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The yorkshire dales national park

Intro

The Yorkshire Dales National Park was formed in 1954. The park is renowned for its outstanding national beauty, rich heritage and variety of landscapes and habitats. The National Park covers an area of 1,762 kilometres squared.

The National Park is located in the North of England and straddles the central Pennines, and falls within the counties of both Cumbria and North Yorkshire. The cities of Manchester and Leeds lie approximately 50 metres to the south whilst Kendal lies to the West and Darlington to the West.

The Dales is essentially a collection of river valleys, running from the Vale of York to the Pennines. Some of the well known areas within the Yorkshire Dales, include Settle, Harrogate and Skipton.

Objectives

Local Planning Policy in the Yorkshire Dales is determined by the Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority. The National Parks website describes this as thus, ‘This is the strategy, guidance and criteria that the Authority will use to determine proposals for the development and change of use of land and buildings within the National Park boundary.'

http://www.yorkshiredales.org.uk/index/living/planning_1/planning_policy.htm

The Yorkshire Dales National Park has started work on the Yorkshire Dales Development Framwork, (YDDF) which will form the Local Development Framework for the area, replacing the 2006 Local Plans. Like most LDF's there are several parts to the YDDF, these include;

However the Local plan still currently forms the planning policy for the National Park, this consits of the

Development Plan consists of the Yorkshire Dales Local Plan 2006, various ‘saved policies' from the Minerals and Waste Local Plan 1998 and the Yorkshire and Humber Regional Spatial Strategy May 2008. This willl be the case until the LDF is complete and ready to be integrated.

Figure 2 shows the areas covered by the Yorkshire Dales Local Plan.

Consultation with the public has been a key part of a succesful Yorkshire Dales Plan. A project brief was devised in September 2000, the consequent report in October 2000 set out the key proposals and planning issues, public comment was encouraged.

There are four main aims of the Local Plan

Aim 1

To provide a framework for planning decisions in the National Park that supports and does not prejudice the national park purposes of conserving and enhancing the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage and promoting understanding and enjoyment of the special qualities of the National Park.

Aim 2

To seek to foster the social and economic well-being of the communities within the National Park and encourage social inclusion for all residents.

Aim 3

To ensure that development is sustainable and planning decisions are based on the precautionary principle.

Aim 4

Analysis of the main aims. The basis principle of the Yorkshire Dales National Park, is to provide a framework for planning, that allows conservation of the park. Any development must of be of a sustainable nature. Social and economic issues must also be considered.

To respect the characteristics of the individual Dales.

How well does it achieve them

Management issues

The Yorkshire Dales : Today and Tommorow 2007-2012

After wide consultation the Yorkshire Dales Management plan was concieved in 2000, it was updated in the 2006 Local plan and is now reviewed in an annual report. The plan focuses on critical issues within the park and identifies 70 objectives the authourity aim to achieve by 2012. The National Park authourity works in partnership with local strategic partnerships and statutory agencies.

The Yorkshire Dales National Park Authourity describes the management plan as the, ‘single most important document for the Yorkshire Dales National Park.' http://www.yorkshiredales.org.uk/index/looking_after/yorkshire_dales_national_park_management_plan/about_plan.htm

The aim of the plan is to identify the uniques characteristics of the park and identifies the best ways to maintain these areas whilst encouraging sustainable development. Policies are also identified to help support the local communites within the park.

The plan had identified seven key areas of the National Park;

A key has been devised to monitor the progress of each of the objectives, there are three stages to the key,

Each of the seven areas identified as one of the National Parks key areas, has its own specific aim and several objectives, each of which is montiored in the annual report. In the example of Landcsapes, the aim is.

‘The beauty, distinctive character and and strengthened through ongoing interaction between nature and the people who live and work there.'

An example of one of the objectives is L1, Maintain and enhance the quality and distinctive character of the Yorkshire Dales landscape (as measured through the national Countryside Quality Counts indicator).

There are two specific areas with in this objective that have been identified as areas which have improved, the Yorkshire Dales as a whole and specifically Howgill Fells. Objective L1 has been certified with a green light meaning it has been achieved or it is on course to be.

Annual Report 2009

The second annual report was undertaken in June 2009. The summary indicates that in general good progress is being made, with nine objectives (13%) already achieved; 42 (60%) still on course to be achieved; and 17 where some progress is being made. That means in all but two of the objectives at the very least some progress is being made.

The report highlights several impressive feats achieved due to the work done as as result of the YDMP. For example, ‘85% of the national park is now in some form of environmental agreement.' Over areas of success include, ‘over 8km of rights of way were uprgraded to be accesible to wheelchair users. The area of SSSI land in favourable or recovering' condition increased by 2,500 ha, and now stands at 86%.' Finally the National Park Authority's Sustainable Fund funded 21 local economic, social, and environmental projects, worth over £800,000.

http://www.yorkshiredales.org.uk/npmp_annual_report_2009.pdf

Annual report. Comparisons. Discuss certain objectives. Save annual report bookmark page. Compare charts from annual review if possible.

Set out the aims of all 7 areas of National Park Managemnt plan.

Part 2

Overall effectiveness of the complete system of designations operating within the British Isles, and any overall changes that u would consider to be advisable. 1000 words.

CONTEXT

There are a number of general issues that provide important context for what is happening in the Park already or will do so in the future. They include:

Notes for Presentation

Slide 1

I'm going talk about the Yorkshire Dales National Park.

Slide 2

There are four main issues that I am going to cover in the presentation, these are Background, how well the national park meets its objectives, management issues and whether policies require any improvement.

Slide 3

The first map shows the location of the Yorkshire Dales within the UK. The second map shows boundary of the National Park. Some notable areas include, Grassington and Malham. Some settlement that fall outside the boundary are still included in the parks policies, this includes areas such as Richhmond.

Slide 4

The park was formed in 1954, and is renowned for its heritage, variety of landscapes and outstanding national beauty. The National Park itself is located in the North of England and falls in the counties of North Yorkshire and Cumbria.

Slide 5

Picture limestone paving at Malham

Slide 6

View of the landscape showing ingleborough in the background

Slide 7

This slide shows some of the useful information which helps to gain an understanding of the National Park. The park has a population of 19,654 people. With 61% of this population being of the working age (16-64.) With 17% being pre -school and school age.

In terms of land use the majority of land is moorland, followed by Farmland, and a very small percentage being woodland. This will have a large bearing on the determination and focus of the policies within the park.

There is a total of 1,456 km of public footpaths. 660 Km of Public Bridleways and 109,300ha of open access land. This helps to identify how to allocate recources appropriately. There is almost double the amount of public footpaths than there are bridleways..Therefore public footpaths may be more expensive to maintain than bridleways.

In the case of nature conservation there are 50,769ha of sites of special scientific interest.

Slide 8

Planning in the Yorkshire Dales is determined by Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority. The National park website describes planning policy as such, ‘This is the strategy, guidance and criteria that the Authority will use to determine proposals for the development and change of use of land and buildings within the National Park boundary.'

Slide 9

Slide 10

Currently the Yorkshire Dales Local Plan is the most relevant planning document until it is replaced by the Yorkshire Dales Development Framework.

There are four main aims of the Local Plan

Aim 1

To provide a framework for planning decisions in the National Park that supports and does not prejudice the national park purposes of conserving and enhancing the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage and promoting understanding and enjoyment of the special qualities of the National Park.

Aim 2

To seek to foster the social and economic well-being of the communities within the National Park and encourage social inclusion for all residents.

Slide 11

Aim 3

To ensure that development is sustainable and planning decisions are based on the precautionary principle.

Aim 4

To respect the characteristics of the individual Dales.

Slide 12

In terms of management and conservation of the Yorkshire Dales, the Yorkshire Dales Management Plan is the most relevant and important document. The management plan is called the Yorkshire Dales: Today and Tommorow 2007-2012.

After wide consultation the Yorkshire Dales Management plan was conceived in 2000, it was updated in the 2006 Local plan and is now reviewed in an annual report. The plan focuses on critical issues within the park and identifies 70 objectives the authority aim to achieve by 2012. The National Park authority works in partnership with local strategic partnerships and statutory agencies.

Slide 13

Slide 14

There are 7 key areas that have been identified in the management plan as key areas of the National Park.

The seven elements are not set out in any particular order or priority. They are intended to provide a framework for the National park to identify and rectify its aims and problems. The seven sections are interlinked and are not to be considered in isolation. Many of the issues within the National park relate to more than just the section they are written in.

Slide 15

Slide 16

There are currently two Annual reports 2008,2009 for the management plan. These are designed to determine the success of the objectives set out in the plan. These are very useful as they allow issues in the park to be addressed if they haven't been previously. The diagram shows a table of the objectives set out in the management plan.

Each objective is put into a category. There are four categories, achieved or on course, some progress, less or no progress, and abandoned. This diagram is taken from the 2009 annual report. And it shows that the majority of objectives have been achieved or are on course to.

Slide 17

Summary of objectives from Annual Report

Report JULY 2009

So far good progress has been made. Nine objectives (13%) have already been achieved, 42 (60%) on course to being achieved and 17 were some progress is being made.

Major achievements include:

over 8,500 hectares of land was brought into Natural England's Environmental

Stewardship Higher Level Scheme;

There are only 2 objectives where there is still no real progress being made: on improving the integration and use of sustainable transport for leisure and everyday life in the Park. While there are encouraging signs of development of community transport schemes within the Park, services for visitors and access to events within it remain limited

Designation of a network of ‘quiet lanes'. There has been little interest or demand. For both County Councils this issue is now part of the wider consideration of quietening all rural roads. The Steering Group has accepted that this objective should, therefore, be abandoned.

Overall there is good progress being made, particularly when u consider that the park has improved in a number of areas from the previous year.

Slide 18

Common themes

There are several common themes that underpin the aims and objectives of the National Park. Sustainable development is one of these themes and is based around ensuring a better quality of life for people for several generations. it is vital that any development does not significantly compromise the landscape and biodiversity of the dales.

Succesful partnerships are vital to the Yorkshire dales. Ninety five percent of the Yorkshire Dales National Park is in private ownership. The management plan attempts to unite land owners into supporting and delivery the national parks objectives. However this is dependent on a wide range of bodies and individuals working together.

The way in which people view the dales is of vital importance to its success. The park needs to find an appropriate way of promoting different aspects of it, and encouraging a wide range of people to visit the park, whilst maintain the unique nature of the area.

Other common themes include climate change and equal opportunity.

Slide 19

As well as having set objectives to achieve the National Park has more general issues that they monitor. These include

Climate change

Every year that goes by their is an ever increasing focus on climate change and how best to adapt to the effects of it. Later this year an adaption strategy for the park will be created, working in line with the latest Yorkshire and Humber Adaptation study. On management issue created as a result in Climate change will be how to manage the special characteristics of the park in the face of climate change.

National Park Boundary

‘Natural England has recommended work on renewing the boundaries of the park. Natural England is due to publish its proposals for consultation with local authorities. Should designation proceed, there will be new areas in Cumbria and Lancashire which the park will extend to. This could lead to implications for people and businesses as grant schemes for the National Park will be spread more thinly.'

Economic downturn

Like most areas the Yorkshire Dales has been somewhat affected by the downturn in the economy. The most recent study suggests that visitor numbers may have increased, but spending per person has decreased. This could be because UK residents would be more willing to travel with in the UK than in previous years. Another consideration for the future is that the amount of investment may decrease as the government seeks to cut public spending.

Upland Farming

There is still a challenge remaining to persuade farmers that they can run contribute to the special features with in the park as well as running as sustainable business. In particular attention is being turned to the future of the Single payment scheme.

Renewable Energy

Generation of energy from renewable sources is becoming increasingly more important in the face of climate change. A key challenge for the park is to encourage change, through small scale renewable energy resources such as hydro power.

Social changes

Social changes need to be regularly considered such as population change, average house price and average income. Problems can be addressed by documents such as the community strategies.

The Water Framework Directive -

Is a framework for managing the water environment in a holistic manner.

Action will be needed within the Park to ensure that its water bodies achieve stringent new standards for good ecological and chemical status by 2015.

Slide 20

Other management issues.

Farming is a major issue within the park. Upland farming has been an integral part of the Dales for centuries, helping to produce its distinctive landscape and range of habitats. Many of these are dependant for their survival on considerate regimes of hill farming with livestock. In recent years there has been a decline in the number of farms however, agriculture is still an integral part of the communities economy and culture. Recent policies in agriculture could lead to both the decline in farming in the Dales and perhaps alter the character of the landscape.

Economic change is another management issue facing the Yorkshire Dales. Many factors have implications on the National Parks economy and landscape, such as developments in tourism and leisure, economic growth and linkages between rural and urban economies. There are several ways these changes can impact on the dales, through areas such as new developments. For example, commercial recreational developments and modern farm buildings.

Military change

Any withdrawl for the country's armed forces from abroad would increase demand for training facilities and developments to accommodate returning personnel. As a result military activity in the national park may increase. There are plans to try and increase the size of the Catterick Garrison in a sustainable manner, this could have significant implications on the National Park. Catterick is the largest British Army garrison in the world with a population of around 12,000, plus a large temporary population of soldiers

Technology

Technology is a major management issue particularly with in a National Park. New technology is changing work patterns and businesses across the world. E- Commerce and the internet can alter the balance of community services and businesses. The advantage of this technology is that the remote nature of many businesses within the park can be overcome through the use of internet. Technology also changes the way new buildings are designed. As a result it is important to manage these benefits without significantly affected the sensitive landscape with in the park.

Mobility

Due to increases in personal mobility people are more likely to travel further to work. As a result of this the Yorkshire Dales is more accessible. However the development of new roads or bypasses can spoil the landscape of the dales even though it is making the park more accessible. Therefore a balance must be achieved. Although with the onset of cheaper air travel the Yorkshire Dales faces even more competition as a holiday and recreational destination. Finally due to the remote nature of the dales people who do not own a car, face social exclusion as public transport is not as readily available as in urban areas.

Housing

Demand for housing is a significant issue in the National Park. This is partially due to the increase in second homes and holiday homes in the area. This has consequently pushed house prices above national and regional averages. As a result the average house price is around ten times the average yearly income in the park. The lack of affordable housing leads to problems in attracting an adequate workforce that allows the survival of local businesses.

Recreational demands.

The Yorkshire Dales offers a high standard of outdoor recreational activities. The changing number, diversity and frequency of people visiting the park has an effect on its environment and economy. There is also a challenge of making the park accessible to people who have been unable to visit the park in the past.

Slide 21

There are certain areas where there are specific issues that need to be addressed.

50 hectares of existing commercial conifer plantation were removed but this is only half the amount needed each year to meet the objective. This partly reflects a change in Management emphasis linked to the continuing expansion of the red squirrel population within the Park.

Public transport from urban areas to the park is still very limited. Access to organised events for those who do not have access to a car has continued to decline. There is also an increasing emphasis on community transport schemes rather than bus services through, for example, the ‘Craven Hubs' initiative.

92% of the Pennine Bridleway route through the Dales is now open for public use.

However, the complexity of the remaining legal and logistical issues means that the full route will not now be completed until March 2011.

There are a number of objectives on which progress can only be measured through large, infrequent surveys. While there's no reason to suppose these objectives are not on course, we will not know for certain until the next surveys are carried out in 2010.

No floodplain wetland has yet been created, although the National Park Authority will be carrying out an audit of potential wetland restoration sites in 2009.

Through the efforts of the Forestry Commission, Yorkshire Dales Millennium Trust, National Park Authority, Natural England and private landowners, the area of broadleaf woodland has increased by a further 72 hectares. However, much higher levels of planting will be needed in the next two years if the objective is to be achieved.

Slide 22

On the whole the Yorkshire Dales National park is currently meeting the majority of the objectives set out in the Yorkshire Dales Management plan. Furthermore the park is improving on the previous year which is encouraging. There are certain areas which need to be addressed, however this to be expected in an area of this size. The National Park Authority has identified the key management issues such as sustainable development and climate change and has plans in place to combat them. There are a few policies that need to be improved, the majority of the times constraints can be down to legal and logistical issues.

Single payment scheme -pays famers for the land they own... and other entitlements..encoruage considerate approach to farming. Agricultural subsidy scheme for the eu... subsidy no longer linked to production. Environmentally friendly practices are acknowledged.

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