Impacts Of Human Activities To Climate Change Environmental Sciences Essay
According to Environbusiness.com, human industrial activities are believed to be adding to the amount of greenhouse gases naturally present in the atmosphere. There are mounting proofs that following the industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, which commenced in Britain and expanded to several parts of the world, the amounts of carbon dioxide, methane and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased somewhat. Greenhouse Gases released from human activities or natural sources and trapped in the atmosphere acting as blanket preventing the earth's heat from escaping into space, thereby increasing the earth's temperature, creating variability in the world climate.
-The issue: Humans vigorous activities had made lots of changes to the mother Earth which is getting worst day by day.
- Thesis statement: the main activities that contribute to the world’s climate change are depletion of ozone layer, manufacturing, and burning of fossil fuels.
1) Depletion Of Ozone Layer
a) Harmful effects of Ultra Violet rays
i. The ozone layer is responsible for absorbing the ultraviolet rays and thereby preventing them from passing through the atmosphere of Earth. Ultraviolet rays of the Sun are associated with a number of health related and environmental issues. The most important of these is the association between ultraviolet rays and an increased risk of developing several types of skin cancers including malignant melanoma, basal and squamous cell carcinoma. Even the incidents of cortical cataracts can also increase significantly with the increased exposure to ultraviolet rays. (Bora.C, 2012)
b) The produce of CFC, aerosol heavily, and other chemicals.
i) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals found mainly in spray aerosols heavily used by industrialized nations for much of the past 50 years, are the primary culprits in ozone layer breakdown. When CFCs reach the upper atmosphere, they are exposed to ultraviolet rays, which causes them to break down into substances that include chlorine. The chlorine reacts with the oxygen atoms in ozone and rips apart the ozone molecule. (Nationalgeographic.com, 1999).
ii) There is not just one particular cause for the ozone’s depletion; the accumulation of different pollutants into our ozone layer has all added up and equaled a worldwide problem. Man-made chemicals, fossil fuels, industrial wastes, and automobile exhaust all pose a threat to the earth’s ozone. Scientists were concerned when they discovered in the 1970s that chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs. These CFCs were used as solvents, refrigerants, aerosol propellants, and to blow foam plastics. (Greenleapdelhi.com, 2011).
2) Global warming
a) Global warming increase as the increasing of human population and industrial expansion.
i. Human population growth and related industrial expansion, have led to greater air pollution and a change in the composition of the earth's atmosphere. Some pollutants enhance the natural greenhouse effect, resulting in increased global atmospheric temperatures. (Collins, 2001)
ii. Without the earth's atmosphere, the air temperature on the earth's surface would be far below zero. The carbon dioxide we discharge in the process of living our lives also becomes a constituent in the atmosphere. When we release carbon dioxide it is like putting more clothes on the earth, leading to increased temperatures in the air from the ground surface up to an altitude of almost 20 kilometres. (Nagoya.jp, n.d.)
b) Industrial process and transportation has leaded to global warming. The use of heavy fuels.
i. Industry. Many industrial processes emit CO2 through fossil fuel combustion. Several processes also produce CO2 emissions through chemical reactions that do not involve combustion. For example, the production and consumption of mineral products such as cement, the production of metals such as iron and steel, and the production of chemicals. Various industrial processes accounted for about 14% of total U.S. CO2 emissions and 20% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2010. Note that many industrial processes also use electricity and therefore indirectly cause the emissions from the electricity production. (epa.gov, 2010)
ii. Transportation. The combustion of fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel to transport people and goods is the second largest source of CO2 emissions, accounting for about 31% of total U.S. CO2 emissions and 26% of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2010. This category includes transportation sources such as highway vehicles, air travel, marine transportation, and rail. (epa.gov, 2010)
3) Flash flood
a. Flash flood happens after heavy thunderstorm and spring rain that occur continuously.
i. In Georgia, most communities experience some kind of flooding after spring rains or heavy thunderstorms. Floods can be slow or fast rising but generally develop over a period of days. Dam failures are potentially the worst flood events. When a dam fails, a gigantic quantity of water is suddenly let loose downstream, destroying anything in its path. (Chathamemergency.org, 2012)
ii. "Communities particularly at risk are those located in low-lying areas, near water, or downstream from a dam," says Chatham Emergency Management Agency (CEMA) Director Clayton Scott.
iii. Often this occurs in a short amount of time, only several hours or even less. They can also be caused by ice jams on rivers in conjunction with a winter or spring thaw, or occasionally even a dam break. (wheatherchannelkids, 1993)
b. Flash flood occur when ground system does not back up, intensity and duration.
i. A fast-moving squall line of thunderstorms, for example, may move through an area so quickly that the rainfall is absorbed by the ground or sewer systems and does not back up. A slow-moving independent storm system, on the other hand, may dump inches of rain in a small area and create the potential for a flash flood. A short, intense downburst may be preferable to a long, slow rain event. If the ground is frozen or covered with ice, the rainwater will not be absorbed naturally and will continue to seek lower ground. When the rain is blocked from the ground by asphalt, it will stream towards sewer systems and natural troughs. (Wisegeek.com, 2003)
ii. The two key elements are rainfall intensity and duration. Intensity is the rate of rainfall, and duration is how long the rain lasts. Topography, soil conditions, and ground cover also play an important role. (Indiana Department of Water Resource, 1993)
In conclusion, depletion of ozone layer, global waming and flash flood are the main impacts of humans’ activities that lead to the mother earth’s climate change.
Recommendation to overcome: 1. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, 2. Use Less Heat and Air Conditioning, 5. Buy Energy-Efficient Products and 6. Use Less Hot Water.
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