History Of Thomas Paine In America History Essay
The history of America started with the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. However during this time Spain was in power and the Spanish colonized some parts of America. England’s colonization of America started with the victory against the Spanish Armada. This victory against the Spanish Armada made England rich and opened passageways for trades. However, the process of colonization was hard and bitter because of the lack of knowledge of the new land, and the continuous attacks of native Indians. Later on, England managed to establish 13 colonies. Many European countries wanted to establish a colony in America just like what England did. The French and the natives held hands to get rid of the colonists. England protected the colonists against the French and the Natives. After many long wars, England lost tremendous amount of money, and therefore made various taxing policies such as the Stamp Act to gain money from the colonists. However, one third of the colonies were unsatisfied with the English government for not giving the colonists representation. Eventually the relationship between the colonies and the mother country deteriorated. The colonists united soon and declared independence from England. The Declaration of Independence was the spark of the American Revolutionary War. It was then one of the Founding Fathers; Thomas Paine, helped the colonists to fight for their rights against the English government.
Paine was born in England Thetford Norfolk; he was raised among farmers and common people. His formal education was minimal and he had an unsuccessful life in England. With the recommendation of Benjamin Franklin, Paine immigrated to the British American colonies in 1774 to participate in the American Revolution. There were many significant works Thomas Paine did while staying in America. Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense and The Crisis to fight against the tyranny of the English government and fought against the society to protect human’s right. My definition of significant is “having great impact in American history”. 1. Out of these three works Paine did the most significant work while Paine’s life in America was his writing of Common Sense. Common Sense was significant because it was the spark that caused the Independence of America. Common Sense was published in 1776; it urged the colonists to recognize the tyranny of King George, and to fight for their own independence. The publishing of this document changed many of the loyalists’ thoughts thus making many supporters of the war. Without Common Sense the outcome of the American Revolutionary War could have been different because without the support of the colonists meant defeat. 2.The second most important work he did was writing The Crisis. The Crisis was written by the request of George Washington during the bitter times of the American Revolutionary War when the hope of victory seemed to be gone due to the shortage of the militia. The Crisis was significant because it inspired many Americans to fight the American Revolutionary War against the British Government. The Crisis also changed the many minds of the militia, who wanted to go back to their hometown to meet their family, to stay. The Crisis was also another contribution of Thomas Paine which led to the victory of the American Revolutionary War. 3.The third significant influence Thomas Paine had was fighting against slavery. After the American Revolutionary War ended Thomas Paine wanted to end the slavery as well. However the pressure from slave owners was too great to overcome. However he managed to make a footmark of the protest against slavery in America. When Thomas Paine came America he was employed as one of the writers on the Pennsylvania Magazine. The first article he wrote in America was an attack on the American Slavery. Through this event Thomas made many enemies. In the same year in August he wrote for a plea for the Rights of Woman. In the second day of November, 1779 Thomas Paine was introduced into writing the preamble for the Assembly of Pennsylvania and the act for the abolition of slavery. This is one of the significant influences of Thomas Paine because he raised the awareness of slavery and other human rights.
“Grippingly, using images and metaphors of high, sophisticated caliber….. His images, lively and sharp, were profoundly meaningful to his readers who understood exactly what he meant when he no merely belittled the king of England but turned him into a monster….. He couched his argument in a language designed to inflame, to convince readers that there were no alternatives to separation from England and in effect to get them to go to war against the English government. He offered a good deal of his message consequently in extreme terms. Monarchy was always evil, kings eternally animalistic, noblemen invariably voracious, the people consistently virtuous .”(Fruchtman, 1994, page 63, 64, 69)
Common Sense, the most significant work of Thomas Paine was published in the earlier times of the American Revolutionary War. Because it was written by an Englishman it gained popularity and became an immediate success. Thomas Paine was lowly educated; he wrote his pamphlet in plain English. Consequently the plain English was one of the factors that made the Common Sense a best seller. Most of the colonists back then weren’t highly educated and there were only public schools. The easy English allowed the colonists to understand the Common Sense effectively. “Paine, by contrast “assumed knowledge of no authority but the Bible and provided immediate translation for the few Latin words phrases he employed.” (Foner, 1976, page 83).
Common Sense was written in 4 sections. To begin with Section 1 Thomas Paine basically argues that the best balance between society and government is by the process of election, and going further he criticizes the monarchy of Great Britain. In the following section he uses the bible to argue that all men are equal at creation therefore the subjection of the king is false. In Section 3 examines the relation between the States and England and argues that the best way to end hostility is through the action of independence. In the last section, he discussed the optimistic views of the military forces of America; also he stated that they would have to make a navy strong enough fight against the British Navy. Common Sense can be summarized in three points. “The English system is corrupt, despotic, and contemptible: reconciliation with such a system is such a foolish and delusive recompense of American suffering; America should be and can become and independent republic.” (Smith, 1938, p 23) The Battles of Saratoga occurred in September 19 and October 7, 1777. It was known as the turning point of the Revolutionary War. However many historians believe that without Common Sense, this event wouldn’t have happened. Common Sense was the starting point in the domino effect that led to the American Independence. In simpler terms it urged the colonists to stop recognizing the tyranny, King George, and fight for the nation’s independence. It is also one of the factors that led to an increase of the militia.
The Crisis was the second most important contribution of Thomas Paine that influenced greatly to the victory of the American Revolutionary War. The Crisis or American Crisis is a collection of articles written by Thomas Paine during the American Revolutionary War. Thomas Paine wrote total of 13 articles for The Crisis for 7 years, starting from 1776 to 1783. Thomas Paine wrote his first article in December 23 of 1776. The first article was written for the sake of George Washington when he sent a letter to Thomas Paine. The American Revolution falls in to two stages.
The first stage is from 1776 to 1778, when the fighting took place in the North. During this stage George Washington’s greatest role was to gather an army and prevent the British army to destroy the northern parts of the colonies. George Washington successfully defended the British troops from conquering the Northern states. The second stage of the American revolutionary War came in the years of 1779 to 1781. After being defeated, the British troops retreated to the Southern States where most of the Loyalists were staying. The British troops hoped that the Loyalists in the South would help them. And if the Southern colonies were conquered first it would be easier for the British to take over the Northern colonies. When the British troops retreated to Boston, George Washington moved his army to the New York City and Long Islands because he expected the next attack. With no surprise the British troops attacked George Washington in New York City. However the situation was different this time. The British Army had reinforcements from the British Government. The force of the reinforced army had 32,000 soldiers. However George Washington only had 23,000 men, most of them were untrained militia. In the 27th the British fully trained troops inflicted heavy casualties to Washington’s untrained armies. Knowing that if the American army was lost, the dream of becoming an independent nation would be lost, George Washington retreated to New Jersey. After a terrible defeat many of the militia went back to their home. Also the regular troops were on only a year of enlistments that would end on December 31. Because the military situation looked so bad not many of the military re-enlisted.
In December 7th while George Washington was crossing the Delaware River into Pennsylvania he informed Thomas Paine that if the army cannot be recruited the battle is pretty much over. Because this situation was a crisis Thomas Paine named his article The Crisis. George Washington received reinforcements from other units and 2000 militia from Pennsylvania. Having believed that he should attack soon, George Washington attacked with his new army in the night of December 25. John Glover helped George Washington to ferry the 2500 troops who were going to strike Trenton where the Hessian mercenaries were. George Washington’s surprise worked because the mercenaries had celebrated the holiday last night and were sleeping without any expectation that the American army might strike. The victory at Trenton made the troops to re-enlist in the army and other new people to enlist in the army. After the battle of Trenton, the army won the following battles. After winning the Battle of Saratoga the victory of the American colonies were solidified. Because the French saw that the Americans had the potential to build a country and defend. I think this source is pretty accurate because I took the idea from a textbook. Textbooks are usually less biased than other writings.
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