Analysis Of The Aspects Of Government History Essay
From the early days of his ruling in 1969, and influenced by Nasser of Egypt, Gaddafi had revolutionary ideas. Ever since, Gathaffi has led Libya by the absolute force of his personality and peculiar style of leadership. First, he launched the "revolution" where he divided the government and restructured Libya politically to abide by his Third Universal Theory- which favored socialism and rejected capitalism and communism. Although he promoted for a new democracy embodied in "the power of the masses" or the "Jamahiriya", the reality was a rigid political regimen that merely dominated the country and he was the sole person with control on both the executive and the legislative functions of the government. (Black, 2000)
Moreover, he eradicated Libya from what he called the "politically sick", dissolved the constitution and formed a "people's militia" to defend the revolution. ( Retrieved from www.en.wikipedia.org)
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His regimen was a mixture of Arab- Islamic socialism with what he called "the direct popular democracy". (Retrieved from www.en.wikipedia.org)
Since 1973, he laid his political and ideological theories and later made the General People's Congress the principal apparatus of government. (Retrieved from www.countrystudies.us/libya) His ideology of government differs from what is known in other countries where governmental organizations are given a certain level of authority and delegation. He, however, considers that just with their establishment, he has fulfilled modern democracy. (Retrieved from www.countrystudies.us/libya) For some scholars, Gathffi's ideology is somehow a part of the Western democratic thought connected with the Rousseauian thought that adopts the concept of that sovereignty is inalienable, indivisible, and infallible. (Retrieved from www.countrystudies.us/libya)
Gathaffi's ideology of one man ruling was primarily about eliminating opposition. From early days, he had responded with violence to internal and external antagonism. For example, he sponsored attacks, ordered the assassination of opposition leaders abroad, and abolished political parties. He also ordered the public execution of rebels so others would feel intimidated. (Retrieved from www.en.wikipedia.org)
This is evidenced again in the February, 2011 uprising where he declared that he will "fight to death" and reacted with violence using armed air attacks against dissidents resulting in thousands of deaths.
Moreover, he has paid foreign African mercenaries to kill protestors. It is as if he declared war against his own people. (Retrieved from www.en.wikipedia.org)
Being so grandiose, Gathaffi articulated his ideology in a three-part book that sets out his political ideology. He forced it on everyone and everything in Libya. It was broadcasted on radio and T.V., taught in schools and universities and posted on buildings and everywhere. No one would escape punishment if caught criticizing " The Green Book" because that would be considered a criticism to the Gathaffi's ideology which in turn is deemed an opposition. ( National Public Radio, 2011).
What was or is the power base of this man as undisputed leader?
Many factors contributed to Gathaffi's power and rendering him an undisputed leader and designer of his country. First and from the early days of Gathaffi's ruling, he resolved that the success and power lay in the Libyan armed forces. Thus, he made the military in charge of the government. (Black, 2000) He became of total control of air force. (Escobar, 2011)
He also recognized the strong influence of the tribal system in Libya. Therefore, he ensured strengthening relationships with tribes' leaders in order to assist him in extinguishing any growing opposition. He utilized a tactic embodied in the concept of "people army" thus he was able to control the army. And to guarantee the loyalty of these tribes, he bribed them and appointed them in key army positions, eliminating any opposition. That resulted in the demolition of the civil society. (Escobar, 2011) He also recruited militias and mercenaries to manage any nonconformists.(Retrieved from www.townhall.com) That is in addition to recruiting around 10-20% of the Libyans to work in close watch for his revolutionary committees. (Retrieved from www.en.wikipedia.org)
Another major factor is that he redefined Libya from his own perspective. He expelled foreigners, nationalized oil companies, and set out his leadership ideology. He suspended the constitution and prohibited political parties. (Black, 2000)
He himself selected the cabinet and revolutionary committees' members and ministers. Moreover, his family monopolized supreme governmental positions, for example his son Moutassim headed the National Security Council, Khamis is the commander of an armed forces brigade, and telecommunications and mail service was taken by Mohammed.( Retrieved from www.townhall.com)
Another fundamental factor was that he controlled the economy. He controlled profitable business deals and he, and his sons, sucked up the considerable wealth from oil.(Retrieved from www.townhall.com) There was never any fair distribution of wealth to the people. (Escobar, 2011)
Moreover, the unique personality and leadership style that he has made him powerful as Libyan analyst Saad Djebbar describes him, "He's unique in his discourse, in his behavior, in his practice and in his strategy, but he's a shrewd politician, make no mistake about that. He's a political survivor of the first order." (Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa- )
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Another factor was that the he had complete ownership of all means of media, as according to Freedom of the Press Index, Libya is considered the most censored country in the Middle East and North Africa. ( Retrieved from www.en.wikipedia.org)
Furthermore, education was a chief component of his strategy to gain power. He states that obligatory education is useless, harmful and represses freedom, but that was his method to wipe out the normal system of educational standards preventing the generation from growing enlightened and identifying with each other and by that, he eliminates any flame of opposition. (National Public Radio, 2011). He canceled the teaching of foreign languages from schools as one demonstrator in 2011 unrest expresses "None of us can speak English or French. He kept us ignorant and blindfolded". ( Retrieved from www.en.wikipedia.org)
Not to forget his strategy in eliminating any opposition by recruiting a wide network of employees around the world to assassinate his opponents. ( Retrieved from www.en.wikipedia.org)
What are the steps that you would need to take if you were a leader to change the country to the better?
If I were to become a leader and change Libya to the better, there are a number of steps down the path of reform that I would take in order to help the country recover from the impacts of the previous dictator regimen that dominated it for over 40 years.
The first step would be to hold a fair and public elections to select new members of the government which will be open to all who find himself/herself qualified enough as to fill up these posts. Second, the country's constitution will be reformed and implemented. Then, all endeavors will pour into rebuilding the country after suffering impacts of the what can be named "civil war" . Development scheme will focus on the both domestic development and rehabilitation of politics and international relations and all shall be executed with the highest level of transparency.
Domains of domestic development will include the society, the economy, the business, the infrastructure and the education.
With respect to the society, I will promote the civil society and its organizations highlighting the rights and duties of citizens such as the social security system and health insurance system. With reference to the economy that depends mostly on oil-generated revenues (Retrieved from www.en.wikipedia.org ), I will ensure that the wealth is equally distributed to all, invested in development projects, and utilized to secure a high standard of living for all Libyans. I will address the problem of unemployment which, as per latest statistics, is the highest in the region. (Retrieved from www.en.wikipedia.org)
With respect to the business, I will support foreign investment and partnerships with international companies especially Arab companies to help lift the business sector. I will eliminate trade restrictions and encourage free trading. I will also foster the private sector and support enterprises owned by citizens.
With regard to the infrastructure, I will fund country-wide projects of transport, water and electricity, sewerage, public facilities and building residences. In the education domain, I will foster the highest standards of education, promote higher education and scientific research, build schools and universities, grant scholarships and encourage teaching of foreign languages.
With reference to the politics and international relations, I will set regular elections, form syndicates and political parties, foster freedom of speech, reform diplomatic relations with neighboring Arab and African countries and the international society.
What kind of leader would you want to be?
The kind of leader that I would want to be is the democratic as outlined by Lewin, Lippit & White. (Hackman & Johnson, 2009) I believe that this is the most suitable and most appropriate style of leadership communication because I have the conviction that democracy is the answer to a civilized and developed nation. I prefer this style because first it suits my personality and character and because research has shown that it has several positive effects.
The characteristics of the democratic leadership style include fostering interaction between the leader and the followers, facilitating discussions, and supporting people's involvement in decision making. It also allows for frequent positive feedbacks and rewards good work. It has various positive impacts such as increasing followers' satisfaction, enhancing innovation and creation and promoting followers' commitment to decisions . (Hackman & Johnson, 2009)
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With reference to the task and interpersonal leadership style, and on Blake and McCanse's leadership grid, I would adopt the style of Team Management. This is because this style equally and highly fosters production and people. It ensures completion of tasks in addition to caring for people where the leader and the followers collaborate to fulfill the upmost level of productivity and achievement. (Hackman & Johnson, 2009)
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