Perception Of Agriculture Problems In Pakistan Environmental Sciences Essay
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Table of Content
Section I: Introductory
Introduction & background
Definition of Key Terms
1.6 Research hypothesis
Section II: Methodology
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2.1 Research design
2.2 Population and sampling
2.4 Pilot testing
2.6 Ethical Consideration
Section III: Analysis
3.1 Data Analysis
Agriculture (also called farming or husbandry) is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. Agriculture is also observed in certain species of ant and termite, but generally speaking refers to human activities.
Economy of every state depends on three sectors i.e agriculture, industry and commerce. These three are interrelated with each other as the progress or retrogress of one sector effects the other two. Pakistan is an agricultural state thus agriculture gains are of much importance than any other sector. Importance of this sector is manifold as it feeds people, provides raw material for industry and is a base for foreign trade. Foreign exchange earned from merchandise exports is 45% of total exports of Pakistan. It contributes 26% of GDP and 52% of the total populace is getting its livelihood from it. 67.5% people are living in the rural areas of Pakistan and are directly involved in it. There are two crops in Pakistan ie Rabi & Kharif.
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Agriculture is an important sector, providing food to the fast-growing population of the country. The total geographical area of Pakistan is 79.6 million hectares. About 27 percent of the area is currently under cultivation. Agriculture accounts for about 21% of GDP and employs about 42% of the labor force.Major crops include wheat, maize, pulses, rice etc. where as Pakistan has a rich and vast natural resource base, covering various ecological and climatic zones; hence the country has great potential for producing all types of food commodities Agriculture has an important direct and indirect role in generating economic growth. The importance of agriculture to the economy is seen in three ways: first, it provides food to consumers and fibers for domestic industry; second, it is a source of scarce foreign exchange earnings; and third, it provides a market for industrial goods where as IBIS (Indus basin irrigation system) is one of largest irrigation system in Pakistan. This supports farmers to for contribution of best cropping in their lands. Moreover theÂ agricultural sector is also facing problems in Pakistan yetÂ the major chunk of money comes from this sector. There are the major causes of agricultural problems in Pakistan which disturb the economic growth development in Pakistan. However Water is a unique natural resource. It is one of the most limiting constraints for agricultural production in Pakistan. Pakistan is blessed by nature with fertile lands, network of rivers, etc. however due to lack of funds, dams and also climate change, water logging problem related to irrigation has become a major problem in entire agriculture sector.
The purpose of study includes; what are some major problems in agriculture sector of Pakistan and how to deal with these problems, especially problems created by climate change as well as problems related to irrigation system.
Justification of this study of the following consideration:
Research will help people to understand problems of agriculture.
Research will also help people how we can introduce new ways to develop our agribuisness.
It will also help people how agriculture has drect and indirect role on economy.
The scope of is limited to students, teachers and also economic professors who can tell impact of agriculture problems on economy.
1.5: Definition of key terms
Significance: Significance of agriculture highlights that how much important agriculture sector is for our country what are its crops and which has direct impact on our economic growth.
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Climate change: It shows how changing of climate environment affect entire agriculture sector due to which It directly and indirectly impacts on Pakistan's economic growth.
Water loses: Water loses has been major reason impacting on irrigation. Since past years water resource has increased but the it's lose has got big impact on irrigation.
Nutrients: Nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorous, are the minerals in fertilizer that promote plant growth. But due to the over-fertilization of cropland, far more nitrogen and phosphorous are applied to fields than are removed by crops.ix Excess nutrients in water cause harmful plant growth-commonly referred to as "algal bloom," which can cause fish kills.
1.6: Research questions
These are research questions which are highlighted in research report.
Significances of agriculture?
What are problems affected by climate change?
How economy is affected by agriculture problems?
What are possible factors to deal with agriculture problems?
What are irrigation water withdrawal and loses.
1.6: Research Hypothesis
The only way to deal with these major problems is that there is need of a new agriculture policy in country like Pakistan. A new mechanism and latest machinery must be provided for better irrigation system. More and more dams must be conducted on Indus, Jhelum and Chenab rivers for better water logging and salinity. However climate has been changing to deal with this problem renewble energy policy must be adopted.
2.1: Research design
Population of study comprises of 10 to 20 people. This included students of particular universities and professors as well as farmers harvesting in their fields.
2.3: Sample design
This study comprise of 20 students and 10 of teachers and economists of new farmers harvesting in fields and irrigating in arable lands.
Different instruments were used such as
2.41: Questions: participants were asked different questions about agriculture problems and factors affecting agriculture in Pakistan.
Interview: participants were asked for interview such as economists to know how agriculture problems affect economy.
Documentary: a documentary was made in order to show problems affecting agriculture sector in which interviews were also recorded to know opinions of students and teachers as well as economists.
2.5: Pilot testing
Pilot testing was duly conducted on small similar to one to be actually selected for study this was done to ensure validity and reliability.
The researcher found several limitations on the present research.
First, the researcher utilizes conceptual hypotheses.
Secondly, in the survey I utilize convenience samples that make no claims to represent other countries.
The research is not done by a professional researcher.
The research is only limited for the Pakistan its results are not applicable on other countries.
The research is based on some limited variables that cause Agriculture Problems.
The data collected for the research is both quantitative and qualitative which make difficult to analysis the whole collected data.
The answers in the questionnaire are also based on perception of the participants.
2.7: Ethical consideration
Following ethical standards were used such as to ensure farmers whether they are going to give interview and ask for information. And formal consent was taken enormous and respondents were assured data collected to them will purely be used for reserved purpose.
For the analysis of the data for the research researcher have used the triangular method that is using questionnaire interviews and checklists for the data to be much more convenient to be assessed the researcher have used graphs, charts and provided findings of the question at the end.
Q#1 Do you agree that agriculture sector can heal our economic system better?
The above graph shows that 50% of people are strongly agree 10% are neither agree nor disgree and 40% agree that agriculture sector can heal our economic system better.
Q#2 What is cause of agriculture revolution in Pakistan?
The above graph shows that 60% of people agriculture revolution is due to increase in population 15% people agree with culturer change and other 15% with enviromental degaration.
Q#3 Land productvity in Pakistan?
The above graph shows that 50% people think that land productivity is slow but 13% agree with fast and13% with high and only 24% think that land productivity is low.
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Q#4 How likely are you recommended that agriculture can be good resourse for land productivity?
The above graph shows that 83% of people it can be good resourse where as 12% of people are
Neither agree nor disgree and finally 5% of people are recommended with statement very unlikely.
Q# 5 Please indicate how much important and un important each of service is?
The above graph shows that 99% of people think that better irrigation system and water growth is most important and only 1% of people think of land use as un important.
Q# 6 Check any of service that can boost agribuisness in pakistan?
The above graph shows that 60% of people think that all of services given can boost agribusiness In Pakistan where as 16.67% of people are recommended with livestock and only 1% with Forestry , fishery services etc.
Q#7 Please indicate how much extremely favorable and unfavorable each of service is?
The above graph shows that 50% of people are favorable in expansion of output. But only 8% are un-favorable in exporting products and 13% favorable in cultivation 16% are favorable in better irrigation system.
To summarize the whole research I come to know that our country is facing a hidden problem that is Agriculture Problem. I found the chief factors that are the major causes of Agriculture Problem. Pakistan is suffering from a great problem of Agriculture Problem which is caused by factors like land productivity , Revolution in Pakistan , Climate Change , Water Shortage.
This research help me to investigate people reaction on the basis of circumstances of a country particularly (Pakistan) which are agribusiness in Pakistan , Average Income , Land productivity. The main purpose or objective to conduct the research is to find out those factors that are the major causes of Agriculture problems in Pakistan and also to highlight that what are the factors that decrease productivity.
The main purpose or objective to conduct the research is to find out those factors that are the major causes of Agriculture Problem in Pakistan and also to highlight that what are the factors that decrease productivity, Average Income and agribusinesses. Farmers all over the world are faced with a basic problem. Compared with people who make their livings in other ways, they are becoming worse off. And in the end by analyzing the whole research I come to know that the above factors are the major cause and government of Pakistan is not taking any action against this big issue. So by designing research objectives, research questions, instruments and then analyzing them I come to know that my both hypotheses are proved.
In order the meet the 21st Century agriculture requirement, Pakistan need to change their crop varieties, with high yielding , drought and salt resistant with better nutrition value. And having better shelf life .They also need special training and universities of agriculture also needs to be change their syllabus according to new agriculture requirement of the country. Replacement of field crop with horticulture crop for export .Precession land leveling to save water .Strong horticulture organization. Training people in horticulture science in USA, Australia and South Africa. Building strong post harvest technologies for export. Post harvest transport facilities in land and by Sea Educating farmers in new technologies Involvement of private sector in agriculture, education, extension and research .Immediate replacement of horticulture varieties of food and vegetables. Development of floriculture and horticulture. Processing of surplus horticulture products are those not suitable for export.
The agrarian situations relating to Pakistan dealt above generally holds good for future planning. The country has countess, small and marginal farmers, in whose farm, the productivity is very low. Science and technology must be suited to this peculiar situation of the country. There are wide gaps both in yields obtained against the potential and technology transfer is very weak. The concerns of environmental protection, sustainability, employment, equity, energy, profitability and exports have become important. At present, the idea of economic reform process, competitiveness, efficiency and quality factors of agricultural production and export have assumed critical significance threatened loss of biodiversity, climatic change, burgeoning population are yet another major issues confronting the country. Further, declining real investment in agriculture especially agricultural research posses a real challenge to increase productivity in agriculture. There should be a comprehensive planning to boost up the crop productivity with honest and devotion, this problem can easily be overcome in the long run.
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Anderson J, Farmer at Monkshill, Aberdeenshire. Essays Relating To Agriculture And Rural Affairs. 4th ed, with corrections and large additions, London. 1797.
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Anon. British Husbandry; The Farming Pracrice In Various Parts of the United Kingdom. London. 1834 & 1837.
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