 million and in charge of a nuclear arsenal he's threatened to use against the United States. Kim Jong Il nonetheless remains mysterious to most Americans. In Kim Jong Il a leading Korea expert unearths the true nature of the man, addressing common myths and fallacies, while shedding light on his hold over a country ravaged by poverty and famine.
6. According to the soviet records baby Kim was born in 1941 in the village of Vyatskoye, during his father (Kim Il Sung) commanded the 1st battalion of the Soviet 88th brigade. His mother is Kim Jong Suk. Kim official biography indicates that his birthday is on 16 February 1942. During the year 1945 when the World War II ended Korea gained the independent from Japan. With this back ground in September 1945 Kim returned to Korea with his father. Later in 1949 Kim’s mother died in a child birth. Kim’s primary education period is between 1950 – 1960.during this period he is more likely to stay at People’s Republic of China in order to protect from Korean War.
7. During his school days throughout he involved in politics. He was very active and efficient member of the children’s unions. After becoming a vice chairmen of his school democratic youth league, he organized competitions and seminars as well as he helped arrange the field trip around the country. During school days Kim was very interest on music’s agriculture and automotive repairs. Also he was interested to visit factories and farms during his school days. Kim entered the Kim Il Sung University in September 1960 and after four years he completed his graduation in 1964. Also it is said that Kim has received English language education at the University of Malta in the early 1970s.
8. According to the facts there is no information about his married life. But it has been noticed he has got four wives and four children’s. It has been identified as Kim Young Sook is his first wife and their kid is Kim Sul Song (daughter). Kim’s second wife is Song Hye Rim and their kid is Kim Jong Nam who is believed as a eldest son. Kim’s third wife is Ko Young Hee and their children’s are Kim Jong Chul (son) and Kim Jong Un (son). Presently Kim is living with Kim Ok who was his personal secretary from 1980s.she expose as first lady in the country and frequently accompanied by his husband.
9. Kim John Il started his political life when he was student and soon after the graduation in 1964 he began to go up in the ranks of Korean workers party. Soon after the graduation Kim was appointed as instructor and section chief to the party central committee. He was very enthusiastic to enforce party ideological system among the country’s media writers and artists. Also he was very keen to oversee activities of the propaganda and agitation department. During this period Kim was very active in politics and in September 1970 Kim was appointed as vice director of the party central committee. Shortly after in year 1972 he became an elected member of party central committee. Two years later he was elected political committee of the party central committee. During this period Kim was identified as dear leader and intelligent leader.
10. During the year of 1980 Kim was able to take control of the Korean workers party. As well as he appointed to senior post of the politburo, the military commission and as a secretary to the party. In year 1991(December) Kim was appointed as supreme commander of the North Korean armed forces. In the year 1992 Kim Il Sung announced that Kim John Il was in charge of all internal affaires in the democratic peoples republic of Korea. After two years later in year 1994 (July 8) his father died and Kim became the leader of democratic peoples republic of Korea. After few years in 1997 Kim was given the full authority to handle the country and appointed as General Secretary of the workers party of Korea and chairmen of the national defense commission.
a. Economic Policies. North Korea is one of the communist country in the world. It has centralized command economy. Kim adopted a military first policy too strengthen the country. All the economics plans prepare, supervise and implemented by a central planning committee. It is one of the country which has almost government planned state owned economy. Due to the North Korean isolation policy international trade is highly restricted. By implementation of land mark socialist type market economics practice make the North Korean lead to the continued dependency on foreign aid for food. After 1990 government approved some activity of small scale bartering and trade. After years now it seems to be clue of a free market system in the North Korea. Later in year 2002 Kim stated that money should be capable of measuring the worth of all commodities.
b. Foreign relations. North Korea is identified as one of the most isolated country in the world. Due to the Korean War in year 1950 – 1953 diplomatic relationship was broken between North Korea and South Korea. In order to avoid misunderstanding between North Korea and South Korea Kim Dae Jung implemented a sun shine policy. It is with the idea of build up relationship between North Korea and South Korea. Positively reacted by Kim John Il established the Kesong industrial park in year 2003. But due to various incidents yet there is no sound understanding between North Korea and South Korea. Since the North Korea possessing nuclear facilities, united states oppose it. Due to that six party talks were held to find a peace full solution for the misunderstanding between two Korean governments. North Korea, South Korea, Russia, China, Japan and United States were participated for the negotiation table. Since North Korea is a communist country Kim John Il keep close friendship with Russia and the china. Also he keeps contact with Vietnam, Laos as well as the Cambodia.
11. Kim Jong Il could be considered as a leader who exercised Msn comd towards his subordinates, in that when he want to launch an all-Party struggle to expose and smash anti-Party revisionists organizationally to achieve the unity and cohesion of the Party. In mid-April of 1967, a meeting of officials of the Party Central Committee was held to stamp out the evil ideological aftereffects of the anti-Party revisionists. He also took great efforts to establish the Party’s monolithic ideological system in the Korean People’s Army. Kim Jong Il energetically fought against the military bureaucratic actions of alien elements who had established a foothold in commanding positions of the army.
13. Kim Jong Il personally mixed with working people and inspired Party members and other working people to a fresh, great revolutionary upsurge. He visited the Ryongsong Machine Factory on August 8, 1967, explained the essence and significance of the Party’s new policy of affecting a great revolutionary upsurge and encouraged the workers to advance in the vanguard of this upsurge. They did it more than 80 days ahead of schedule as befitting standard- bearers of the great upsurge. The appeal of the workers of Ryongsong and the success of their efforts powerfully encouraged the working class throughout the country to undertake a great revolutionary upsurge.
14. Kim Jong Il ensured that efforts were made to carry out the task of socialist industrialization by establishing an independent and modern industry in the building of socialist economy. He visited the most of factories, industries and work sites and gave guidance to the workers so that the problems of strengthening the independence of industry and stepping up its modernization were solved successfully. Kim Jong Il saw that the tendency of doing Party work by administrative methods, such as giving orders and directions and collecting statistics, was eliminated once and for all, and that Party work was completely turned into work among people, into political work. To affect a revolution in the cinema, Kim Jong Il paid prime attention to fully preparing film artists, who were entrusted with this task, politically and practically.
15. He encouraged film artists to work hard to arm themselves with the Juche idea, make them revolutionary and assimilate themselves to the working class. Successful fulfillment of the national economic plan for 1974, the first year of grand socialist construction, was a decisive factor in carrying out the Six-Year Plan ahead of schedule, before the 30th anniversary of the founding of the Party, and in making a leap forward to a high stage in grand socialist construction. Kim Jong Il initiated a 70-day campaign and the key to the victory of the 70-day campaign in ideological motivation, and made sure that education in loyalty to the Party and the leader, as well as the struggle to overcome every manner of ideological malady obstructing progress, were stepped up among the working people. During this period industrial production grew by 70 percent and the gross industrial output value in 1974 increased by 17.2 per cent compared with the previous year.
16. Kim Jong Il took measures to provide scientists and technicians with better conditions for scientific research and ensured that the officials who had achieved great successes in their scientific and technical research were conferred with decorations and honorary titles. He made efforts to intensify the practice of Juche-motivated tactics, shooting and physical training and sport within the army, improve military equipment with the main emphasis on raising the capacity of the units for attacking and their mobility, and make the combat and technical equipment modern and home-made. As a result, the People’s Army made remarkable progress in its military and technical preparations. Kim Jong Il clarified the origination of the Juche idea, of philosophy centering on man and clarified a new philosophical principle that man is the master of everything and decides everything, he developed further the Juche-orientated view of man’s essential characteristics and gave scientific definitions to a fresh view and stand on the world based on the philosophical principle of Juche.
17. Kim Jong Il also worked energetically to bring about a great revolutionary upsurge in the building of the defenses to increase the nation’s defense capabilities. Kim Jong Il explained the specific tasks for boosting the defense capability of the country in February 1968, and led the army and the people to their implementation. He attached primary importance to firmly arming the soldiers politically and ideologically in increasing the defense capabilities of the country, and made sure the Party organizations and political organs in the army did away with the evil consequences of military bureaucracy, and carried out political and ideological education of the soldiers in depth. He mastered the Juche oriented tactics to command which would enable them to efficiently command battles and administer their units under any circumstances.
18. Kim Jong Il paid close attention to improving weapons and equipment of the People’s Army and guided the work of the munitions industry to mass-produce powerful modern weapons to suit the specific conditions of Korea and the constitution of the Koreans. To arm all the people, he made sure that a better organized commanding system was established for the Worker-Peasant Red Guards, and that their weapons and equipment were improved and their training intensified. To effect the fortification of the whole country on a higher stage, along with the arming of the entire people, he inspected the east and west coasts and other points of military importance in July 1967 and on many other occasions afterwards.
19 Kim Jong Il ensured that the 60th birthday of Kim Il Sung was celebrated in fabulous style and guided the people to cherish intense loyalty to the leader on the occasion, and devote everything to the struggle to carry forward the revolutionary cause of Juche to completion through the generations. He led the Party members and working people to engrave the loyalty to the Party and leader with belief and conscience and to sublimate it into the morality of their life. As a result, the whole Party and the society were converted into a socio-political organism, sharing life and death on the basis of revolutionary obligation and comradeship, and into a large family of kinship living in harmony, helping and leading each other. He led the Party members and working people to engrave the loyalty to the Party and leader with belief and conscience and to sublimate it into the morality of their life. As a result, the whole Party and the society were converted into a socio-political organism, sharing life and death on the basis of revolutionary obligation and comradeship, and into a large family of kinship living in harmony, helping and leading each other.
20. He guided Party meetings and meetings to review stage performances in film art on many occasions and induced film artists to retain loyalty to the Party and the leader and establish a strong discipline and system for carrying out their creative activities under the leadership of the Party. He induced Party officials to make it a rule to visit their subordinate units, carrying knapsacks on their backs to work there, as the anti-Japanese guerrillas had done, and to establish a well-organized system of guiding their subordinate units, a system under which they would work at these units for 20 days a month, and then return to their respective departments to rearm themselves and elaborate a new work plan during the remaining ten days. Kim Jong Il has enjoyed absolute authority as the leader of the revolution and boundless trust and respect of the Korean people. He set military affairs as the most important of the state affairs and regarded the Korean People’s Army as the main force of the revolution and backbone of the self-reliant defense force.
Unity of effort.
21. Kim Jong Il inspired the army to give full play to the qualities of unity between officers and soldiers, unity between Party members and members of the League of Socialist Working Youth and unity between the army and the people. He ensured intensified military training, strict military discipline and strengthened fighting capacity and combat preparations of the People’s Army. From early 1992 he saw to it that various kinds of combat training was organized and conducted at a higher level, and gave field guidance.
22. Inspired by his on-site guidance, the officers and men of the KPA have been fully prepared as the foremost guard and death-defying corps of the Supreme Commander Kim Jong Il, fighting without hesitating to lay down their youth and life under the slogan “Let us defend at the risk of our lives the headquarters of the revolution headed by Kim Jong Il.
23. Kim John Il is a highly motivated and determined person from his child hood. By looking at his father, Kim learnt the politics from his chilled hood. Courage and determination to climb up in the political ladder is significantly displayed by his character. He entered the politics while schooling and practiced command and leadership by the students guiding towards ideological education. He improves the organizing capability from the school by organizing academic competition, seminars and the field trip. He also identified as a good listener and follower. Kim followed his fathers foot steps from the beginning of his carrier and ultimately able to climb up to the top of the political ladder of the country. He believed to be a hard working man and able to tolerate any hardships coming on to him. It is obviously proved that Kim silently waits for 22 years to become leader of the country. He became leader of the country at the age of 55 years. Through out of his 55 years of life he learnt the politics as a doctrine which will play major role in his life as a political leader. Kim is very emotional person and does not like to take criticism over his opinions. Because of this quality of life some used to say that Kim John Il is dictator.
24. He was very genius in his profession and able to evacuate all barriers which came cross along the march towards leadership of the country. Initially he displaced his father’s younger brother who was eligible to become leader of the country. Kim Yong Ju hides from the public life in year around 1975 and later he was appointed as four vice president in the country. Later one of his brother Kim Pyong Il emerge as a hair to leadership of the country. It is also exaggerated by his mother Kim Song Ae, but Kim John Il able to send him abroad as a ambassador to Hungary followed by Bulgaria, Finland and most recently to Poland. As a leader he posses the quality of foresee of the situation, hence he got the remedial action in correct place at the correct time by displacing his fathers younger brother and the sending his brother as ambassador he avoided the threat for command comprehensively. Kim John Il is commander in chief for the fourth largest army in the world. Kim already controls the total of 9495000 active military members in his army. Although there were two reported coup attempt against Kim, he able to notice them before hand. Although there were coup attempt to eliminate his power he did not demoralize him self.
25. He managed to over come almost all the resistant come from the military and success in his political carrier. As a leader he had the courage to over come the barriers ahead in the political life. It is one of a great quality that he had the common sense to decision making at the decisive point. If he did not take sound decision of the place where he came cross with two military coups his leadership would not have been there in the North Korea presently. Also introducing military first system in the country he demonstrated the faithfulness towards the military of the country. It is obvious that a person controlling a fourth largest army in the world posses enormous leadership qualities around his character. Kim seems to be a person who makes decision based on his own evaluation. He is advised by various groups in and around him. But the information provided to him is not much believed by the Kim himself. So Kim John Il aware about this situation and established informal network around the country. These informers inform directly his office regarding any matter which interested by the leader. Kim also poses good quality which takes the advice from visiting locals around the country. This practice has given the opportunity of taking on the spot guidance to their leader. This system of gathering of information displayed that Kim is prefer to listen to an others views and get the idea through practical experience of the people.
26. Success of the leader depends on how much he has understood the desired aim correctly and concisely. Kim John Il is a leader who had understand his aim clearly. From the child hood he walks along the path of success. He was a shadow of his father Kim Il Sung. When, his father commanding the men on the ground, Kim was eager to learn the style of the leadership on the ground. The back ground knowledge gain from his father immensely helps him to achieve the desired political goal. Kim understands the heart beat of his own people. Following his fathers foot steps Kim able to closely amalgamate with his own people a member of the family. North Korean leader has several distinguish characteristics in his life some are unique to him and carry from his birth. Although Kim John Il command the fourth largest army in the world he has the fear of flying. Politics is a field which changes frequently depending on the changing situation. Kim tolerated 22 years for all the changes happened in his political path towards the goal. A dynamic characteristic displayed by his father was the seed of success of Kim John Il political carrier.
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