Training and qualifications of a Pharmacist
The pharmacist is highly qualified, trained and skilled health care professional. Pharmacists perform various roles to ensure optimal health outcome for patient such as the use of the medication. Many pharmacists are also small-business proprietors, owning the pharmacy in which they practice. A good pharmacist must have knowledge of the background, educational, requirements, and daily responsibilities associated with profession.
The pharmacist should know basic of the history and development of the pharmacy and drugs, average salary, and types of pharmacy practice areas. The history of pharmacy is an independent science. There is a history from antiquity that marks the course of independent science and connected to the medicine. Dating back to the first century AD was the earliest known Chinese on material medical. Lists of prescriptions for specific aliment were included in earliest literature. During and after the time of Hippocrates in Ancient Greece, there was a group of experts in medicinal plants. Diocles of Carystus was the most important of these representatives. The time of Theophrastus and Dioscorides, he was considered to be the source for all Greek pharmacotherapeutic. The men who fulfilled roles similar to those of modern pharmacists were highly respected in Japan. The first pharmacy was established in 754 in Baghdad during the Middle Age. Chemistry led medicine in medieval Islamic cultures to develop pharmacology and botany was advanced in the Middle East. The medicines by chemical compounds were promoted by Rhazes. The preparation of medicines by sublimation and distillation was pioneered by Abulcasis. “His Liber servitors were particular interest, as it provides the reader with recipes and explains how to prepare the simple from which were compounded the complex drugs then generally used” (Dscpharmacy.org). During the 12th century, pharmacy was beginning in Europe. In 1241, the first pharmacy was opened in Germany. Everyday, drugs are developing to provide the brand new drugs or better drugs to the market. It is including drug discovery, development, preclinical research, clinical trials. The average salary of the pharmacist is $107,653 per year. It depends on workplace, experience, and types of pharmacy practice areas. Pharmacists practice in a variety of areas including community, hospital, clinical, compounding, consultant, internet, veterinary, nuclear, military, and pharmacy informatics. Also pharmacists can specialize in areas of practice including hematology, oncology, infectious diseases, ambulatory care, nutrition support, drug information, critical care, pediatrics, etc (Dsepharmacy.org).
Education and training are one of the important part to become a pharmacist. The doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) is the educational standard for clinical practice in pharmacy. The PharmD degree is a professional degree which requires a minimum of two years of accredited school work prior to entering pharmacy school. Students must complete four years of pharmacy school, one must also pass a state and national board exam. In this research will use the prerequisites from pharmacy school at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Math and science perquisites are General Chemistry I with Lad 4 hours, General Chemistry II with Lab 4 hours, Separations and Analytical Chemistry with Lab 3 hours, Organic Chemistry I with 3-4 hours, Organic Chemistry II with Lab 4 hours, Principles of Biology with Lab 4 hours, Human Anatomy and Physiology with Lab 4 hours, Microbiology with Lab 4 hours, General Physics I with Lab 4 hours, General Physics II with Lab 4 hours, Calculus of One Variable 3 hours, and Statistics 3 hours. General education requirements are Foreign Language-completion through level three in a single language 9-10 hours, Social and Behavioral Sciences-three courses from at least two different departments or curricula. One of these courses must engage in historical analysis 9 hours, Humanities and Fine Arts-one course in philosophical analysis that contains significant content in ethics and moral reasoning, one course in literature and one course in visual or performing 9 hours, Life fitness 1 hours, U.S. diversity 3 hours, Global Issue 3 , and English composition and Rhetoric 6 hours. Pharmacy school require to take Pharmacy College Admission Test. For tuition, first and second years are $17,055.18 for North Carolina residents and $36,687.15 for non-North Carolina residents. Third year is $15,560.18 for North Carolina residents and $33,044.18 for non-North Carolina residents. Fourth years is $17,160.22 for North Carolina residents and $34,644.22 for non-North Carolina residents. The total tuition is $66,830.76 Hisfro North Carolina residents and $141,062.76 for non-North Carolina residents (Pharmacy.unc.edu).After they graduate from pharmacy school and to become the licensure pharmacists, they must meet the requirement of the state in which they are seeking licensure and encouraged to contact the board of pharmacy of the state in which they wish to practice for specific licensure requirements. The North American Pharmacist Licensure examination (NAPLEX) is required in all US jurisdictions. The Multistate Pharmacy Jurisprudence Examination (MPJE) is currently administered in 45 U.S. jurisdictions and “is based on a nationally uniform content blueprint, with question that are tailored to assess the pharmacy jurisprudence requirements of the individual states. They keep their license by examination valid and current” (Dscpharmacy.org).
After becoming a licensed pharmacist one must know about the day-to-day duties for each type of pharmacy practice areas, work environment, and job outlook. Community pharmacy is the place where pharmacists practice the professional of pharmacy the most. “Community pharmacies consist of a retail storefront with a dispensary where medications are stored and dispensed. All pharmacies must have a pharmacist on-duty all times when the stores open. The workplace are RiteAid, Walgreen, Walmart, etc” (Personal interview). Hospital pharmacy usually stock a larger range of medications than would be feasible in the community setting. The workplace for hospital pharmacy is hospital. Clinical pharmacists provide direct patient care that optimize the use of medication, promote health, wellness, and prevention of diseases. Clinical pharmacists' responsibilities include coordinating the pharmacy technician's duties who work in the preparation, labeling and delivery of medications. Some duties are related to education. The workplaces are hospital and clinic. Compounding pharmacy is the practice drugs in new forms. If a drug manufacturer provides a drug as a tablet, a compounding pharmacist might a medicated lollipop that contains the drug. So the patient who has difficulty swallow the tablet may suck this lollipop instead of swallow the tablet. Consultant pharmacists most of the time work with nursing homes. They focus on medication regimen review than on dispensing of drugs. Internet pharmacy serves consumers online. The main different is the method which the medications are received and requested. Most of internet pharmacies sell prescription drugs and require a valid prescription. Some of internet pharmacist sells prescription drugs without the prescription. This practice has been criticized as potentially dangerous, especially by those who fell that only doctors can assess contraindications, benefit and risk ratio, and an individual's overall suitability for use of them medication. Veterinary pharmacies also called animal pharmacies. It may fall in the hospital, community, or pharmacist dispense can change a life. These short lived diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals help physicians better manage patient care by identify and treat disease earlier. Millions of patients receive intravenous injections of diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals every year with no ill effect. While handle any of pharmaceutical, certain safety precautions must be taken to help ensure pharmacists, customers and patient are keeping safe. Military pharmacy has different working environment due to the fact that technicians perform most duties that in a civilian sector would be illegal. State laws of technician patient counseling and medication checking by a pharmacist do not apply there. Pharmacy informatics are the combination between pharmacy practice science and applied information science. Pharmacy informatics work in many practice areas of pharmacy. May also work in information technology departments or for health care information companies. “Pharmacy informatics is growing very fast to meet the needs of major national and international patient information projects. This type of pharmacists are very well trained to participate in medication management system development, development and optimization” (Dscpharmacy.org). Pharmacy technicians assist and support pharmacists in providing medications and other health care products to patients. “Pharmacy technicians have a broad knowledge of pharmacy practice and are skilled in the techniques required to order, stock, package, and prepare medications” (North Carolina Health Career 96). When working in a pharmacy, pharmacy technicians work under the direct supervision of pharmacists. Those are the basic knowledge about all the types of pharmacists that who wants to be the pharmacist must know about each type. “Job outlook for pharmacist is expected to grow very faster than the average for all careers” (Personal interview).
“The field of pharmacy is experiencing unprecedented growth and the role of the pharmacist touches every aspect of health care” (Personal interview). Because of pharmacists are the experts in involving medications, they must demonstrate a good foundation in math and science, as well as critical thinking and problem solving skills to make the right decisions about medications. “Basic tasks include interprete prescription orders, communicate information such as uses, side effects and drug interactions, and assist patients in the selection of nonprescription medicines and health products.” (Personal Interview). A pharmacist must enjoy working with people and helping those who are in need. The pharmacist work as part of a health care team to improve patient health. The community pharmacist remains the most accessible health professional to the general public. A career in pharmacy can also lead to many other good opportunities.
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