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Impact Prediction And Impact Assessment Environmental Sciences Essay

One of the processes that consist in the Environmental Impact Assessment is the process of impact prediction and Impact Assessment. The process is involve of identify the types of impact, predict the magnitude, the probability of occurrence and the extent of the impact and lastly is determine the significant of the impact. This impact can be found at the ecological (species to ecosystem), social (individual to community) level, and the impact can be either positive or negative.

TYPES OF IMPACT

There are three types of impact; direct, indirect and cumulative. Direct impact is refer to the changes in environmental component that result from direct cause effect of the environment and project activity. Indirect impact is cause-effect consequences of interactions between the environment and direct impacts. For example, the effect of pollution may not only be seen directly in the loss of local vegetation, but indirectly as a degeneration of the health, culture and social structure of local people.

Cumulative impacts refer to the accumulation of changes to the environment caused by human activities (e.g. past, existing and proposed activities, including activities associated with the project under assessment). These changes occur over space and time and can be brought about by environmental effects that are additive or interactive. Marine mammals in the Arctic, for example, can be affected by hunting, oil spills, loss of habitat, and commercial fishing pressure on prey species.

IMPACT PREDICTION

The impact prediction is referring to the prediction on the impact based on the accumulated knowledge and through the finding of the environmental investigations. It is important to identify which the activity will cause the impact, the probability of occurrence of the impact, and its magnitude and extent (spatial and temporal). The important consideration for impact prediction is the baseline condition, uncertainty, spatial limits, temporal boundaries, incremental condition and quantitative method.

EVALUATION OF IMPACT

The purpose of impact evaluation is:

To assign relative significance to predicted impacts associated with the project

To determine the order in which impacts are to be avoided, mitigated or compensated

The significance of impacts may be determined during many phases of an assessment; however, determination usually occurs during impact prediction. Consideration of impact significance could affect the scoping exercise, and monitoring results could lead to a re-evaluation of impact significance. Decisions on impact significance should be presented clearly, and in the case of disagreement, the different points of view on significance should be presented.

Decisions on significance should be based on existing standards, discussions, judgement and agreement. These decisions should take into account the characteristics of the impact such as the number of affected persons, and the magnitude, extent, duration and reversibility of the impact. The applied methods and the criteria used for ranking significance should be clearly presented. The key elements for assessing the significance of impacts include:

level of public concern;

scientific and professional judgement;

measure of disturbance to ecological systems;

impacts on social values and quality of life;

existence of environmental standards, that is, international, national, provincial or local agreements; and

Availability of mitigation practice and technology to ameliorate impacts.

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ACT

In the Environmental Quality Act have six (6) part. The part is about:

Preliminary

Administration

Licenses

Prohibition and control of pollution

Appeal and appeal board

Miscellaneous

PRELIMINARY

The premilinary part is discuss about the meaning that need to understand in this act so that there are no misunderstanding. For example is "soil" includes earth, sand, rock, shales, minerals and vegetation in the soil. Besides that, in this part notify that this act is apply for whole Malaysia.

ADMINISTRATION

The Admisiration part is discuss about the the power and duties of the Director General Environmental Quality and other officer. One of the duties or power of Director General is to undertake surveys and investigations as to the causes, nature, extent of pollution and as to the methods of prevention of pollution and to assist and co-operate with other persons or bodies carrying out similar surveys or investigations. The Deputy Director General and other officer will do the duties on behalf Director General.

Besides that, this part are discuss about the Environmental Quality Council. The function of this council is to advise the Minister on matters related to this Act and any matter referred to it. One of the member of this council is the Secretary General, Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment or his authorized representative. The other thing that related to this council is disqualification, resignation and vacation from office of the council member, the meeting, presiding officer at meeting of council and lastly the remuneration for the council member.

LICENSES

The licenses part is discuss about the licenses to start the premise. The licenses authority is Director General. The licenses can be renewal and transfer. The duration of renewal licenses and transfer are been discuss in this part. The duration to renewal the licenses is must be mot less than three month from the expire date. If not apply within the time will be fine ten (10) ringgit per day of delay or one per centuin of the licenses fee. The Director General can reject the renewal application that made after expiry license and can fine that person about five hundred (500) per centuin of the licenses fee of ten thousand (10 000) ringgit. The licenses fee is different based on the factor of:

The class of premises

The location of such premises

The quantity of wastes discharged

The pollutant or class of pollutants discharged

The existing level of pollution.

PROHIBITION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION

The prohibition and control of pollution part is discuss about the prohibition related to the licensed and the way to controlling the pollution. The prohibition is the person who has premises that do not have licenses cannot use the other premises licenses to be use for his premises. If found guilty, the person will be fine ten thousand ringgit or imprisonment less than two year or both of them. If he refused to pay or still do the prohibition, he will be fine one thousand ringgit for every day.

The way to control the polltuion that has been discuss in this part is the restriction on polllution of atmosphere, noise, soil and inland water. The other thing to control the pollution is prohibition of discharge of oil and waste into Malaysian water.

Found Guilty in Doing Pollution on

Fine

Atmosphere, Soil and Inland Water

Less than RM 10 000 or imprisonment not exceeding 2 year or both and for futher fine is less RM 1 000 per day

Noise

Less than RM 5 000 or imprisonment not exceeding 1 year or both and for futher fine is less RM 500 per day

Discharge Oil into Malaysian Water

Not less than RM 1 000 and not exceeding RM 25 000 or imprisonment less than 2 year or both

Discharge Wastes into Malaysian Water

Less than RM 10 000 or imprisonment not exceeding 2 year or both

Besides that, the Environmental Impact Assessment Report (EIA) must be made before carry out some activity to report the impact on environment from the activity.

APPEAL AND APPEAL BOARD

The appeal and appeal board part is discuss about the opportunity to get appeal for reducing the fine and the board that incharge for the appeal. One of the person that can do the appeal is the person who are refused to grant a licenses or transfer of a licenses. The appeal board consist of three (3) member and one of them will be the chairman.

MISCELLANEOUS

The misceelaneous part is discuss about the thing that related to this act. One of that is the to get information from the occupier. The Director General will require the premises to furnish him regarding on the equipment, control equipment or industrial plant found on the premises or wastes discharged from the premises. If the premises can not answer it correctly or give wrong information, the premises will be fine less than RM 2 000 or imprisonment not exceeding 6 month or both.

Besides that, this part discuss about the power of Director General. One of the Director General power is can enter such premises at any time to examine any books, records or documents relating to the performance or use of such equipment, control equipment, monitoring equipment or industrial plant or relating to the emission, discharge or deposit from such premises.

The Director General will take action to remove, disperse, destroy or mitigate the pollution that made by any person and all the cost of recovery is cover by that person. Moreover, the Director General have power to detain and sell the ship that made the pollution. The ship owner must pay the fine about not less than RM 10 000 or jailed less than 2 year or both if found guilty in releasing the detain ship to the sea. If the owner can not pay the cost of recovery the pollution that made by his ship, the Director General can sell the ship and that money will be use to cover the cost of recovery the pollution.

The other power of Director General is he can test and prohibit use of vehicle that be use by the premises. If the owner fail to give cooperation, the owner will be fine less than RM 5 000 or be jailed less than 1 year or both.

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (CLEAN AIR) REGULATIONS

In the Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation have eight (8) part. The part is about:

Preliminary

Industrial Facilities Adjacent to Residential Areas

Burning of Waste

Dark Smoke

Air Impurities

Miscellaneous Provisions

Penalty and Fees

Compunding of Offences

PRELIMINARY

In the preliminary part is discuss about the meaning of the term-term that use in this Regulation. One of the example is “solid fuel” mean material burned as a solid, such as coal or semi-anthracite, coke, coal, wood, timber, logs, branches, crop, kernel, shell, or any solid byproduct of the process that replaces the factory fuel.

INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES ADJACENT TO RESIDENTIAL AREAS

In this part, it discuss about the approval to do the new installation for the industrial use. This approval must prove by Director General. If the Director General think that the new intallation will cause the pollution, the Director General will reject the application.

BURNING OF WASTE

The thing that discuss in this part is the burning area. the trade waste can only burn in the incinerator and the incinerator can not be erect, construc, install, alter or resite without approval from the Director General. If want to do it, the application must be sent to the Director General and the application is attacted with site plans of approved scale indicating clearly the location of the proposed incinerator and building within 1000 meters of the proposed incinerator. If the incinerator or not compitable, the Director General will do the notice to the occupier to repair, alter or replace the incinaretor and the other thing that be described in this part.

DARK SMOKE

The dark smoke part is discuss about the permissible dark smoke limit for the new facilities. One of the permission is the smoke must to be darker than that designated as shade no. 1 on the Ringelmann Chart. For the existing facilities, the permissible limit is the smoke is to be darker than that designated as shade no. 2 on the Ringelmann Chart. Besides that, the occupier must provide the observation device to the the observe the emission of smoke. One of the way is install the smoke density indicator and alarm to adequately in the control room of density of smoke being dischaged. The occupier must test the device and record the wolume and density of smoke that generated for inspection by the Director General.

AIR IMPURITIES

The total mass of solid particles concentration in other operation that release before admixture with air, smoke or other gases does not exceed Standard A: 0.6, Standard B: 0.5, Standard C: 0.4, grimme in each normal cubic meter of effluent gases. For the metal and metallic compounds like copper, lead, arsenic and so on that release before it admixture with air, smoke, or other gases, the total mass must not exceed the following:

Substance

Mercury

Cadmium

Lead

Antinomy

Arsenic

Zinc

Copper

Standard A

0.02

0.025

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.15

0.15

Standard B

0.01

0.015

0.025

0.025

0.025

0.1

0.1

Standard C

0.01

0.015

0.025

0.025

0.025

0.1

0.1

If the emission consist of more subtance element, the total mass of first five must not exceed 0.04 gm/Nm3 . The limitation for releasing the asphalt concrete plant id must not exceeding the following:

Source

Standard A

Standard B

Standard C

Stationary Plant

0.5 gm/ Nm³

0.4 gm/ Nm³

0.3 gm/ Nm³

Mobile Plant

0.7 gm/ Nm³

0.7 gm/ Nm³

0.4 gm/ Nm³

For the limitation on releasing the portland cement plant dust or solid particles must not exceed the following standard:

Source

Standard A

Standard B

Standard C

Kiln

0.4 gm/ Nm³

0.2 gm/ Nm³

0.2 gm/ Nm³

Clinker cooler, finish grinding and other

0.4 gm/ Nm³

0.2 gm/ Nm³

1.0 gm/ Nm³

For the facilities discharging asbestos and free silica, the dust or solid particle from that element must not exceeding the Standard A: 0.4 gm/Nm3, Standard B: 0.2 gm/Nm3 and Standard C: 0.12 gm/Nm3. Besides that, the occupier must do the best practicable means like use the mist eliminator, dust arrestor, gas absorber, control instrumentation and so on that been described in this part regulation 32. The other thing is if the occupier releasing the offensive odour, the occupier must do something to reduces it or eliminite it. Lastly is the sampling point, the result of all tests conducted on boiler and incinerator must be expressed on the basis of flue gas containing 12% by volume of carbon dioxide.

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISION

In this part, it discuss about the render assitance, emergency requirement and so on. The occupier of any premises must render assistance in term of proper access, power supply, labour and safety appliance or instrument that available from the premises when the Director General do the inspection on the premises. One of the emergency requirement that need to be fullfill by the occupier is to install such necessary public warning or alert system. If there are emission of air impurities form that can harm the public health, the occupier must to:

install and operate control equipment or additional control equipment

repair, alter or replace any equipment or control equipment on those premises

erect or increase the height of the chimney

emit, discharge or deposit the air impurities

PENALTY AND FEES

Any person that found guilty on emits or discharge waste will be fine less than RM 10 000 or imprisonment less than 2 years or both and for the futher fine is RM 1 000 per day. The payment is by cash, money irder, postal order or bank draft to the Director General.

COMPOUNDING OF OFFENCES

The offences may be compound under section 45 (1) of the act by the Director General.

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (SEWAGE AND INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS) REGULATIONS 1979

In the Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents) Regulation have seven (7) part. The part is about:

Preliminary

New Sources of Discharge

Acceptable Conditions of Discharge into Inland Waters

Discharge of Effluent and Sludge onto Land

License for Contravention of Acceptable Condition

Miscellaneous

Fees

PRELIMINARY

In this part, it inform that this regualtion is public on 1st February 1979 and force on 1st January 1981. Besides that, in this part are discuss about the term-term that use in this regulation like “Inland Water” include any reservoir, pond, lake, river, stream, canal, drain, spring or well, any part of the sea abutting on the foreshore, and any other body of natural of artificial surface or subsurface water.

NEW SOURCES OF DISCHARGE

In thispart are discuss about the prohibition against new abd altered sources of effluent discharge and the requirement and approval of the plans.

ACCEPTABLE CONDITIONS OF DISCHARGE INTO INLAND WATER

No one can discharge of effluent containing the refuse, garbage, sawdust, timber, human or animal waste or solid matter in the inland water. The parameter limit of effluent to be discharged into inland waters are been discuss in this part.

DISCHARGE OF EFFLUENT AND SLUDGE ONTO LAND

This part is discuss about the restriction on the discharge of effluents and restrictions on disposal sludges.

LICENSE FOR CONTRAVENTION OF ACCEPTABLE CONDITION

The owner of premise must show the license with each of the document at the place in the building that easy to be look. If the owner want to resign and other people want to take the place, that person must follow the instruction that given in this part regulation 15.

MISCELLANEOUS

If the person do the spill or accidental discharge, he must inform to the Director General and the cost of recover the spill are pay by that person. Other thing that discuss in this part is provisions for inspection and occupier to render assistance during the inspection.

FEES

In this part, it discuss about the fee that be charge on the written permission, licenses including renewal of licenses, waiver of fee and transfer of licenses.

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (MOTOR VEHICLE NOISE) REGULATIONS 1979

This regulation are become force on 16th July 1987. The term-term that use in this regulation are been discuss to make sure that the user understand term that use in this regulation like “Motor Vehicle” is means any description of vehicle propelled by means of mechanism contained within itself and constructed or adapted so as to be capable of being used on roads and include a trailer.

Besides that, this regulation also discuss about the maximum sound level permitted for two wheels or three wheel and more than three wheel. The vehicle that are excluded from this permit is the motor vehicle that manufactured before 1st January 1970 and motor vehicle that uses for racing purposes in designated racing circuits or in approved racing event.

The sound level test must be conducted by the assembler or manufacturer and the result of the test must be submit to the Director General. The sample of vehicle is randomly selected by ratio not exceeding 1 motor vehicle per 100 unit. Moreover, in this regulation state that the value of maximum sound level for 2 or 3 wheels of motor vehicle in the first schedule and the value of maximum sound level for more than 3 wheels of motor vehicle in the second schedule. The rcord of test is in the fifth schedule.

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (SCHEDULED WASTES) REGULATIONS 2005

This regulation is public and implement on 15 August 2005 and the old version that public in 1989 is revoked. In this regulation also discuss about the term-term that use in this regulation so that the user understand this regulation. One of the example the term is “Waste Generator” is mean any person who generates scheduled wastes.

The thing that been discuss in this regulation is the notification of the generation of scheduled waste. Every waste generator must inform the Director General within 30 day from the date of generation of scheduled waste. The disposal of scheduled waste must at the prescribed premises only. The treatment of scheduled wastes also must treat at prescribed premises or at on-site treatment facilities only. Besides that, the recovery of material or product from scheduled waste must be done at prescibed or at on-site recovery facilities and the residual from recovery ofmaterial or product from scheduled waste must be treated or disposed of at prescribed premises.

The waste generator must apply the applicaton for special management of scheduled wastes to the Director General. The fee for the application is RM 300 and not be refund. The resposibility of waste generator is to ensure that the scheduled waste generated by him are properly stores, treated on-site, recovered on-site for material or product from such scheduled wastes or delivered to and received at prescribed premises for treatment and so on that discribed in regulation 8.

The container is use to store the scheduled waste and the container must durable to prevent spillage or leakage into the environment. The incompatible scheduled wastes must be stored in seperates containers and be place in seperate secondary containment area. te detail about storage of scheduled wastes can be found in the regulation 9. The container must be labelled by the date of first generated scheduled waste, name, address and number telephone of the waste generator.

If there is the waste spill or accidental discharge happen, the contractor that reponsible to the waste must inform the Director General immediately and the contractor must recover the that accident or spill. Besides that, the waste generator must provide technical expertise and suppoting assistance in any clean-up operation. Moreover, the contractor must undertake studies to determine the impact of the spllage or accidental discharge on the environment. The waste genrator must ensure that his employees are attend the training programmes.

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (PRESCIBED ACTIVITY) (ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT) ORDER 1987

This regulation is public on 5 November 1987 and are force on 1 Aprill 1988. Some of the activity are not implement at Sabah and Sarawak.

Prescribed Activity

Example

Agriculture

Land development scheme covering 500 hectares or more to bring forest land into agricultural production

Agricultural pragramme necessitating the resettlement of 100 families or more

Development of agricultural estates covering 500 hectares or more involving changes type of agricultural

Airport

Contruction of airports (having an airstrip of 2 500 metres or longer

Airstrip development in state national park

Drainage and Irrigation

Contruction of dam and man-made lake and artificial enlargement of lake with surface area of 200 hectare or more

Drainage of wetland, wild life habitat or of virgin forest covering an area of 100 hectares or more

Irrigation schemes covering an area of 5 000 hectares or more

Land Reclamation

Coastal reclamation involving an area of 50 hectares or more

Fisheries

Contruction of fishing harbour

Harbour expansion involving an increase 50% or more fish landing capacity per annum

Land based aquaculture project accompanied by clearing of mangrove swamp forests covering an area of 50 hectare or more

Forestry

Logging covering and area of 500 hectares or more

Housing

The development covering an area 50 hectares or more

Industry

Involve of:

Chemical

Iron and stell

Shipyard

So on

Infrastructure

Contruction of:

Expressways

National highways

New township

So on

Port

Contruction of port and the port expansion involving an increase 50% or more in handling capacity per annum

Mining

One of the example is:

Sand dredging involving an area 50 hectares or more

Petroleum

Oil and gas field development

Power Generation and Transmission

Contruction of combined cycle power stations

Quarries

Quarring activity is do at 3 kolimetre from existing residential, commercial or industrial area and been described in this regualtion

Railway

Contruction new route and branch line

Transportation

Contruction of mass rapid transpor project

Resort and Recreation Development

One of the example is:

Development of tourist or recreational facilities in national park

Waste Treatment and Disposal

Involve of:

Toxic and Hazardous Waste

Municipal Solid Waste and sewage

Water Supply

One of the exmple is:

Contruction of dams or impounding reservoir with surface area of 200 hectares or more

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (CONTROL OF EMISSION FROM DIESEL ENGINES) REGULATIONS 1996

In the Environmental Quality (Control of Emission from Diesel Engines) Regulation have six (6) part. The part is about:

Preliminary

Control of Diesel Engine on Motor Vehicle

Smoke Emission Control of Motor Vehicle

Requirements of Smoke Test

License for Contravention of Acceptable Condition

Offences

PRELIMINARY

This regulation is been force on 1 September 1996. This part are focus on the definition of term-term that use in this regulation. The example of the term that use in this regulation is “Emission of Pollutants” means the emission of any pollutants into the atmosphere from any portion of the diesel engine including the exhaust assembly, engine crankcase, ventilation or lubrication system.

CONTROL OF DIESEL ENGINE ON MOTOR VEHICLE

This part is focus on the new motor vehicle that registered after 31 august 1996 and the vehicle which already registered but has new engine system to replace existing system. The Director General accept the engine that tested by the Japanese Six Mode Exhaust Emission test or the engine type that complying with emission standard and test procedures which Director General consider equivalent or more stringent than the test procedures.

The test of exhaust emission of pollutants standard must be conducted by assembler or manufacturer and cost is pay by the assembler or manufacturer. The report of the test must be submited to the Director General. The sample of the test is randomly selected from not more than one per centum of the annual projected number of motor vehicle. Certification of tested motor vehicle is issued by the assembler or manufacturer.

SMOKE EMISSION CONTROL OF MOTOR VEHICLE

The maximum concentration of smoke at or near final point of emission from the exhaust pipe into the atmosphere must not exceed Ringelmann no. 2 of the Ringelmann Smoke Chart for a continuous period of more 10 second when observed. The observation of smoke froma diesel engine is done by the authorise officer that has do the smoke observation course and certified by Director General.

The maximum density of smoke that emitted from exhaust pipe under free acceleration, the smoke meter must not exceed 50HSU. If the motor vehicle emitt the smoke exceed 70 HSU, the motor vehicle are prohibit to use it. The prohibit order are attached on the windscreen of motor vehicle and the owner are prohibit to remove it. The exhaust pipe that are install must be straight and free of any attachment for the last 150mm when the exhaust gas is finally discharged into atmosphere. Besides that, the engine are not allow to run in enclosed area more than 3 minute.

REQUIREMENT OF SMOKE TEST

One of the requirement of smoke test is the test must be carried out at approved facility. The fleet operator must operate and maintain the approved facility. The log book to be kept by the owner of the vehicle and in the log book have information such as motor vehicle registration number, the date, time and result of any smoke test. This log book is made to be inspection by the Director General or the officer on behalf him.

LICENSE FOR CONTRAVENTION OF ACCEPTABLE CONDITIONS

One of the example that the Director General can grant the licence is to the motor vehicle is intended for military, combat or tactical purpose. The other example of grant of licence is described in regulation 20.

OFFENCES

The offences under this regulation can be compound except offence under regulation 4.

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (CONTROL OF EMISSION FROM PETROL ENGINES) REGULATIONS 1996

In the Environmental Quality (Control of Emission from Diesel Engines) Regulation have six (6) part. The part is about:

Preliminary

Control of Petrol Engine on Motor Vehicle

Gaseous Emission Control of Motor Vehicle

Requirements of Gaseous Emission Test

License for Contravention of Acceptable Condition

Offences

PRELIMINARY

This regulation is force on 1 November 1996. One of the term that use in this regulation is “Engine System” means a system consisting of the engine together with all devices essential for its operetion and its appropriate intake and exhaust assembly. This term-term that use in this regulation is to make the user understand this regulation.

CONTROL OF PETROL ENGINE ON MOTOR VEHICLE

The application for this part is only be use at the new motor vehicle that registered after 1 January 1997 and to motor vehicle that is already registered but want to has new engine system to replace an existing system. If the petrol engine emit pollutant, that person can not install or replacing that engine system. The emission standard pollutants for vehicle havinf engine capacity of 700 cubic centimetre and below 1020 kilogram and below, is refer to the first schedule. For the new model of vehicle motor after 1 January 1997 are refer to second scheduled and new model motor vehicle after 1 January 2000 is refer to third scheduled. This are not apply to the motor vehicle that use for racing.

The test of exhaust emission of pollutants standard must be conducted by assembler or manufacturer and cost is pay by the assembler or manufacturer. The report of the test must be submited to the Director General. The sample of the test is randomly selected from not more than one per centum of the annual projected number of motor vehicle. Certification of tested motor vehicle is issued by the assembler or manufacturer.

GASEOUS EMISSION CONTROL FROM MOTOR VEHICLE

Every petrol engine are capable not to emit gaseous pollutant exceeding the standard given in the fourth scheduled. An emission test for petrol engine must be carried out and the result are recorded in the test certificate. If the motor vehicle emitt the gaseous pollutant exceeding the standard given, that motor vehicle are prohibit to use it. The prohibit order are attached on the windscreen of motor vehicle and the owner are prohibit to remove it. The exhaust pipe that are install must be straight and free of any attachment for the last 150mm when the exhaust gas is finally discharged into atmosphere. Besides that, the engine are not allow to run in enclosed area more than 3 minute.

REQUIREMENT OF GASEOUS EMISSION TEST

One of the requirement of gaseous emission test is the test must be carried out at approved facility. The fleet operator must operate and maintain the approved facility. The log book to be kept by the owner of the vehicle and in the log book have information such as motor vehicle registration number, the date, time and result of any smoke test. This log book is made to be inspection by the Director General or the officer on behalf him.

LICENCE FOR CONTRAVENTION OF ACCEPTABLE CONDITIONS

One of the example that the Director General can grant the licence is to the motor vehicle is intended for military, combat or tactical purpose. The other example of grant of licence is described in regulation 19.

OFFENCES

The offences under this regulation can be compound except offence under regulation 4. The procedure of compound are described in Environmental Quality (Compunding of Offences) Rules1978.

RIO DE JANEIRO (EARTH SUMMIT 1992)

Conference

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992

Informal name

The Earth Summit

Host Government

Brazil

Number of Governments participating

172, 108 at level of heads of State or Government

Conference Secretary-General

Maurice F. Strong, Canada

Organizers

UNCED secretariat

Principal themes

Environment and sustainable development

NGO presence

Some 2,400 representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs); 17,000 people attended the parallel NGO Forum

Resulting document

Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, the Statement of Forest Principles, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity

Follow-up mechanisms

Follow-up mechanisms: Commission on Sustainable Development; Inter-agency Committee on Sustainable Development; High-level Advisory Board on Sustainable Development

Previous conference

UN Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm (1972)

5 major outcomes from earth summit 1992

Agenda 21 — a comprehensive programmes of action for global action in all areas of sustainable development

The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development — a series of principles defining the rights and responsibilities of States

The Statement of Forest Principles — a set of principles to underlie the sustainable management of forests worldwide.

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

The Convention on Biological Diversity

Agenda 21

Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the United Nations System, Governments, and Major Groups in every area in which human impacts on the environment.

Encourages the development of national strategies, plans, policies and processes capable of encouraging sustainable social and environmental development.

The full implementation of Agenda 21, the Programme for Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the Commitments to the Rio principles, were strongly reaffirmed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) held in Johannesburg, South Africa from 26 August to 4 September 2002.

Have 4 main sections :

Social and economic dimensions

Conservation and management of resources

Strengthening the role of major groups

Means of implementation

Rio Declarations on Environment and Development

Reaffirming the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, adopted at Stockholm on 16 June 1972, and seeking to build upon it.

With the goal of establishing a new and equitable global partnership through the creation of new levels of cooperation among States, key sectors of societies and people.

Working towards international agreements which respect the interests of all and protect the integrity of the global environmental and developmental system.

Recognizing the integral and interdependent nature of the Earth, our home.

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