Ethnic Group Conflict Paper History Essay
In our time, one of the most important and major ethnic conflicts facing mankind is the conflict in the Middle East. Since the end of the World War II, once in every ten years there was a big war, not counting the border incidents. The conflict continued for over sixty years, and nobody knows when and how it will end.
In the conflict participated Arab countries (Lebanon, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Egypt, Iraq and other Arab countries) and the Jewish state of Israel. During the conflict were concluded many agreements on cease-fire between the different countries, but the conflict still continues and every year it becomes more and more aggressive by the Jews and the Arabs. There are new reasons for the war and purposes in it. But the main purpose of the Arabs is the creation of a sovereign State in Palestine, which was created after the UN resolution of November 29, 1947.
The conflict has claimed thousands of lives with one and other. It created millions of refugees in Arab countries and Israel. Both people (Arabic and Hebrew) had economic, physical and moral losses. These losses motivate hostile parties to take the inevitable truce. Those forces within each nation and international community who are looking for these truces - contribute to establishing peace between the two ethnical groups. For many years the problem of conflict was tried to be solved the UN Security Council, the EU, United States, Russia, and the issue was discussed even at the summits of the Big Eight. But finding a consensus is impossible, due to apparent reluctance of various groups of countries to resolve the conflict.
In the conflicts in the Middle East it is very difficult to find out - who is right or wrong. Over the past fifty years here on all sides so much blood was spilled, which caused so many insults and injuries that a strong desire for revenge and to "restore justice" will always haunt the hearts and minds of people living in the belligerent countries.
According to Ann Lesch (1998), Palestine (Territories in the Middle East off the coast of the Mediterranean Sea) since ancient times, was an arena of wars between states. Since the days of Moses in this area had been wars between the Jews and Egyptian kingdom. At the beginning of our era on the stage, a new more powerful invader came to this land - the Roman Empire. After the conquest and destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in the seventies, the Jews were dispersed to different countries. And then, after the Arab Caliphate conquered the Promised Land, a group of Jewish immigrants from Europe began to settle in Palestine. After the collapse of the Arab Caliphate in the sixteenth century, Palestine possessed the Ottoman Empire. With the emergence of social and political movement in the late nineteenth century - Zionism, resettlement has intensified.
In 1897, at the congress in the Swiss city of Basel delegates Jewish community, led by Theodor Herzl (Austrian writer of Jewish origin, a journalist. Founder of the ideology of Zionism) established the World Zionist Organization, and had the stated purpose of "gathering" all Jews in Eretz Israel.
During the First World War, the British army occupied Palestinian land and the peace treaty of Sevres in 1920 acquired the status of mandatory Palestine in the UK. In order to reduce the Arab and Jewish aggression towards themselves, the authorities decided to allow the mandate of their communities to manage their own internal affairs, but it did not improve the situation in Palestine, Jews and Arabs were different opinions regarding the future of this land: both sides considered it their own, both sides thought that they own the right to establish their state. After United Nations (UN) establishment in 1945, they began to consider the question of Palestine. Thus, already at a UN conference on November 29, 1947, it was decided to establish two new states in the Middle East: Arabic and Jewish.
Since then, the Middle East has not improved the relations between Arab countries and Israel. Everything started with the UN resolutions from twenty ninth day of November 1947. Most of the representatives of the UN voted to create the Middle East of two independent states, Arab and Jewish. Jerusalem would be under UN control.
According to Tarek Heggy (2007), in May expired the mandate of Great Britain in Palestine. Fourteenth of May 1948, Ben-Gurion (the Jews call him the "the father of the nation") has declared the state of Israel. Jews, having received the authority, over the territory assigned to them, have begun evicting Palestinian Arabs from their native lands. Thus, there is a problem of Palestinian refugees, who can say, that everything is still not resolved. In a few days, of these refugees came about 250 000. Soon, May 15, the League of Arab States (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt) declared war on the newly created Jewish state, the Arab League (League of Arab States) from the outset protested against the creation of a Jewish state on Arab territory. Israel has had two great advantages: first - they were supported by the U.S. and the USSR, and secondly they delivered one of the most advanced weapons of the time from Czechoslovakia. Arabs were supported only by Great Britain.
On January 13, 1949 in Rhodes between the two sides began negotiations that led to the truce. Armistice Agreement was signed: with Egypt on February 24, with Jordan on 3 April, with Syria - on July 20. These armistice agreements did not settle the Middle East conflict, which arose as a result of the Arab-Israeli war. They were temporary and did not decide definitively territorial issues. Thus, because of the war, the Palestinian Arabs could not exercise their right to establish their own state, which has become a victim of extremist Jews. The war only marked the beginning of the subsequent conflicts in the region.
In 1950, Israel defiance of the UN declared Jerusalem its capital. In turn, Arab governments have returned to their old slogans about "throw the Israelis into the sea and wipe the Jewish state off the map".
After that, during a few decades there were a lot of war conflicts between these ethnical groups, among them: The Six Day War, 1973 war, Lebanese-Israeli war of 1982 and others.
According to Cinnamon Stillwell (2008), 15 November 1988 the Palestine proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine with Jerusalem as its capital, after the event began the peace process in the Middle East. To enhance the world in 1991 at the initiative of the United States and the Soviet Union, was carried out the Madrid Middle East peace conference. At this conference were brought together representatives of all the belligerent Arab countries and Israel for a peaceful solution. As a result of the conference, was developed the formula of "peace for land". The Conference gave impetus to the negotiation process in the Middle East. In September 1993 was signed a declaration of principles between the Palestine and Israel.
Thus, attempts to resolve the conflict are still being made, despite the difficult security situation in the Palestinian territories. However, until now, such attempts did not give any results. This is understandable - the parties continue to insist on their basic requirements and are ready to make concessions in the details - but not in the main. As long as this situation will be retained – we will not be able to solve all existing problems. Arab-Israeli conflict has been going on for a long time and the current situation cannot hope for its quick resolution - too many interests are intertwined in a small Palestinian territory.
I would like to propose a way out of the situation in Palestine: Israel should withdraw from the Zionist policies and to establish equality among all segments of the population that allowed us to solve the problem of Palestinian refugees. Also, Israel must return the occupied in 1967 Golan Heights to Syria, which belongs to it under international law.
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