health

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Introduction To What Is Food Health Essay

Food is any material containing nutrient. Nutrients are substance in food that the body can digest, absorb and use to carry out its metabolic activities and stay in good health.

What food do you need every day to stay in good health?

The following food type are needed by human to survive and stay in good health

Carbohydrate (b) Protein (c) Fat and oil.

Component

Carbohydrate

Protein

Fat and oil

Examples

Rice, wheat, potato, bread and starch

Egg white, lean meat, fish and cheese.

Fish, milk, egg York and margarine.

functions

Energy food

Growth

Repair and replace worn-out tissue

Produce energy at extreme starvation

Energy food heat for insulation.

Element

Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.

Carbon hydrogen and oxygen.

Basic unit

Glucose

Amino acid

Fatty acid and glycerol

Diagram

:::::

FA

FA

Excess

Excess Carbohydrate produced by plant is stored as starch.

Excess carbohydrate eating by human is stored as glycogen in the liver.

Cannot be stored, but are destroyed and excreted as urea

Store as fat in

kidney and skin

Digestion

Starch, glycogen and cellulose are broken down to glucose.

Amino acid

Fatty acid and glycerol.

Testing chemical

Starch—iodine

Reducing sugar --Benedict

Reducing Sugar---Fehling

Million test

Buiret

Sudan 111

Cholesterol is a fatlike substance present in food like egg yolk; fatty meat, cheese and liver. The body use cholesterol to build cell membrane. Having too much cholesterol in the body can block blood vessels and cause heart disease and stroke in human.

Vitamins

Vitamins are essential for healthy living. They are essential nutrient because they influence many important chemical processes in the body. We get most of our vitamins from the food we eat while some are manufactured in the body.

There are 13 vitamins in our body; lack of any one of these can cause deficiency diseases like rickets, beriberi, scurvy, or night blindness..

Vitamin A-----retinol

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Riboflavin B2

Vitamin B6)

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

Niacin

Folic Acid (Folacin)

Vitamin C

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

Biotin

Pantothenic Acid

The body needs a minimum of one milligram of each vitamin every day. The body often remove any vitamin it cannot use or store

Grouping of Vitamins

Vitamins are put into groups; they are

Water soluble vitamins

Fat soluble vitamins.

Fat soluble vitamin are vitamin A, D, K., these vitamin are stored in the body.

The other vitamins like B and C are water soluble; they are not stored in the body.

Vitamin A (retinol);

This is good for healthy eyes.

We get vitamin A from the following food--- fish oil, liver, egg- yolk, carrot and milk

Lack of vitamin A causes itchy eyes, night blindness, dry skin, acne, dry scurfy scalp

An over does can cause dizziness, menstrual problems, dry and itchy skin.

B Vitamins

The B vitamins consist of eight groups.

These are vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin folic acid, biotin, and Pantothenic acid.

Vitamin B1 (thiamine)

This acts as coenzymes.

They help the cells in the body convert glucose into energy.

They are essential for proper functioning of the heart, muscles, and nervous system.

Sources------- whole grain product, pork, shrimp, beans, liver, brewer’s yeast, wheat germ and fish

Lack of vitamin ------causes beriberi and weakness of muscle

Excess vitamin ------is excreted through urine and skin.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

This is good for healthy body growth, tissue repair, reproduction and red blood production

Promote good vision and help cell to use oxygen efficiently.

Sources of Vitamin; ----- egg, milk, lettuces, almond, cheese, liver and leafy vegetable

Lack of vitamin B2 causes --------anaemia, sore mouth, burning feet, cataract and skin disorder

Vitamin B2 deficiency is common in pregnant and breast feeding women.

Excess vitamin --------excreted through urine.

Niacin - Vitamin B3

Niacin works closely with other B vitamins to breakdown carbohydrates, fats and protein food into energy.

It enhances normal brain function and keeps digestive tract healthy

Without niacin, the body would not be able to convert the food we eat into energy.

Sources of Vitamin ----- soy flour, pig liver, peanut butter and potatoes.

Lack of niacin ------cause pellagra (symptoms of pellagra are painful tongue, loss of appetite, and diarrhoea).

Excess vitamin ------ cause low blood pressure and liver damage.

Pantothenic Acid

These are anti – stress vitamin that can reduce wrinkles and delay greying of hair.

They help the body break down food and use it

Sources of vitamin-------- meats, pig liver, fresh nut, eggs and broccoli.

Lack of vitamin------------- leads to muscle pains and nervous disorder.

Excess vitamin-------------- leaves the body through urine.

Pyridoxine

These vitamin aids the production of new cells, help the body protect itself from infection and balances hormonal changes.

Sources of vitamins------- eggs, liver, walnut, sunflower seeds and beans

Lack of vitamins------- muscle pains and nervous disorder and convulsion

Excess ---------------------------causes neurological damage

Folic acid is a B vitamin

Protect the nervous system of developing foetus and help manufacture red blood cells.

This vitamin is given to pregnant women in the first months of their pregnancy

Sources of Vitamin ----------- Spinach, broccoli, Cereals and liver.

Lack of folic acid---------------- causes anaemia, diarrhoea and heart attack.

Excess vitamin -----------------causes loss of energy and lack of sleep.

Biotin

Help body to make use of carbohydrate, fat and protein. It also enhances the performance of athletes.

Sources of vitamin ------- brewer’s yeast, eggs, pig kidney and whole meal bread.

Excess -------------is lost in urine.

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

It helps build the body immune system and protect it from infection and diseases.

It is vital for healing of wounds and helps to maintain healthy skin

Sources of Vitamin --------- Fresh fruit, red raw pepper, green pepper, tomatoes, berries, green vegetable, kiwi, orange, lemon and lime.

Lack of vitamin C ----------causes scurvy, loose teeth, superficial bleeding, poor healing, mild anaemia and heart diseases in human.

Excess vitamin ------------causes burning urine or nausea.

Vitamin D (calciferol)

This vitamin help the body absorb calcium; calcium is needed for strong bones and healthy teeth. It also helps maintain healthy skin

Sources of Vitamin; cod liver oil, mackerel, kippers, tinned salmon and action of sunlight on the skin

It is good idea to take vitamin D tablet by mouth in countries with very little sunshine.

Lack of vitamin D causes rickets (condition in which muscles develop poorly and the bones are too soft). This causes bowel legs or knocked -knees in children and osteoporosis in adult

Excess vitamin------ causes kidney stones.

Vitamin E (Tocopherol)

This is good for normal functioning of sex organs

Promote fertility

Prevent flushes in menopause

Also help reduce blood clot forming in the blood vessels.

Sources of Vitamin ---------sunflower oil, almonds, soya beans, walnut and brown rice

Lack of vitamin --------- causes sterility in males, abortions in females and reduced life span of red blood cells.

Excess------- is lost through urine.

Vitamin K (phyloquinone)

This vitamin helps blood to clot normally.

Sources of Vitamin -------cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, spinach, tomatoes, lettuce and pig liver

We manufacture enough of this vitamin inside our large intestine

Lack of vitamin -------- causes delay in blood clotting.

Minerals

Minerals are incorporated into the structure of the body and the body needs regular supply of these mineral. Any lack of these mineral causes health problem.

The mineral needed in large quantities are called macro minerals; examples are

Calcium is needed for strong bones and teeth and lack of calcium causes rickets and tooth problem

Sources of mineral; spinach garlic and beans

Magnesium enables the body to make use of vitamin C. it also helps the body to neutralize the effect of free radicals.

Sources of mineral; green vegetable, pineapple, banana and honey

Phosphorus; maintain healthy teeth and bones, filter out waste in the kidneys and reduce muscle pain after a hard workout.

Sources of mineral baking soda, pumpkin leaves and water crest

Sodium

This mineral balances the body electrolyte, help nerves to transmit message and help muscles to contract.

Sources of mineral; cucumber, seafood, okra and common salt

High amount causes high blood pressure and heart disease

Potassium is essential for normal growth and for building muscles

Sources of mineral; apple, banana, papaya and tomatoes

The minerals needed in small quantity are called trace minerals; examples are

Iron is needed for manufacture of red blood cells, lack of it causes anaemia

Sources of mineral; soy beans, bananas, carrots, cucumbers and grapes

Iodine; this mineral help the thyroid gland produce enough hormones needed throughout the body.

Sources of mineral; lettuce, grapes, mushrooms, oranges

These hormones produced by thyroid gland aids reproduction, formation of bones, teeth, nail and skin.

Lack of iodine causes thyroid glands to enlarge so as maximum uptake of iodine from the blood. This condition is known as goitre.

Zinc is necessary for healthy immune system and help body repair damaged tissues

Sources of mineral; mushrooms, liver, seafood, soy beans and brewer’s yeast

Balance diet

To maintain good health, human need to consume a balance diet.

A balance diet contains the right quantities of main food group such as fat, protein, carbohydrate, vitamins and mineral.

The actual requirement varies from person to person.

Children need more protein for growth.

Active people need more carbohydrate to generate more energy.

Exercises

Vitamins are essential nutrient because of ------?

Which are the two sources of vitamins for our body?

What is the function of vitamin A in the body

What does lack of vitamin A cause------

What is the function of vitamin B1 in the body

What does lack of vitaminB1 cause

What is the another name for vitamin B1

What are the sources of vitamin B1

What is the role of vitamin B2

What is the chemical name for vitamin B2

What does deficiency of vitamin C cause in the body

Mention the sources of vitamin C

What vitamin helps the body to absorb calcium

The sun’s rays produces Vitamin----- for human


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