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Disaster Mitigation And The Indian Armed Forces Environmental Sciences Essay

“The world over, without exception, all governments have involved the Armed Forces whenever a disaster strikes. They are invariably the first to respond and quickest to reach the affected area. As has been increasingly observed in recent cases across the world, the men in uniform have played a stellar role in mitigating and alleviating the suffering caused by disasters.”

- Dr Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India,

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

1. The origins of the word ‘Disaster’ can be traced to the French language wherein ‘Des’ means evil and ‘Astre’ means star. Therefore literally by combining the two we get the complete meaning of the word - an ‘Evil Star’. The Chambers Dictionary defines disaster as “a sudden calamitous event producing great material damage, loss and distress”. Disasters have struck mankind since time immemorial, many a generation have suffered from the consequences and recovered to carry on with life. There has not been any reduction in the traditional disaster threats. Most of the phenomena, like floods, earthquake, droughts, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis and forest fires still pose a danger. Some new disaster threats like atomic and nuclear sources and leakage of hazardous material pose new challenging issues for disaster management.

2. It has often been analysed that most of the world’s worst disasters tend to occur between the Tropic of Cancer and The Tropic of Capricorn. India in particular is vulnerable, in varying degrees, to a large number of natural as well as manmade disasters. 58.6 percent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of moderate to very high intensity; over 40 million hectares (12 percent of land) is prone to floods and river erosion; of the 7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km is prone to cyclones and tsunamis; 68 percent of the cultivable area is vulnerable to drought and hilly areas are at risk from landslides and avalanches. Vulnerability to disasters or emergencies of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear origin also exists. Heightened vulnerabilities to disaster risks can be related to expanding population, urbanisation and industrialisation, development within high-risk zones, environmental degradation and climate change [1] .

3. The strata of society that is most affected by the occurrence of a disaster is the under privileged and the poor. Coincidentally, the areas most affected by disasters also contain the world’s poorest countries. In recent times there has been substantial scientific and material progress made in terms of disaster mitigation. Never the less, natural disasters continue to cause human casualties, loss of property and damage to the environment. In fact, the human toll and economic losses have mounted as more the nations develop they tend to build more assets and will stand to loose more. This fact was recognized at the global level, where there has been considerable concern over management of natural disasters. With this as the background the United Nations General Assembly, in 1989, declared the decade 1990-2000 as the ‘International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction’ with the objective to reduce loss of lives and property and restrict socio-economic damage through concerted international action, especially in developing countries.

4. Any actions which are undertaken to minimize the losses accruing out of disasters must be considered desirable, a necessity and logical. The same was felt in the country with measures being undertaken to develop and maintain an effective disaster management capability. An important step in this regard was the passing of the Disaster Management Act, 2005. The act aimed at outlining a comprehensive approach to disaster management to include all the aspects of disaster management cycle and achieve equilibrium of prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery and disaster related development.

5. In our system of governance, in the event of a disaster taking place, the primary responsibility for undertaking rescue, relief and rehabilitation actions rests with the concerned State Governments. The role of the Central Government is supportive, in terms of physical and financial resources and complementary in sectors such as transport, early warning systems, etc. The Disaster Management Act, 2005, lays down a three tier institutional structure for disaster management at the national, state and district levels in the form of NDMA, SDMA and DDMA. As per the Standard Operating Procedure for Responding to Natural Disasters 2010, the establishment of NDRF should progressively reduce deployment of the Armed Forces. Armed Forces would be deployed only when the situation is beyond the coping capacity of State Government and NDRF [2] . In practice, however, the Armed Forces form the core of the Government’s response cap and tend to be the immediate responders in all serious disaster situations. On account of their vast potential to meet any adverse challenge, large footprint across the country, trained manpower, speed of operational response and the resources and capabilities at their disposal, the Armed Forces have historically played a major role in emergency support functions. Thus the need for the civil and military interaction to deal with national disaster situations cannot be undermined.

METHODOLOGY

Scope

3. The Armed Forces role in response to a national disaster has been by and large robust and effective. The enforcement of the Disaster Management Act, 2005 led to the consequent paradigm shift from the erstwhile relief-centric response to a proactive prevention, mitigation and preparedness-driven approach for conserving developmental gains and also to minimise losses of life, livelihoods and property in the event of a disaster. The role of various agencies involved is being streamlined for different kind of disasters. Thus there is a need to examine the present disaster management structure in India and reassess the role of Indian Armed Forces. To this end the study is restricted to the occurrence of a flood in the state of Punjab.

Statement of Problem

4. To study and analyse the implications of the role of the armed forces in flood disaster mgt in terms of well defined tasking & synergy with the civil adm. To suggest measures for a holistic & integ response to minimise losses due to floods in Punjab.

Hypothesis

5. A high degree of preparedness & appropriately appreciated roles for the Indian Armed Forces, in sync with the civil adm in the evolving framework will ensure optimal utilisation of resources in flood related disasters than a disjointed effort.

suggest holistic measures to facilitate effective flood disaster mgt to cope with such similar disasters in the future. The study will draw parallels from floods both within the country & abroad but will focus on the occurrence of floods in the state of Punjab.

“‘Great floods have flown from simple sources”

William Shakespeare

CHAPTER II

FLOODS- VULNERABILITIES AND THEIR EFFECTS

1. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, flood is a “high water stage in which water overflows its natural or artificial banks onto normally dry land, such as a river inundating its flood plain”. The effects of flood on human well-being “range from unqualified blessings to unimaginable catastrophes”. Flood disaster can thus be defined as, “a catastrophic situation caused by floods in which the routine patterns of life are suddenly disrupted, and a large number of people are plunged into haplessness and suffering, and consequently need protection, food, clothing, shelter, medical care and other basic necessities”.

Causes of Flooding

2. Floods are caused by the inadequate capacity within the banks of the rivers to contain the high flows brought down from the upper catchment areas due to heavy rainfall. Areas having poor drainage characteristics get flooded due to accumulation of water owing to heavy rainfall. Flooding is accentuated by erosion and silting of the river beds resulting in reduction of carriage capacity of river channels, earthquakes and to change in river courses, obstructions to flow, synchronization of floods in the main and tributary rivers and retardation due to tidal effects. Some parts of the country, mainly coastal areas experience cyclones which are often accompanied by heavy rainfall leading to floods. Another cause for flooding has been the water logging in irrigated area. This is due to excess irrigation water applied to command area and increase in the ground water level due to seepage from canals and irrigated fields. It has been estimated that approximately an area of 2.46 million ha is suffering from problem of water logging under irrigation commands in India [3] . Thus flood causes can be summarized as under:-

Excessive rainfall in river catchments or concentration of runoff from the tributaries and river carrying flows in excess of their capacities.

Backing of water in tributaries at their confluence with the main river.

Synchronization of flood peaks of the main rivers and tributaries.

Intense rainfall when river is flowing full.

Poor natural drainage.

Landslides leading to obstruction of flow and change in the river course.

Cyclone and very intense rainfall when the EL Nino effect is on a decline.

3. Floods have wreaked havoc in the country since independence, first major flood to have occurred was in 1953, and since then it has been almost an annual feature. The major floods in India during the period 1980 to 1996 and a summary of the synoptic system responsible for the same are given in Appendix A. In India, 22 states and one Union territory (Andaman and Nicobar) are vulnerable to Floods. However, the most vulnerable states of India are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, West Bengal, Gujarat, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir. District wise, there are 137 districts are vulnerable to floods. The annual average area in the country affected by floods is 7.563 million ha. This observation was based on data for the period 1953 to 2006, with variability ranging from 1.46 million ha in 1965 to 17.5 million ha in 1978. On an average, floods have affected about 33 million persons between the years 1953 to 2006. The flood area affected, population affected, human lives lost, cattle loss and monetary damages due to floods during 1953 to 2006 are shown below in the form of a table [4] .

Impact of Flood in India (1953-2006)

Years in group

Average area affected in ‘000 hectares

Average population Affected in million

Average human loss in ‘000

Average cattle loss in ‘000

Average economic loss in million rupees

1953-57

6664

16.76

399

33

140

1958-62

6448

11.714

648

31.8

148

1963-67

4342

12.636

347.2

6.4

98

1968-72

7832

34.53

1503.8

98

1162

1973-77

9606

44.956

3022.2

186.2

2542

1978-82

9588

46.518

2379

249

6382

1983-87

9162

55.80

1775.6

105.2

17540

1988-92

8531

37.42

2109

96

14928

1993-97

6821.4

33.66

1992.2

73

16090

1998-2002

5382.5

26.89

2143.25

59.03

16863.3

2003-06

2867.5

23.864

1563.75

34.14

NA

India’s River and Floods

4. From a physiological point of view, the Indian rivers can be broadly classified into two major categories:-

(a) Rivers of the Himalayan Region. The rivers of the Himalayan region have their origins from the glaciers in the Himalayas. They are fed by the melting of snow in the summer months and precipitation primarily during monsoon season. The occurrence of floods in these rivers is almost an annual event coincident with the monsoons because of heavy precipitation, steep slopes of river beds leading to high water speeds and the lack of out fall of tributaries of major rivers into them.

(b) Rivers of the Central and Peninsular Region. The rivers of Central India originate at altitudes much lower than Himalayan Rivers and flow through areas that are comparatively stable geologically. Floods occur quite frequently in these rivers due to heavy rains caused by weather systems like depressions. This is common during monsoons and cyclone season in the pre monsoon and post monsoon period. Floods in major rivers of the peninsula are mostly due to heavy rainfall in the Western Ghats during monsoons.

5. According to the National Commission on Flood the classification of rivers followed, divides India in four groups on basis of similarities of metrological, geological and topographical conditions and consequently similar hydrological characteristics of the rivers and tributaries within each of the four groups as follows:-

(a) The Brahmaputra River Region.

(b) The Ganga River Region.

(c) The Northwest Rivers Region.

(d) The Central India and Deccan Rivers Region.

6. Agencies such as the Central Water Commission, the Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council and the National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation have been involved in the flood-hazard mapping. These and other studies indicate that the areas that are frequently vulnerable to flooding in the country are (refer Appendix B):-

(a) Sub-Himalayan region and the Ganga plains.

(b) Brahmaputra Valley.

(c) Punjab Plains.

(d) Mahanadi-Godavari-Krishna-Kaveri Delta Plains.

(e) Lower Narmada-Tapi-Mahi Valleys.

7. The Rashtriya Barh Ayog constituted by the Government of India in 1976 carried out an extensive analysis to estimate the flood-affected area in the country. Rashtriya Barh Ayog in its report (1980) has assessed the area liable to floods as 40 million hectares. It was determined by summing up the maximum area affected by floods in any one year in each state during the period from 1953 to 1978 for which data was analysed by the Ayog. This sum has been corrected for the area that was provided with protection at that time and for the protected area that got affected due to failure of protection works during the period under analysis to arrive at the total area liable to floods in the country as per break-up given below [5] : - 

Serial Number

State

Total Area

(million ha)

Area Liable to Floods (million ha)

% Area liable to Flood

% Area protected

1.

Andhra Pradesh

27.51

1.39

5.05

2.5

2.

Assam

7.84

3.15

40.18

16.64

3.

Bihar

4.26

4.

Gujarat

17.39

1.39

24.50

9.0

5.

Haryana

4.42

2.35

53.17

24.7

6.

Himachal Pradesh

5.57

0.23

4.13

-

7.

Jammu & Kashmir

22.22

0.08

0.36

0.05

8.

Karnataka

19.18

0.02

0.10

0.005

9.

Kerala

3.89

0.87

22.37

0.28

10.

Madhya Pradesh

44.34

0.26

0.59

-

11.

Maharashtra

30.77

0.23

0.75

0.003

12.

Manipur

2.23

0.08

3.59

3.27

13.

Meghalaya

2.24

0.02

0.89

3.34

14.

Orissa

15.57

1.40

8.99

2.25

15.

Punjab

5.04

3.70

73.41

47.7

16.

Rajasthan

34.22

3.26

9.53

0.046

17.

Tamil Nadu

13.01

0.45

3.46

0.22

18.

Tripura

1.05

0.33

31.43

0.85

19.

Uttar Pradesh

29.44

7.336

24.93

2.5

20.

West Bengal

8.88

2.65

29.84

11.27

21.

Delhi

0.15

0.05

33.33

15.33

22.

Pondichery

0.05

0.01

20.00

Neg

Total

33.516

8. The scope of this dissertation is restricted to flood problem in the state of Punjab. As per the data above, Punjab has the highest percentage area prone to floods although substantial part has been protected through flood control measures. Nevertheless, the protected area also faces risk, although in reduced magnitude. The State of Punjab is part of the North West River System in the north and north-west of the Indian Sub-continent. It is separated from the Ganga basin by the Ghaggar River. It flows only seasonally and is famous for its flash floods in the south-eastern parts of the state. Other significant perennial rivers of the Indus system, which flows through Punjab, are Ravi, Beas and Sutlej that together carry 40.5 x 109 m3 of water. Himalayan glaciers melt account for about 58% of the source water supply of these rivers [6] . All these rivers are tapped by using dams at different levels in the catchment areas and stored water is utilized for irrigation through a strong network of canals in the command areas.

9. The rivers posing flood problem in the state are Beas, Sutlej, Ravi and to some extent Ghaggar as shown in the Flood Hazard Map of Punjab at Appendix C. Although the flood problem in the first three rivers named have been mitigated to a large extent through the construction of reservoirs in the upper reaches and embankments along the course of the rivers, flood risks due to high releases from reservoirs and breach in embankment persists. Damage may occur by a number of hill torents causing flooding Harbinderpur, Jallandhar, Kapurthala and Rupnagar districts. The main problem during the monsoon, which is the flood period, is of drainage congestion and water logging. The water logging problem is predominant in Ferozpur, Bhatinda and Sangrur districts. Intense rainfall, inadequate drainage system and lack of proper maintenance flood control and other works such as the embankments, drainage systems and cross drainage works often accentuate the flood situation in the state [7] .

“To build a safe and disaster resilient India by developing a holistic, proactive, multi-disaster oriented and technology driven strategy through a culture of prevention, mitigation, preparedness and response.”

Vision - National Policy on Disaster Management, 2009

CHAPTER III

DISASTER MANAGEMENT SET UP IN INDIA

India’s National Disaster Management System

1. National Disaster Management System. The response to disasters has traditionally been by and large the responsibility of the concerned state government. Central Government intervention is sought in the event of a disaster assuming uncontrollable proportions. The Union Government supplements the efforts of concerned state relief mechanism by initiating supportive action. The National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) oversees all disaster related efforts at national level. When a situation is to be handled by the NCMC, it will give directions to the Crisis Management Group (CMG), of the Nodal Ministry, as deemed necessary. The CMG deals with matters relating to relief in the wake of major natural calamities. The composition of both NCMC and CMG is given as at Appendix D.

2. Nodal Ministries. Various ministries have been assigned nodal responsibility for management of specific types of hazards. The Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal ministry for management of natural disasters. The nodal ministries for various types of disasters are as given in the table below:-

Sr No

Disaster

Nodal Ministry

(a)

Air Accidents

Ministry of Civil Aviation

(b)

Civil Strife

Ministry of Home Affairs

(c)

Rail Accidents

Ministry of Railways

(d)

Chemical Disasters

Ministry of Environment and Forests

(e)

Biological Disasters

Ministry of Health

(f)

Nuclear Accidents

Ministry of Atomic Energy

(g)

Natural Disaster (droughts)

Ministry of Agriculture

3. Dimensions of Response at National Level. The dimensions of the response at the level of the Central Government are determined in accordance with the existing policy of financing the relief expenditure and keeping in view the following factors:-

(a) The gravity of a natural calamity.

(b) The scale of the relief operation necessary.

(c) The requirements of Central assistance for augmenting the financial resources at the disposal of the State Government.

11. Organizational Structure

(a) State Level. At the state level the, relief was being handled by the Departments of Relief

and Rehabilitation. This system is now being restructured to have a Department of Disaster

Management, which will also look into preparedness and mitigation besides the present role

in relief and rehabilitation. This system has already been introduced in 11 state and Union

Territories of India.

(b) Distt Level. The same system is being followed at the district level with the district

Coordination and Relief Committee being reconstituted as the disaster management

committee, with officers from relevant department being added into the committee. The

district magistrate would be the nodal officer to coordinate these activities. Moreover, the

district heads of department engaged in development are being made a part of this committee

to streamline disaster management plans into developmental plans.

7

(c) Subdivision Level. At the sub-divisional and taluka levels, disaster management

committees are being constituted. At the village level there would be disaster management

teams and committees.

12. National Response Approach. Although the Centre plays a crucial role in managing disasters it

only plays a supportive role to the State and District authorities. The Centre has to maintain and

concentrate on monitoring, warning activities and step into action when a disaster situation exceeds

the capacity of the State authorities. In order to formalize and give meaning to these procedures, new

concepts of Trigger Mechanism, L concept, etc. have been developed as an integral part of the

National Disaster Response Plan. Although active assistance to an affected State/District will be

provided only after the declaration of a national level disaster (L3), the National response mechanism

has to be prepared and any impending State or District disaster has to be monitored in order to

provide immediate assistance whenever required.

13. Levels of Handling the Disasters. L1, L2, L3 levels of each disaster have to be predetermined,

to layout the ‘Standard Operating Procedure. This involves a ‘Trigger Mechanism’, which would set off

the basic initial response without formal orders from anywhere. ‘L1 denotes a disaster that can be

handled effectively at the district level. Normally L2 level of the district will be the L1 level at state

headquarters: L3 level of state headquarters would normally be the L1 at the centre. L0 has been

designated as the preparatory level prior to L112.

14. Role Players. Other than the Govt framework there are a large No of entities who play a vital role

in disaster management in India. These include the community, NGOs, Indian Red Cross Society,

Media, fire services, Police and Para-Military Forces, Civil Defence and Home Guards, Armed Forces,

PSUs and private sectors. The role played by these in brief is as given below:-

(a) Community. It has now been revealed that the community as an institution in itself is

emerging as the most powerful among the entire mechanism of disaster administration. In

event of actual disasters, the community, if well aware of the preventive actions it is required

to take, can substantially reduce the damage caused by the disaster. Awareness and training

of the community is particularly useful in areas that are prone to frequent disasters. Many

villages, towns have their own voluntary committees called Village Task Force etc.

(b) NGOs. There a large No of NGOs which operate at regional and national level viz,

Disaster Mitigation Institute, Ahmedabad, Care India, SEWA etc. These have made significant

contribution in disaster management across entire country. The only problem is that the

NGOs role is not clearly defined and they are not integrated with the national disaster

management system resulting in ill-coordinated efforts and loss of synergy.

(c) Indian National Red Cross. In India, we have Red Cross Society at the national, state

and district level. From 1996 onwards, the International Federation of Red Cross shifted its

focus from relief to disaster preparedness and started developing community-based disaster

preparedness etc. Accordingly, the INRC are also working on the same lines ie development

of community-based disaster preparedness.

(d) Media. The role of the electronic media has during recent times emerged as a major

component of disaster management, as amply demonstrated in the aftermath of the Gujarat

earthquake in January 2001. Special emphasis has been laid on the role of electronic media

and information technology by the HPC and it was felt that this sector needs to be integrated

with not only the disaster response but overall disaster management strategy.

(e) Fire Services. Unlike what is generally understood, the role of Fire Services in India is

not just limited to being a fire fighting Service but they also play the role of a disaster

preventive agency especially in urban areas. It can provide basic search and rescue service

and can also coordinate in event of a disaster situation with other agencies like the police and

health services.

12 Dissertation by Col A Anand CDM on Disaster Management: A case study on Tsunami, pp 16.

8

(f) Police and Para-Military Forces. Police and the Para-Military Forces play a critical role in

disaster situations. Police and Para-Military forces are mobilized to reach the site of disaster

immediately with a view to carry out relief and rescue operations in coordination with other

agencies. It is also the responsibility of the police to maintain security and law and order at

disaster locations where there might be chaos.

(g) Civil Defence and Home Guards. It is primarily a voluntary organization, whose

resources are mobilized at the time of need through an activation procedure. Civil Defence

organization requirements are based on the vulnerability analysis by the States themselves

and are equipped accordingly. Their primary work areas include; communication, rescue

casualty, depot, transportation and supply service, salvage and corpse disposal along with

basic welfare services.

(h) Armed Forces. Aid to civil authorities is the secondary role of the Armed Forces, primary

role being defence of the nation against external threat. Notwithstanding that the Armed

Forces have always been the ‘First Responders” in nearly all disaster situations in the country

and in our neighborhood. Indian Armed Forces are one of the most dedicated and

professional organizations with a rich tradition of being involved in the socio-developmental

roles of nation building. They have invariably played an important role in all major disasters in

the country13.

(j) PSUs and Private Sector. Various PSUs and Corporate Groups have played a crucial

role in the aftermath of the recent major disasters including the Orissa Super Cyclone and the

Gujarat Earthquake. PSUs are in a position to extend specialized support in their area of

operation expeditiously, and this needs to be built into the disaster response plans,

particularly at State level. The role of the private sector is still an emerging one, and though a

major role was played by a number of corporate organizations in recent disaster situations,

though not much has been documented or is available in a consolidated form in this area.

The corporate bodies and Public Private Partnerships play a major role in creating

infrastructure for disaster risk reduction14.

15. Existing Legislation and Constitutional Framework. The subject of disaster management

does not find mention in any of the three lists in the 7 th Schedule of the Constitution. However, the

State Governments are provided financial assistance for meeting expenditure on identified natural

calamities on the basis of the recommendations of the Finance Commissions in order to ensure that

the assistance is used only for calamity relief. Based on HPC recommendations the Indian Disaster

Management Act has come into existence in Dec 2005 bringing much needed reforms into the whole

system15. With that a National Disaster management Authority has also been formed with Prime

Minister as its Chairman and Gen NC Vij as its Vice Chairman (Retd). The nation’s thrust now is

shifting to the culture of Prevention and Reduction of disasters rather than Response.

16. India’s Strategies and Culture. Indian strategy and approach to disasters in past couple of

decades has been rather reactive, more of a passive response to a crisis / calamity. There had been a

virtual lack of any kind of strategy to deal with disasters be it drought, floods or cyclones although

these occurred quite frequently and periodically in our country. However, there has been a paradigm

shift from ‘Response to Prevention and Reduction’ in past couple of years. Subsequent to submission

of HPC Report, there is a growing shift in our approach to disaster management in terms of

prevention and preparedness rather than relief. Relief is a temporary provision and odes not

guarantee any future devoid of disasters.

17. Distribution of Power, Responsibilities and Liabilities. Till last year the distribution of power,

responsibilities and liabilities was without a specific framework resulting in ambiguous situations and

crisis followed by mudslinging on occurrence of disasters. However, the Indian Disaster Management

Act has come into existence in Dec 2005 and has brought a lot of reform into the whole system. The

Act provides for establishing a National Disaster Management Authority, with the Prime Minister as

13 HPC Report on Disaster Management 2001, pp 168.

14 Week 3 Summary of CDRM Programme, Mr Umesha Nayak.

15 Disaster Management Process by Prabhat C Sinha, ‘Preface’.

9

the Chairman and nine other members. This body along the advisory board will lay down the disaster

management policies, approve National Plan, and lay down guidelines. This system is being

replicated in the states and districts too with the formation of State and District Disaster Management

Authorities. At the district level the ex officio chairperson would be the District Magistrate or the

Commissioner, and he would be complemented by a team consisting of Chief Executive Officer of the

District Authority, the Superintendent of Police, the Chief Medical Officer of the district, and three

other district level officers who would be appointed by the State government. State specific and district

specific disaster management plans would be prepared by the respective committees.

18. Funds and Financial Aspects. It is the Finance Commission of India that decides on the

expenditure on disaster relief. The bulk of the money comes from two sources, the Calamity Relief

Fund (CRF) and National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF). ‘The CRF is used for meeting the

expenditure for providing immediate relief to the victims of cyclone, drough

Appendix A

(Refers to Para

)

Details of Devastating Floods Occurred During 1980-1996 [8] 

Sr No

Duration

Area Affected

Synoptic Systems

1

17-23 Jul 80

East Uttar Pradesh

Low pressure area

2

7 –27 Aug 80

Central & Southwest Uttar Pradesh

Land depression

3

4-10 Sep 80

Southeast Uttar Pradesh

Land depression

4

18-24 Sep 80

South Orissa

Deep Depression

5

18-24 Sep 80

Andhra Pradesh

Deep Depression

6

18-24 Sep 80

Central Uttar Pradesh

Deep Depression

7

9-15 Jul 81

Gujarat

Low pressure area

8

16-22 Jul 81

Rajasthan

Low pressure area

9

9-29 Jul 81

Uttar Pradesh

Low pressure area

10

6-12 Aug 81

East Uttar Pradesh

Cyclonic storm

11

3-9 Sep 81

East Uttar Pradesh

Land depression

12

19-25 Aug 82

East Madhya Pradesh

Well marked low pressure area

13

28-31 Aug 82

North Orissa

Depression

14

30 Aug- 3Sep 82

Uttar Pradesh

Land Depression

15

20-23 Jun 83

Gujarat

Land depression

16

11-17 Aug 83

West Maharashtra

Trough off Maharashtra coast

17

18-31 Aug 83

Northeast Uttar Pradesh

Low pressure area

18

15-19 Sep 83

Marathwada and west Maharashtra

Low pressure area

19

8-14 Sep 83

Southeast Uttar Pradesh

 

20

21-27 Jun 84

West Bengal

Well marked low pressure area

21

28 Jun-11Jul 84

Uttar Pradesh

Land depression

22

23 Aug 5 Sep 85

Bihar

Low pressure area

23

12-25 Sep 85

East Uttar Pradesh

Land depression

24

11-18 Sep 85

Bihar

Well marked low pressure area

25

17-23 Jul 86

Bihar

Land Depression

26

7-20 Aug 86

North Andhra Pradesh

Deep Depression

27

23-29 Jul 87

Bihar

Low Pressure area

28

30 Jul-20 Aug 87

North Bengal

Cyclonic circulation

29

3-16 Sep 87

Bihar plateau

Well marked low pressure area

30

15-19 Jul 88

North Gujarat 

Cyclonic storm

31

25 Aug-7 Sept 88

North Gujarat 

Cyclonic storm

32

21-28 Sep 88 

Punjab

Low pressure area

33 

19-26 Jul 89

Coastal Andhra Pradesh

Depression

34 

13-26 Jul 89

Western Maharashtra

Depression

35 

1-6 July 90

Northwest Rajasthan

Low pressure area

36 

16-29 Aug 90

Vidarbha

Depression

37 

23-29 Aug 90

Gujarat

Depression

38 

25-31 Jul 91

Vidarbha

Deep depression

39

5-13 Sep 91

North Bengal

Cyclonic circulation

40 

16-22 Jul 92

Gujarat

Cyclonic circulation

41 

10-16 Sep 92

Jammu & Kashmir

Cyclonic circulation

42 

10-16 Sep 92

East Uttar Pradesh

Well marked low pressure area

43 

1-14 Jul 93

Gujarat

Cyclonic circulation

44 

8-14 Jul 93

Punjab

Cyclonic circulation

45 

15-20 Jul 93

Bihar plateau

Well marked low pressure area

46

15-21 Jul 93

North Bengal

Well marked low pressure area

47 

9-15 Sep 93

Uttar Pradesh

Well marked low pressure area

48 

14-27 Jul 94

Gujarat

Low pressure area

49 

1-7 Sep 94

Orissa

Low pressure area

50

1-7 Sep 94

Vidarbha

Well marked low pressure area

51 

17-23 Aug 95

Bihar

Low pressure area

52 

20-26 Jun 96

Rajasthan

Low pressure area

53 

25 Jul-7 Aug 96

Bihar

Low pressure area

Synoptic Systems Responsible for occurrence of Flood In different States

State

Synoptic System

Cyclonic storm

Monsoon/ deep depression

Land depression

Well marked low pressure

Uttar Pradesh

1

1

6

6

Orissa

-

2

-

1

Andhra Pradesh

1

2

-

-

Gujarat

-

1

1

3

Rajasthan

-

-

-

3

Bihar

-

-

3

5

Madhya Pradesh

-

-

-

1

Maharashtra

1

2

-

2

West Bengal

-

-

-

3

Punjab

-

-

-

1

Jammu & Kashmir

-

-

-

-

Appendix B

(Refers to Para

)

FLOOD ZONES IN INDIA

Appendix C

(Refers to Para

)

PUNJAB - FLOOD HAZARD MAP

Appendix D

(Refers to Para

)

NATIONAL CRISIS MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE (NCMC) &

CRISIS MANAGEMENT GROUP (CMG)

1. Composition of the NCMC. The composition of the NCMC is as under:-

(a) Cabinet Secretary - Chairman.

(b) Secretary to Prime Minister - Member.

(c) Secretary (MHA) - Member.

(d) Secretary (MOD) - Member.

(e) Director (IB) - Member.

(f) Secretary (RAW) - Member.

(g) Secretary (Agri ) - Co-opted Member.

(h) An Officer of Cabinet Secretariat - Convener.

2. CMG. The CMG deals with matters relating to relief in the wake of major natural calamities. It

consists of the following :-

(a) Relief Commissioner - Chairman.

(b) OSD, Cabinet Secretary or a Representative of Cabinet Secretariat.

(a) A Representative of Prime Ministers Office.

(d) Joint Secretaries in the Ministries/Departments of Finance, Food, Civil Supplies,

Power, Urban Development, Rural Development, Health, Petroleum, Planning Commission

and Department of Women & Child Development.

(e) Director General, India Meteorological Department.

(f) Senior Officers of the Ministry of Railways and Ministry of Water Resources.

(g) Senior Officer from the Ministry of Transport (If Required).

(h) Director General, Civil Defence (If Required).

(j) Senior Officer of Ministry of Communications (If Required).

(k) Joint Secretary of Ministry of Defence (If Required).

(l) Joint Secretary (SR) & Additional Relief Commissioner - Convenor.

3. The Resident Commissioner of the States affected by natural calamity may be co-opted on

the CMG during the period of crisis.

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