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Sustainable Management Of Mangrove Ecosystem Environmental Sciences Essay

This project center of attention to keep environmental situation of mangrove forest to be sustained and growing in a good manner for helping the Island with the drained by a number of tidal stream comes time to time, increasing the number of breeding areas for fishes and also this will support to avoid erosion around the sea level and the bay. The project planned with several strategies and activities to avoid the exploitation of mangrove forest which are happened by human activities for cutting them without planting support. Thus the project will come up with the strategies of sustainable mangrove forest within the Chwaka bay in Zanzibar.

3.0 PROJECT RATIONALE

3.1 Background:

Zanzibar is composed of two Islands Unguja and Pemba surrounded by more than 53 smaller Islets in the Indian Ocean. The total surface area is 2640km2 in which Unguja occupies 1660 km2 and Pemba covers 980km2. Its total population is about a million with the annual growth rate of 3.1 percent (2002 census). The female population is 502,006 while male population is 482,619 people. The proportion of the population below the age of 15 years is estimated at about 47%. The population in the age group 15-64 years is estimated at 49% with the remaining 4% covering those above the age of 65 years. The 1991 Household Budget Survey showed that the average annual income for each person in Zanzibar was $137. Well over half the households had an income of less than 15,000/- per month. This is a very low level of income.

Despite being a part of the United Republic of Tanzania since April 1964, Zanzibar has its own autonomous government with full responsibility under all non-union issues. Matters such as environment, fuel and electric power are among non union in which every part of union (Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar) has got its own legal and administrative system to deal with. Although United Republic of Tanzania represents both parties of the union in correct International and Regional conventions but in the implementation line every part has to go by its own track with respect to its legal and administrative rules and procedures.

Around the central district in South Region of Unguja Island, people depends their life economic aspect through fisheries, where as the Chwaka bay mangrove forest is located, about 35 km from Zanzibar town on the landward side of its mouth, the bay is bordered by a thick of mangrove forest, which is drained by a number of tidal stream and the largest of which is Mapopwe Creek, which is the main water exchange route between the forest and the bay. Mangrove covers an area of about 2800 hectares and the largest stand of mangrove forest occupying about 5% of forest cover in Zanzibar. Products and services offered by ecosystems are stronger in the coastal areas when it compared with other areas. Among other factors, has led to quick increases in human populations in coastal areas as a resulted in over-exploitation, as well as destructive operation of coastal resources. Moreover, the coastal areas obtain the impact of ocean-climate system to be changed, i.e., changes in temperature, rainfall and the causes of storm and floods. According to these factors, the coastal areas increased to be affected by human caused environmental poverty and is becoming at more risk to natural.

3.2 Economic Aspects

Fisheries, Tourisms as well as continuation agriculture are the main economic activities of the Unguja communities. Among 4.6% of GDP covered by fisheries economic activities, 20% on tourisms economic aspects and 21% for agricultural while it is understand that 61% of Zanzibaris depend on agriculture as the activities for their livelihood.

3.3 Environmental Considerations

The Island has improved with both natural as well cultural tradition such as white natural sand beach, different species of flora and fauna and good distribution of mangrove stands.

3.4 Involvement and Experience

The project considered stakeholders, government experts like environmental specialist, marine environmental expert, forest intellectual as well as extension services who have supported to produce the knowledge and skill due to the formulation of the project for how it will be or they should do to sustain the mangroves, also financial expert in terms of monetary distribution due to their flow of activities. Moreover, the project employed the villagers who are surrounded to support and participating in the activities and their willingness to the expert surrounded them.

3.5 Consultation and participation in a project

The project received several consultations due to the formulation stage, the environmental expert, stakeholders, forest intellectual, marine environmental specialist were participated. The project consulted in environmental aspect as it should consider that to bring home the best studies on the community livelihood strategy and mangrove ecosystem services, best practices in restoring the ecosystem services with community involvement, also examine coastal sustainable policy and develop a frame work with stakeholders. In addition the consultation comes to develop indicators of ecosystem health and functioning with stakeholder for participatory monitoring. Also financial expert contributed according to budgetary planned with their activities.

3.4 Policies/Development strategy

According to SMEs Policy in Tanzania has stated the considerations of environmental as followed: “The Government will ensure that environmental considerations are given due emphasis in all SME development interventions”. Latest developments in environmental issues have tended to create limitations to the development of SMEs in terms of legal requirements and complexities in compliance to changing regulations. They demand environmentally friendly technologies that are expensive, clear waste disposal techniques and systematized waste management. Furthermore, environmental law and regulations require environmental impact assessment and do impose penalties for non-compliancy to lay down regulations. All these require resources, which are not within the reach of SMEs.

4.0 PROJECT APPROACH

4.1 The sustainable mangrove forest project has prepared by using the Work breakdown Structure (WBS) approach which contained and combine the flow of main activities. The project presented by text indents breakdown, the flow of activities is as follow-:

1.0.0 Mangrove Project

1.1.0 Survey

1.1.1 Monitoring and Evaluation

1.1.2 Reports collection

1.2.0 Area selection

1.2.1 Digging area 1

1.2.2 Digging area 2

1.3.0 Replanting / Rehabilitation

1.3.1 Nursery 1

1.3.2 Nursery 2

1.4.0 Training

4.2 Problem analysis

The great danger to the mangroves forest is man and unless human activities are careful controlled but if it is not, the valuable mangrove assets will be irreversibly ruined. Over exploitation of mangrove forestry reduce overall productivity of mangrove ecosystem, such as social-economic activities is the main problem of utilizing mangrove trees, for instance selling of construction poles, fire wood and charcoal are the major people’s events in for both Unguja and Pemba.

4.3 Main Goals

To sustainable Management of Mangroves Ecosystem for the livelihood of resident of Chwaka bay.

The livelihood security of communities neighboring to Chwaka Bay is enhanced.

4.4 Project outcomes

Productivity of mangrove has been increased through conservation, rational management and wisely use of mangrove forest

The villages around Chwaka bay, mangroves formed a joint local mangrove council.

Supervised by elders and controlled over exploitation of mangroves by issuing special permits and imposing penalties to offenders.

The Council derived its revenue through the issue of tax to mangrove products.

The revenue used to pay for the running cost of the Council and for community events.

4.5 Project strategies

Bring home the best studies on the community livelihood strategy and mangrove ecosystem services.

Best practices in restoring the ecosystem services with community involvement.

Examine coastal sustainable policy and developmental frame work with stakeholders.

Assess mangrove functionality in consultation with stakeholders of successful project sites.

Develop indicators of ecosystem health and functioning with stakeholder for participatory monitoring.

Explores and evaluate potential management option to protect important ecosystem functions resolving conflicts/tensions to ensure sustainable use of coastal wet land-marine resources.

4.6 Project outputs

1. Establishment of mangrove zone conservation pilot areas for environmental

education programs for the children.

Encourage of high growth tree species planting that can be used as an alternative means for construction poles, fire wood and charcoal in a pilot areas and leave the mangrove to be safe.

Community environmental management committee is established.

Village by laws and regulations of mangrove utilization in pilot areas are formulated and used within community.

4.7 Main Activities

Base line survey for the investigation, analyzes, and evaluates the present situation, problems and need of mangrove conservation.

To select pilot areas for the establishment of mangrove conservation zone areas.

To promote public awareness of the social, economic and ecological importance of mangrove ecosystem to the coastal community

Replanting and rehabilitation of degraded mangrove areas.

To promote first growth tree nurseries planting through local participation for the local uses.

Establishment of mangroves raises nurseries to facilitate replanting.

To develop and produce by-laws and regulations manual which are applicable to the local situation in pilot areas through participatory mechanism

5.0 APPRAISAL

5.1 Social Appraisal

The environmental will be conserved as a result, erosion will be minimized and number of fishes will be increased by getting the safe breeding areas around the mangrove forest, The implementation of this project will effect most of the residents who are using mangrove tree for making charcoal, firewood and fishing as well.

5.2 Economic Appraisal

The project will benefits the national revenue and income due to the fact that Zanzibar is place for tourisms and almost 20% of GDP depends on tourism. So the implementation of this will conserve the environment and as the results the tourist will be attracted to come and see the views of mangrove forest within the coastal areas at Chwaka bay. Also mangroves contribute to fisheries in about 49% and Provide wide range of wood products which will help those who used to develop dhows, sailing ship and so on.

5.3 Environmental Appraisal

The environmental will be protected and as the results the keeping the mangrove forest to grow well, also the movements of water exchange route between the forest and the bay will going good, fishes will continue to generated in a high species diversity and increasing themselves.

6.0 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

6.1 Management arrangement

The Chwaka Environmental Society (CES) is a NGO organization which is working with the several project implementations within the society, the organization run by following the functional organization structure and enclosed with the Chairman, Secretary, financial expert, human resource officer, environmental intellectual, village head and other staffs who support any project which is announced to their organization.

Referred ANNEX II shows the Implementation Work Plan

Referred ANNEX III shows the project organization chart.

6.2 Timing

The project scheduled with time limited of five years due to their goals, outcomes, objectives and activities.

Referred ANNEX IV Work plan and Time framework which is show the time schedule of the project for five years

6.3 Project Budget

The project calculated the budget of equipments, allowance and other expensive which are required to the project implementation for achievement of the stakeholder’s needs.

Referred a Project budget on the ANNEX V.

6.4 Accounting

Referred ANNEX VI which is show the detail of the project calculated cost of income and expenditure.

6.5 Monitoring and Evaluation

Monitoring and evaluation is very important in any project implementation which is support to understand the activities behavior, movement, usage of resources and in case of any problem appeared within the life of the project will be easy to preserve.

Due to this project of sustainable of mangrove forest, the monitoring activities will be continuous concurrent and integral featuring in all project components, and it will be done in a participatory means. The indicators for monitoring presented in a logic framework and they can be assessed when it required. Particularly the monitoring and evaluation will assess the way of financial statement and the uses of money go as what it has planned in several activities to this project, also the uses of the resources, sometimes you may find the resources are not well constrained so that, this process will effect and help to achieved the needs of stakeholders requirement.

It is important again for this sustainable project to support and monitors for the responsibilities characteristic to all stakeholders and contribute what they are suppose to do at time scheduling, moreover, the missing of monitoring and evaluation for this project might be happened with an errors through different stages of activities course so the project will go on in deferent directions of what it had been planned before.

7.0 RISK ANALYSIS

7.1 Risk Purpose

To identify problems before they occurred, so that risk manage the activities that may have been planned and prevented across the life of the project to mitigate bad impacts on achieving objectives. Before implementation the project should be kept safe and not to put in danger achievement of critical objectives.

7.2 Risk Identification

It is possible to identify the risk of the project when it is about to be implemented, on other hand the risk can be observed due to the category and type of the project. The identification may have come in different aspects for instant environmental aspects, economical aspects and also social aspects.

7.1 Risk Assumption

After completed the budget and work plan there might be happened the risk of inflation so that the budget will work in minimum requirement and some of activities will be fail to achieve the needs of stakeholder’s.

The project occupied some activities to be implemented within the sea level where by water drained by a number of tidal stream so that it might be occur the failure of the people to be able to move when the sea water are ups. In case of this, the marine environmental expert suggests that the water drained will not occur all the time and produced specific time to work so it is achievable to be done within five hours per day.

Water exchange route between the mangrove forest and bay might destroyed the establishment of mangroves raises nurseries to facilitate replanting. This is very minor risk because the villagers had planned to block that water routine by keeping some packet of sand to the way stream of water.

It might be happened for the delayed of donor contribution so that the project may be comes too exceeded in the scheduling period of time.

ANNEXES

ANNEX I. LOGICAL FRAMEWORK

NARATIVE SUMMARY

VERIABLE INDICATORS

MEANS OF VERIFICATION

RISK ASSUMPTION

Overall goal

Sustainable management of mangrove ecosystem for the livelihood of Unguja community

Increase health mangrove stands along the coast shore

Monitoring and Evaluation reports

Project purposes

Productivity of mangrove ecosystem has been increased through conservation, rational management and wisely use of mangrove forest

Increase supply /quantity of seashore fishes and shellfish

Numbers of species catches

Project out put

1. Establishment of mangrove conservation zoning areas for environmental education programs.

2. Establishment of community by-laws and regulations of mangrove utilization

3. Establishment of community mangrove management

Committees

Numbers of zoning areas established

Production of by-laws and regulation manual

Numbers of committee established

Surveys and community meeting repots

Community meeting report produced

Community meeting report

2. It might be happened for penalty in case of any from the village exploit mangrove forest without permission.

3. The villagers will failed to cut off the mangrove freely for their livelihood activities, like for making charcoal, firewood, poles and so on.

Project activities

Rapid assessment survey to investigate, evaluate the present situation, problems and need of mangrove conservation

Identification of mangrove conservation zoning areas

Community sensitization on social, economical and ecological importance of mangrove ecosystem to the coastal community

Replanting and rehabilitation of degraded mangroves areas

Community sensitization on first growing tree species planting for the local uses(fire wood, charcoal and construction poles

Development/formulation of community by-laws and regulations for mangrove utilization

Establishment of mangrove raising nurseries using local material to facilitate replanting

Several survey have been done

Five zones have been selected

Knowledge and skill of the community and understood the important of mangrove

The seedling has showed within the areas

6.Some of the villagers seek penalties over the exploitation of the mangrove

7.The seedling has come up

Survey and Evaluation reports

Surveys and community meeting report

Expert and community meeting.

Survey and community reports

6.Community and stakeholders reports

7.Community reports

Failure to get transport and it was rained, the stakeholders failed to collect the data in proper way

The community stopped to moving around selected zone for their human activities

Water exchange routine from the sea to the bay might destroyed the nurseries of mangrove

7.Water drained by a number of tidal stream so that it might be occur the failure of the people to be able to move when the sea water is ups

ANNEX II. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION WORK PLAN

MAIN ACTIVITIES

1stYear

(2011)

2ndYear

(2012)

3rd Year

(2013)

4thYear

(2014)

5thYear

(2015)

Responsible person

1. Base line survey

X

Expert’s

2.Community Sensitization

X

X

Expert’s

3.Allocation of Zoning areas

X

Expert’s

4.Replanting/Rehabilitation

X

Expert’s and Workers

5.Monitoring and Evaluation

X

Expert’s

6.Training for environmental education for program

X

Expert’s, workers and community

ANNEX III: PROJECT ORGANIZATION CHART

Workers

Expert’s committee

ANNEX IV: WORKPLAN AND TIMEFRAME

Activities

Year I

Year II

Year III

Year IV

Year V

Base line survey for the investigation, analyzes, and evaluates the present situation, problems and need of mangrove conservation.

To promote public awareness of the social, economic and ecological importance of mangrove ecosystem to the coastal community

To select pilot areas for the establishment of mangrove conservation zone areas

Replanting and rehabilitation of degraded mangrove areas.

Establishment of mangroves raises nurseries to facilitate replanting.

Monitoring and Evaluation

Training for environmental education for program

ANNEX V. PROJECT BUDGET FOR SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF MANGROVE ECOSYSTEM

AMOUNTS IN TZS

 

Activity and description

YEAR 1

YEAR 2

YEAR 3

YEAR 4

YEAR 5

 

Contribution (NGO's)

7,629,000

9,000,000

10,971,000

15,511,000

17,100,000

 

DONOR Contribution

100,000,000

50,000,000

45,000,000

40,000,000

30,000,000

 

TOTAL INCOME

107,629,000

59,000,000

55,971,000

55,511,000

47,100,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Baseline Survey

12,000,000

11,600,000

9,000,000

11,500,000

8,000,000

2

Demarcating Conservation

12,700,000

8,530,000

7,000,000

4,000,000

3,950,000

3

Awareness raising seminar for stakeholders at Jozani-Chwaka Bay

11,560,000

12,300,000

14,453,000

14,700,000

14,670,000

4

Rehabilitation of degraded area exercise

4,090,000

2,450,000

2,070,000

2,850,000

1,530,000

5

Nursery

5,500,000

4,100,000

3,850,000

3,500,000

-

6

Developing By-Laws

881,000

-

-

-

-

7

Lobbing and Advocacy

89,000

60,000

100,000

150,000

150,000

8

Monitoring and Evaluation

1,000,000

2,000,000

2,500,000

2,500,000

2,500,000

9

Transport facilities

 

 

 

 

 

10

2 cars (Pick-up)

30,000,000

-

-

-

-

11

2 Motor Cycle

4,000,000

-

-

-

-

12

Office equipments

2,000,000

-

-

-

-

13

Office Furniture's

2,000,000

-

-

-

-

14

Administrative expenses

15,000,000

15,500,000

16,000,000

16,300,000

16,300,000

 

TOTAL EXPENDITURES

100,820,000

56,540,000

54,973,000

55,500,000

47,100,000

ANNEX VI: ACCOUNTING FOR THE FINANCIAL STATEMENT

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