New Food Sources In A Changing Climate Environmental Sciences Essay
Damaged by the end of cheap energy, scarce water resources, damaged ecosystem services and unstable climatic changes, agricultural industries will have to search for new ways to feed a world whose appetite for food crops will grow by around 75 percent over the next 30 years.
"Intellective believes that bio diverse farming may provide the answers" Bio diverse farming exploits the biological functioning present in multi-species systems a methodology which is removed from today's monoculture, energy pertaining industrial agriculture systems which are based on simplification, specialization , cheap energy and therapeutic interposition. one has to understand agriculture and climate change are the processes which are interrelated with each other and which take place on a mass global scale. As we know one of the most contributing factors that are Global warming which will deteriorate the condition of Earths Biosphere will affect on food production and food chain process. Based on the balance of these effects the changes caused by climate change on agriculture can be estimated. By assessing the effects of global climate changes on the environment we can anticipate and adapt to these changes by which we can increase the agriculture yield. Concurrently the agriculture leads to produce significant effects on climate change. Agriculture accounts for around 30% of all green house gas emission from human activity.
The above diagram would show you the Green house gases produced by various sectors.
Increase in green house gases causes climatic variations which will affect the crops; these variations are different from one region to another region.
For example, corn production in Europe is likely to grow up to 25% in optimum hydrological condition where as in Pakistan the yield of the crop is expected to decrease by 50 % according to the metrological scenario.
In the long run situation the climatic change could affect agriculture in several waysÂ
1. It can affect the productivity rate and thus quantity
2. Agriculture practices through changes of water use and agricultural inputs like Herbicides, Fertilizers and Pesticides
3. Soil erosion and crop diversity are some of the Environmental effects
Adaptation is one more factor that may lead organisms to become more or less competitive. there are two methods Bioderverse agroecological methods and industrial agriculture
From an ecological point of view, agriculture can often be an extractive process that creates
less diverse ecosystems than their natural counterparts The loss of biodiversity in agro ecosystems can bring devastating consequences. While every ecosystem changes as time passes. We can adopt to the climate change through biodiverse agriculture. agricultural biodiversity provides an advantage by which food species can adapt to different changing environments .
Fig2a Farmers using composting techniques (shown
above), botanical pest controls, legume planting,
animal manure and water harvesting have raised
soil quality, reduced erosion, improved nutrition
and increased yields by 60 to 195%
Existing conventional industrial agriculture tends to simplify agricultural systems and reduce
diversity.while here we can observe one contrast the industrial agriculture methods are becoming more practiced from last 50years as we have already know global agriculture is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. Here we can observe one thing Adaptation is the process through which communities adjust to the impacts of climate change. Agroecology encircles a range of agriculture systems that employ an understanding of
environmental systems to both draw on and replenish natural resources Agroecological methods have multiple benefits for adversity to climate change. The ability to
cope up the shocks and stresses is enhanced through practices that are themselves diverse and which separately and taken together reduce risks. Agricultural biodiversity provides the raw materials for meeting the challenges of climate change.
The multiple advantages of biodiverse agroecology can increase the yield by organic matter accumulation and nutrient cycling, increased soil biological activity, disease suppression etc.
Diverse systems benefit from the efficient use of resources such a light, water and nutrients, and reduced susceptibility to pests and disease, contributing to prodcution improvements that have been particularly significant for small holding farmers and those in marginal environments.
Research from field-scale trials and laboratory studies confirms that how biodiverse agriculture conserves the environment and delivers high and dependable yields.
Monoculture yields can show large when measured for a particular crop per hectare, yet on mixed farms the whole farm output per year is greater, less dependant on favourable weather conditions and more sustainable in the long term.
studies which showed that diverse, combined farming can be profitable and simultaneously benefit the environment. The study demonstrated that when farms are converted from corn/soybean monocultures are converted to more diverse operations, the net farm income can be increased by as much as 108 percent, while yielding significant environmental and social benefits .
The key principles involved in bioderverse farming are :
a. energy conserving
b.Feature both biological and genetic diversity
c.try to be self-regulating and self-renewing
d. knowledge intensive
e.Operate on biological functionalities
f.Employ adaptive management
biodiversity farming would change agriculture from a global warming contributor to an inhibitor
Examples of how biodiverse agriculture can less severe the climate change include:
1a. increasing soil biodiversity to build soil organic matter, capturing carbon
2a. using diverse leguminous crops to fix nitrogen in the soil, reducing the need for chemical fertilizers
3a. introducing perennial crops to store carbon below ground
4a. planting temporary vegetative cover between successive crops to reduce nitrous oxide emissions by extracting unused nitrogen
So eventually one can tell tackle handle the hunger and climatic changes by increasing the resilience increasing sustainability managing risks and increasing the ability to change.
Even though there is a genetically modified crops but these are unable to provide resistance against extreme weather changes. They cannot adapt to the rapid and radical weather changes that will result from climate change
Diversity farming is the single most important modern technology to acheive food security in a changing climate
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