The Presidential Election Of 1972
The Presidential election of 1972 had two strong candidates; the first was President Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 - April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States (1969-1974) and the only president to resign the office of the Presidency. Nixon was the 36th Vice President of the United States (1953-1961).
Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California. He completed undergraduate work at Whittier College; he also graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937. Served in United States Navy and rose to the rank of Lieutenant Commander during World War II. Was a Republican to the House of Representatives representing California's 12th Congressional district, and in 1950 to the United States Senate. In 1968, Nixon was elected president of the United States.
Nixen was impeachment for his role in the Watergate scandal which he resigned on August 9, 1974. Nixon later died at the age of 81 of a stroke. (Richard Nixon. (2009, July 21). (In Wikipedia, Retrieved 03:56, July 21, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org).
and George McGovern a Representative and a Senator from South Dakota; born in Avon, Bon Homme County, S.Dak., attended Dakota Wesleyan University, 1940-1942; enlisted in the United States Army Air Corps in June 1942, was later discharged from the service in July 1945, returned to Dakota Wesleyan University and graduated in 1946, received his Ph.D. from that university in 1953 in history and government at Dakota Wesleyan University 1950-1953; was a member of Advisory Committee on Political Organization of Democratic National Committee 1954-1956; elected as a Democrat to the Eighty-fifth and Eighty-sixth Congresses (January 3, 1957-January 3, 1961); appointed special assistant to the President January 20, 1961, as director of the Food for Peace Program Lose to Nixon for the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1972; appointed United Nations Global Ambassador on World Hunger in 2001. (McGovern, George Stanley, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts)
There were many issues which had a great deal of importance to the election. The Vietnam war and the stability of the economy at the time were two main factors. The election ended in one the largest political scandals in U.S. history, being the Watergate break-in, and cover-up, by President Richard Nixon. The Democratic party had a large selection of candidates from which to choose for the primary elections of 1972. There were many well known candidates who entered the race for the nomination. The contenders were Edmund S. Muskie of Maine, Senator George McGovern of South Dakota and Hubert H. Humphrey of Minnesota. Other candidates who didn't receive quite as much recognition were Alabama governor George C. Wallace, Mayor Sam Yorty of Los Angeles, Rep. Wilbur D. Mills of Arkansas, Sen. Vance Hartke of Indiana, former Senator Eugene J. McCarthy of Minnesota, Mayor John Lindsay of New York City and Rep. Shirley Chisholm of New York. Chisholm was the first black to run in a series of presidential primaries. (Congressional Quarterly, Guide to U.S. Elections, Third ed., 1994, pg.603-605.) 5 Governor Wallace had a devastating moment in his campaign while in Maryland. In early May a sick young man named Arthur Bremer altered the politics of 1972. As Governor Wallace campaigned toward certain victory in the Maryland primary, Bremer stepped forward out of a shopping-center crowd and shot him four times. Wallace survived, but at the cost of being paralyzed from the waist down. Maryland's voters surged out on election day to give Wallace a huge victory, his last of 1972. While Wallace recuperated, the millions who would have voted for him as a Democratic or independent candidate began to move in overwhelming proportions behind the candidacy of Richard Nixon. (Benton, William. U.S. Election of 1972. Encyclopedia Britannica Book of the Year. pg.12-13, 1973 ed.)1 When the California primary was approaching, Humphrey tried to save the nomination for himself. Humphrey excoriated his old senate friend (McGovern) for his expensive ideas on welfare and his desire to cut the defense budget. It almost worked. But McGovern won all of California's giant delegation, and beat Humphrey 44.3% to 39.1% in the popular vote.5 That loss spelled out the end for Humphrey's Democratic nomination. Many felt Edmund Muskie was sure to win the Democratic nomination for the election of 1972. All political observers agreed on the certainty that Senator Edmund Muskie of Maine would be the Democratic party's nominee.1 As the front-runner, he wanted to snare the nomination early and so was committed to running in all of the first eight presidential primaries. Prominent Democratic politicians lined up eagerly to endorse him. Among them: Gov. John Gilligan of Ohio; Leonard Woodcock, President of the United Auto Workers; Iowa Senator Harold Hughes; and Pennsylvania Governor Milton Shapp.1 Muskie had many supporters, and a good chance of receiving the nomination, perhaps even becoming the next President of the United States. President Nixon knew that Muskie had a good chance of winning and felt he had to do something to get Muskie out of the race. Nixon had seven men who were loyal to him make up false press releases about Muskie, and his wife. These press releases claimed that Muskie had had affairs with both men and women, that he beat his wife, and then the topper which claimed that Muskies' wife was an alcoholic. These false statements destroyed Muskies' campaign and reputation of being a calm trustworthy candidate. Then one day mounting the bed of a truck parked outside the offices of the archconservative Manchester Union Leader, Muskie launched an attack on the paper's publisher, William Loeb. As he spoke of Loeb's unflattering remarks about Mrs. Muskie, the senator's voice cracked, and the crowd saw tears form in his eyes.1 This incident badly dented Muskie's image. After that event, people saw Muskie as a weak person. They didn't want a weak person running the country. Muskie had finished fourth in Pennsylvania, behind winner Humphrey, Wallace, and McGovern, and a distant second to McGovern in Massachusetts. He then withdrew with dignity. 1 Muskie later said of this incident: It changed people's minds about me, of what kind of a guy I was. They were looking for a strong, steady man, and here I was weak. (Congressional Quarterly, Chronology of Presidential Elections, Fourth ed. 1994, pg.329-330)6 After a long primary campaign, and all the primary elections, Senator George McGovern won the nomination for the Democratic party in the 1972 presidential election. McGovern did not get to deliver his acceptance speech-- perhaps the best speech of his career--until 2:48 a.m., when most television viewers were already in bed.6 Senator McGovern had a difficult campaign ahead of him. His opposition, President Richard Nixon, already had the upper hand on him because he had been elected President four years before. President Nixon was the Republican candidate. President Richard Nixon told a reporter that the election was over the day he (Sen. George McGovern) was nominated. 1 McGovern campaigned very hard. Between September 3 and September 15, the South Dakotan barnstormed through 29 cities and towns in 18 states covering some 14,000 miles and being seen by more than 175,000 people. (U.S. News and World Report, Can Democrats Close the Gap, Sept. 25, 1972, No.13, pg.17-22)3 McGovern knew, if he wanted to win, he had to focus on the important issues of 1972. There were four very important issues. These were the war in Vietnam, the economy, foreign policy, and defense. The two major ones were the war in Vietnam, and the economy. McGovern was sure that if he was elected president, he would be able to end the war. We will be able to end the war by a simple plan that need not be kept secret: The immediate total withdrawal of all Americans from Southeast Asia. (Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections, 1972 Conventions, Third ed., 1994 pg.127-132.)4 McGovern goes on to say in another interview that I will stake my whole political career on being able to withdraw our forces and get our prisoners out within 90 days after inauguration. I really think I can do it faster than that. (U.S. News and World, How McGovern Sees The Issues, August 7, 1972, No.6, pg.18- 22)8 McGovern, like everyone else wanted to end the war in Vietnam as soon as possible. McGovern felt that Nixon could have ended the war years earlier, and could have spared all those lives. There's nothing that we can negotiate now in ending this war that we couldn't have done four years ago. We haven't gained anything in these four years of continued slaughter that's gone on in this present Administration.8 I'll be one of those rejoicing even if Nixon does end this war and it does accrue to his advantage. I just wish he had done it four years ago. If he had, I might not now be running for the President.8 McGovern makes it seem as though his sole purpose, and reason for wanting to become President is to simply end the Vietnam war. Nixon along with the Republican party, and their platform stated that We will continue to seek a settlement of the Vietnam War which will permit the people of Southeast Asia to live in peace under political arrangements of their own choosing. We take specific note of the remaining major obstacle to settlement-Hanoi's demand that the United States overthrow the Saigon government and impose a Communist-dominated government on the South Vietnamese. We stand unequivocally at the side of the President in his effort to negotiate honorable terms, and in his refusal to accept terms which would dishonor this country.4 We insist that, before all American forces are withdrawn from Vietnam, American prisoners must be returned and a full accounting made of the missing in action and of those who have died in enemy hands. (U.S. News and World Report, Promises Republican Make, Sept. 4, 1972, No.10, pg.28-29)2 Although the Republicans held the basic idea that the Democrats did, which was to end the war in Vietnam as soon as possible, they didn't specify an allotted amount of time in which they would accomplish this goal as did the Democrats. The second major issue of 1972 was the economy. The Nixon record increased unemployment by 3 million people.8 There were price freezes, and wage-price controls. McGovern and the Democrats stated that their goal was for full employment, and for those who are unable to work, that they would receive a guaranteed income. The heart of a program of economic security based on earned income must be creating jobs and training people to fill them. Millions of jobs, real jobs, not make-work need to be provided. Public service employment must be greatly expanded in order to make the government the employer of last resort and guarantee a job for all. What I offer is a balanced, full- employment economy--where we can provide enough, both to protect our interest abroad and to bring progress at home.4 Part of McGovern's economic plan included defense spending cut backs. What I offer is not simply a set of promises, but a specific plan to pay for those promises. First, I would reduce by approximately 10 billion dollars in each of the next three years the rapidly escalating, lavish Nixon military budget. Current spending wastes billions of dollars on planes that do not fly, and missiles that will not work. I will never permit America to become a second-rate power in the world. Neither can we permit America to become a second-rate society. And if we choose a reasonable military budget, we will not have to choose between the decline of our security and the deterioration of our standard of life.(U.S. News and World Report, From McGovern: A New Blueprint For Taxes, Welfare, No.11, pg.14-16)7 Our country does not only need to be strong militarily but also economically. Our military is an important part of our economy, but it shouldn't be one of the major influencing factors that determines the health of the economy. The Democrats felt that Spending for military purposes is greater by far than federal spending for education, housing, environmental protection, unemployment insurance or welfare. Unneeded dollars for the military at once add to the tax burden and pre-empt funds from programs of direct and immediate benefit to our people. Moreover, too much that is now spent on defense not only adds nothing to our strength but makes us less secure by stimulating other countries to respond.4 Just as the Democrats want a healthy economy the Republicans want the same thing. Our country needs a healthy economy to survive, and the Republicans feel they can give us that strong economy. We stand for full employment--a job for everyone willing and able to work in an economy freed of inflation, its vigor not dependent upon war or massive military spending. We will fight for responsible federal budgets to help assure steady expansion of the economy without inflation. The right of American citizens to buy, hold or sell goods should be re-established as soon as this is feasible.2 The Republicans agree that the economy shouldn't be based on war or huge amounts of defense expenses to keep our economy, but they also feel that the military is an important part of our country. Traditionally the Republican party has always supported a strong military, and feels it is necessary to keep America as one of the world's strongest nations. President Nixon, and the Republican party stated that By adhering to a defense policy based on strength at home, partnership abroad and a willingness to negotiate everywhere, we hold that lasting peace is now achievable. We will not let America become a second-class power, dependent for survival on the good will of adversaries. We draw a sharp distinction between prudent reductions in defense spending and the meat-ax slashes with which some Americans are now beguiled by the political opposition. We wholeheartedly support an all-volunteer armed force and expect to end the draft by July, 1973. We will continue to pursue arms-control agreements--but we recognize that this can be successful only if we maintain sufficient strength.2 Basically Nixon and the Republican Party were stating that we need a strong military and a healthy economy, but cutting defense spending is not the solution to the economic problem. Another major issue focused on during the election of 1972 was foreign policy. Senator McGovern, and the Democratic party stated the next Democratic Administration should End American participation in the war in Southeast Asia. Re-establish control over military activities and reduce military spending, where consistent with national security. Defend America's real interests and maintain our alliances, neither playing world policeman nor abandoning old and good friends. Not neglect America's relations with small third-world nations in placing reliance on great power relationships. Return to Congress, and the people, a meaningful role in decisions on peace and war, and make information public, except where real national defense interests are involved.4 The Democratic party didn't want other countries to look upon the U.S. as the policeman of the world. They also wanted to make sure the U.S. remained friendly with small third world countries, because we may need to trade with them, or we might need raw materials we don't have. The Republicans had a different idea on foreign policy. They said that never before has our country negotiated with so many nations on so wide a range of subjects -- and never with greater success. They go on to say We will press for expansion of contacts with the peoples of Eastern Europe and the People's Republic of China, as long isolated from most of the world.2 The Republican Party wanted to improve the relationships with countries that have been cut off from much of the world. The Republicans felt they were doing a good job with foreign policy, and didn't think they should change much of anything they were doing. After all the months of campaigning, and voting were through, Richard Nixon was reelected the new President of the United States. Nixon swept back into the White House on Nov. 7 with a devastating landslide victory over McGovern. He carried a record of 49 states for a total of 520 electoral votes.5 Nixon did have a couple of advantages that McGovern didn't. For one, the people had confidence in him since he had been elected once before. They knew what kind of a President he was, and what they as the constituents could expect from him. Second, McGovern made a bad decision when he chose his vice president running mate. McGovern had chosen Sen. Thomas F. Eagleton of Missouri. Barely 10 days after selection of the Democratic ticket, on July 25, Eagleton disclosed that he voluntarily had hospitalized himself three times between 1960 and 1966 for nervous exhaustion and fatigue. McGovern strongly supported his running mate at the time, but in the following days, his support for the Missouri senator began to wane. After a meeting with McGovern on July 31, Eagleton withdrew from the ticket.4 Eagleton badly damaged the image of McGovern. The constituents lost their confidence in McGovern and in his decision making power. They felt that McGovern may not make wise decisions if he was elected the next President of the U.S. McGovern was also somewhat radical views. CRP focused early and often on the more radical-sounding views of McGovern, highlighting his support of amnesty for young people who fled to Canada to avoid the draft, his sometime musings that marijuana might better be legalized, and his purported support of legalized abortion.1 Many felt that McGovern's views may have been more radical and outlandish than some had supported. After Nixon was elected to office, It appeared in 1972 that American politics was entering an age of calm consensus. The economy was temporarily strong: opposition to the Vietnam War had faded as the two sides negotiated in Paris for an end to the war.6 Then in Nixon's political career A warlike atmosphere between the media (as well as other perceived enemies of the administration that appeared on Nixon's enemies list) and the mushrooming Watergate scandal combined to create a dark side to U.S. politics in the 1970's. At its simplest level, the Watergate affair was a third-rate burglary and a subsequent cover-up by President Nixon and his aides. In the summer of 1972, several employees of the Committee to Re-elect the President were arrested after they were discovered breaking into and bugging the Democratic National Committee's offices at the posh Watergate complex in Washington. The break-in was not a major issue in the 1972 election, but the next year congressional committees began an investigation.6 Along with the congressional committees investigation, two reporters from the Washington Post, named Bob Woodward, and Carl Berstein did some investigating of their own. They had a politician who knew about all that was going on with the Watergate scandal, nicknamed Deep Throat. Deep Throat supplied the two reporters with the information they needed to tear open the Watergate scandal. These two reporters open up the Watergate scandal, and all the participants involved. During the investigation, a presidential aide revealed that Nixon had secretly taped Oval Office conversations with aides. When the Watergate special prosecutor Archibald Cox ordered Nixon to surrender the tapes, Nixon ordered Cox fired. Then the Supreme Court ruled that Nixon had to surrender even more tapes, which indicated that he had played an active role in covering up the Watergate scandal. Nixon resigned the presidency when his impeachment and conviction appeared certain. The impeachment articles charged him with obstruction of justice, abuse of presidential powers and contempt of Congress. President Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974. The Watergate affair was perhaps the greatest political scandal in U.S. history. For the first time, a president was forced to leave office before his term expired.6 Vice President Gerald Ford became the President of the United States. President Ford then granted Richard Nixon a full pardon of the crimes committed against the presidency, and the people of the United States.
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