Answers To Questions On Finance And Strategic Objectives
A company's financial requirements or objectives for the future. Corporate financial planning contains classifying these economic objectives and defining how to accomplish them. Basically the key business purpose is to makeÂ money, but business purposes often also regulate the sum that is wanted or anticipated, the timeframe in which it must be made, and how the money will be spent. This can be a difficult procedure.
Generally well-definedÂ targetÂ that anÂ organizationÂ mustÂ achieveÂ to make itsÂ strategyÂ succeed. Strategic objectives are, in general, visibly attentive and (as managementÂ guruÂ Peter Drucker) fall into eight main categories:
(1) Market standing: wantedÂ shareÂ of the current and freshÂ markets; (2)Â Innovation:Â developmentÂ of newÂ goodsÂ andÂ services, and ofÂ skillsÂ andÂ methodsÂ required toÂ supplyÂ them;
(3)Â Human supply: selectionÂ and improvement of workers;
(4) MonetaryÂ supply: identification of theÂ sourcesÂ ofÂ capitalÂ and their use;
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(5) Corporal capitals:Â equipmentÂ andÂ facilities and their use;
(6)Â Productivity: efficient use of the incomes comparative to theÂ output;
(7)Â Social responsibility:Â awarenessÂ and receptiveness to the effects on the broaderÂ communityÂ of theÂ stakeholders;
(8)Â ProfitÂ requirements: accomplishment of computable monetary security and progress.
Most of strategic objectives are focused to making better revenues and returns for the holders of the industry; others are heading for at customers or society at large.
â€¢ Assessable. There must be at least one pointer that dealings growth against achieving the task.
â€¢ Detailed. This delivers a strong memorandum as to what requirements to be consummate.
â€¢ Suitable. It must be reliable with the idea and job of the society.
â€¢ Realistic. It must be an attainable goal set to the organization's proficiencies and prospects in the atmosphere. In essence, it must be thought-provoking but feasible.
â€¢ Timely, there requirements to be a time edge for finishing the objective. After all, as the economist John Maynard Keynes once said, "In the long run, we are all dead!" When objectives satisfy the above criteria, there are many profits for the organization.
First, they help to channel employees throughout the organization toward joint parts. This helps to emphasis and reserve esteemed capitals in the organization and to work jointly in a suitable way.
Second, thought-provoking purposes can help to inspire and stimulate staffs during the association to advanced levels of obligation and exertion. A great pact of research has supported the idea that persons work harder when they are striving toward specific goals instead of being asked simply to "do their best."
Third, there is always the potential for different parts of an organization to pursue their own goals rather than overall company goals. Although well intentioned, these may work at cross-purposes to the organization as a whole. Meaningful objectives thus help to resolve conflicts when they arise.
Finally, proper objects offer a index for prizes and incentives. Not only will they chief to upper stages of inspiration by personnel but also they will help to ensure a better logic of equality when honours are allocated.
Strategic managementÂ is a ground that pacts with the main intended and growing creativities taken byÂ general managersÂ on behalf of vendors, relating utilization ofÂ resources, to recover the presentation ofÂ ï¬rmsÂ in their outward atmospheres. It involves specifying theÂ organization'sÂ mission, vision and aims, emerging strategies and tactics, often in terms of projects and programs, which are designed to achieve these objectives, and then assigning capitals to implement the policies and plans, schemes and programs. AÂ balanced scorecardÂ is often used to appraise the overall performance of theÂ businessÂ and its progress towards objects.
Recent studies and leading management thinkers have supported that strategy needs to start with investors' expectations and use a adapted well-adjusted scorecard which comprises all stakeholders. Strategic management is a level of executive activity under setting goals and overÂ Tactics. Strategic management provides overall direction to the initiative and is closely connected to the field of Organization. In the field of business administration it is useful to talk about "strategic arrangement" between the organization and its environment or "strategic reliability." According to Arieu (2007), "there is strategic reliability when the actions of an organization are regular with the opportunities of management, and these in turn are with the market and the context."
Strategic management comprises not only the management team but can also include the Board of Directors and other stakeholders of the organization. It depends on the administrative erection. "Strategic management is an on-going process that assesses and controls the business and the industries in which the company is involved; assesses its opponents and sets objectives and policies to meet all current and possible contestants; and then reassesses each strategy annually or quarterly to regulate how it has been applied and whether it has prospered or needs auxiliary by a new strategy to meet changed circumstances, new technology, new competitors, a new economic environment., or a new social, financial, or political environment.
QNO2: Identify alternative sources of finance available to organisation.
Sources of Finance:
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For much big business, the matter about where to get capitals from for start-up, development and growth can be vital for the success. Therefore, it is important that you understand the numerous reasons of investment open to a business and are able to measure how appropriate these sources are in relation to the requirements of the business. The last point about 'assessment' is mainly important at A2 level where you are projected to make decisions.
Conventionally, the internal sources for a limited company are:
In this perspective, 'owners' denotes to those persons/organizations who are shareholders. Solitary buyers and partnerships do not have shareholders - The partners & single person are the owners of the business but do not hold shares.Â SharesÂ are units of investment in a limited company, whether it is a public or private limited company. Shares are generally broken down into two categories:
Whilst the following sources of finance are important, they are not classed as Ownership Capital - Debenture holders are not shareholders, nor are banks who lend money or creditors. Only shareholders are owners of the company.
Lines of credit from creditors
Financial structures of four well known British companies
Factoring and invoice discounting:
Accounting for Changes in Capital Structure
This section explores issues such as the authorised, issued and called-up share capital together with some of the ways in which an organisation might change their proportions. It reviews such aspects of capital as the bookkeeping entries to deal with the application and allotment of share issues. It also discusses the effects on the balance sheet of changes in capital structure. The section includes interactive and printable worksheets to enable students to practise bookkeeping for share issues.
Authorised, issued and called up share capital
Book keeping for share issues. Shares can be issued in a number of ways, the most vital feature from our point of view being how and when shareholders pay for the shares they buy:
Shares can be delivered and compensated for in full on application, either at par or at a premium. Share issued be under or over shares are not all issued for cash. Some issues, for example, bonusÂ rise as a result of a capital reform of the company, sometimes called rights.
Arithmetical questions involving to the subject of stocks. Each of these can be completed either by filling in an interactive form or on paper using a printable worksheet.
Sources of Finance:
Quite simply, personal savings are amounts of money that a business person, partner or shareholder has at their removal to do with as they wish. If that person uses their savings to invest in their own or another business, then the source of finance comes under the headline of personal savings.
Although we would generally discuss personal savings as a source of finance for small trades, there are many examples where business people have used extensive sums of their own money to help to finance their businesses. A good and very public example here is Jamie Oliver, the television chef. Jamie sponsored his new restaurant, 'Fifteen', using fifteen raw workers to the providing trade and a large amount (£500,000) of his own cash.
QNO3: What is a published financial statement what are the uses of these statements, explain it
AÂ financial statementÂ (orÂ financial report) is a formal record of the financial happenings of a business, person, or other object. InÂ British English-including United Kingdom company law-a financial statement is often mentioned to as anÂ account, although the term financial statement is also used, particularly by accountants.
For a business initiative, all the appropriate financial information, presented in a organised method and in a form easy to understand, are called the financial statements. They typically include four basic financial statements, attended by aÂ management discussion and analysis.
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Balance sheet: also mentioned to as statement of financial position or condition, reports on a company'sÂ assets,Â obligation andÂ Ownership equityÂ at a given point in time.
Income statement: also denoted to as Profit and Loss statement (or a "P&L"), reports on a company's income, expenses, and profits over a period of time. Profit & Loss account provide information on the operation of the initiative. These include sale and the various expenses incurred during the handling state.
Statement of retained earnings: explains the changes in a company's reserved earnings over the reporting period.
Statement of cash flows: reports on a company's cash flow actions, mostly its operating, investing and financing actions.
For large corporations, these statements are often complex and may include an widespread set ofÂ notes to the financial statementsÂ and management debate and analysis. The notes naturally describe each item on the balance sheet, income statement and cash flow statement in further detail. Notes to financial statements are considered an vital part of the economic statements.
Purpose of financial statement by entries:
The objective of financial statements is to provide information about the financial position, presentation and changes in financial position of an initiative that is useful to a wide range of users in making economic decisions.Â Financial statements should be logical, applicable, dependable and similar. Stated assets, obligations, justness, income and expenses are directly related to an organization's financial position.
Financial statements are planned to be practical by readers who have "a reasonable knowledge of business and economic activities and accounting and who are ready to study the information thoroughly.Â Financial statements may be used by users for diverse drives:
Landlords and executives need financial statements to make important business resolutions that move its constant operations.Â Financial analysisÂ is then performed on these statements to provide management with a more inclusive understanding of the records.
These reports are also used as part of administration's annual report to the stockholders. Employees also need these reports in makingÂ collective bargainingÂ agreements (CBA) with the administration, in the case ofÂ labour unionsÂ or for individuals in debating their payment, elevation and positions.
PotentialÂ investorsÂ make use of financial statements to measure the feasibility of capitalising in a business. Economic studies are often used by investors and are prepared by professionals (financial analysts), thus providing them with the base for creating share decisions.
Financial institutions (banks and other loaning corporations) use them to decide whether to funding a company with newÂ working capitalÂ or spread debtÂ securitiesÂ (such as a long-termÂ bank loanÂ or debentures) to finance growth and other important expenses. Government substances need financial statements to determine the modesty and exactness ofÂ taxesÂ and other duties acknowledged and rewarded by a company. Retailers who spread credit to a business require financial statements to evaluate the wealth of the business. Media and the overall community are also involved in financial statements for a variety of reasons.
QNO4: What is budgeting? How it helps an organisation to achieve its strategic goals? Explain it.
AÂ budgetÂ is a list of all tactical incidentals and incomes. It is a strategy for saving and spending. A budget is an important concept inÂ microeconomics, which uses a budget lineÂ to explain the transactions between two or moreÂ goods. In other terms, a budget is an organizational plan definite in financial relations.
In summary, the purpose of budgeting is to:
Deliver a estimate of incomes and expenses i.e. construct a model of how our business might perform financially speaking if certain strategies, events and plans are carried out.
Enable the real monetary procedure of the business to be measured against the forecast
Â Most companies will start with a master, or static, budget. AÂ static budgetÂ is a budget with numbers based on planned outputs and inputs for each of the firm's divisions. It's the first part ofÂ budgeting, which determines how much a company has and how much it will spend. These are projected amounts and the company expects to stay within these limits. To figure out the numbers, mangers make use of economicÂ forecastingÂ methods to determine a realistic static budget. Â Â However, the static budget acts as a guideline; it does not constrain the company to staying within those limits. In other words, a budget is merely a tool that is used to help makeÂ businessÂ decisions. When it comes down to something that wasn't foreseen when the static budget was put together, companies can decide to spend more money or to spend more of it in a different area than originally planned, although the static budget will still act as a guideline. Budgets canÂ alwaysÂ be changed.Â Â A flexible budget is a budget with figures that are based on actual output. It's then compared to a company's static budget to get variances (differences) between what level of spending was expected and what actually occurred.Â With a flexible budget, budgeted dollar values (i.e. costs or selling prices) are multiplied by actual units to determine what particular number will be given to a level of output or sales. This yields the totalÂ variable costsÂ involved in production. The second component of the flexible budget is theÂ fixed cost. Typically, the fixed cost does not differ between the static and flexible budgets.Â
QNO5: Risk management within an organization to achieve is the key element of strategic management, do you agree with this statement? If yes explain it.
The risk strategy and supporting plan must accept actual and potential threats to the successful delivery of a project and determines the activities required minimising or eliminating them. The risk plan needs to be capable of mixing into or co-ordination with the project plan.
A major apprehension is the suitable communication of jeopardy information, in specific where growth is mandatory. The 'summary risk profile' (srp) is a simple mechanism to rise visibility of risks. It is a graphical image of information normally found on a risk register. This graph should be updated in line with the risk register on a regular basis. The profile shows risks in terms of likelihood and sternness of impact with the effects of modifying action taken into account.
There are a number of serious steps in the process of identifying and managing risk within the Transport Executive's activities. These are as follows:
There is a need to classify the possible risks that may rise if up-to-date verdicts are to be made about strategies or service delivery methods. They may be general, relating to the environment within which we work, or specific, concerning to an important part of service transfer.
Available data should be used to provide information to help evaluate the probability of any danger rising or the possible influence on our actions.
Risks can then be summarized according to their probability and severity
Managing risk has four components: identifying risk; assessing the likelihood of the risk; assessing the impact of the risk, and developing appropriate mitigation strategies. A risk management strategy would aim to provide a structured way of ensuring all material risks were identified, prioritised and reacted to appropriately. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is currently reviewing its overall risk management strategy to ensure:
It is comprehensive, and scaled throughout the organisation
Risks are identified and monitored
The monitoring mechanism is effective at signalling changes in the status of a known risk
Effective reporting and decision making mechanisms are in place to take the appropriate response punctually
Evaluation and feedback strategies are in place to continuously review and improve risk management practices
Training, systems and communication strategies are in place to support an effective strategy
QNo6: Draw a sample balance sheet.
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