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Contamination And Food Safety Environmental Sciences Essay

Food safety is important in promoting on our health and remains in the limelight as severe food-borne illnesses sweep across the nation. Most food-borne illness is the result of eating food that has been contaminated. To say a food is contaminated means it contains substances not originally present in it. The actions and beliefs of those involved in its handling. Thus, the social, culture, and behavior normal experienced by food handlers and their managers are the defining issue in the safety of the food. Nowadays, the scientific connections made in food hygiene training or advices are always obscure and tenuous. The trainers must try their best to remember the laws and rules, which was layout by the organizations

Besides that, in this world, everyone should drink water. Water is a part of human being life. Drinking water should not represent a significant to human health through its consumption and use. Water also should be suitable for all food production and some purposes which including of personal hygiene. In additional, drinking water must be supplies from microorganisms and substances that may not danger public health such like contaminates. Normally, cold water is used for washing food or equipment requires suitable treatment and must be of potable quality. Potable and non-potable supplies must never be connected or confused. Moreover, satisfactory drains must be installed to carry away waste water. Leakage, flooding and blockages must, as far as practicable and must be prevented.

Answer of question 1(a)

Human being is developed countries have never before enjoyed such as foodstuffs, long shelf lives, broad sensory characteristics and packaging presentations, which all are available today. Food safety and control have been recognized as important issues in many countries. Food safety is as despite the considerable advances made in food science and technology. Nowadays, the safety of food is still a matter of concern about us. Recent outbreaks of food-borne diseases and food-related scandals have shaken consumer confidence in the food safety system. The World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on food safety concluded that illness due to contaminated food was perhaps the most widespread health problem in the contemporary world and an important cause of reduced economic productivity in 1983.

Unfortunately, contamination of food product can occur very easily if food processors or the public is not careful when handling or preparing food. Besides that, food can be contaminated by biological, chemical, and physical.

Biological Contamination

Microbiological food safety is dependent on a range of interactions whose foundations are based on the ecology and physiology of microorganisms. Besides that a biological risk can be defined as the probability of a biological agent contaminating food during any step of the food production, which if ingested by the consumers can cause a health disorder.

When a person eats a food containing of toxins or poison, then he / she will suffer from a food borne intoxication. Biological toxin can be produced by harmful bacteria or mold found in food or they could come from a plant or seafood. There are some common biological toxins in food such as ciguatera toxin scombroid toxin shellfish toxins, systematic toxins and plant toxins. The source of ciguatera toxin is fish that have eaten algae containing the toxin and the method to prevent is buy all fish from an approved suppliers. Next, the source of scombroid is histamine produces by bacteria in some kinds of fish when fish is held at unsafe temperatures after harvest and the way to prevent is also buy fish from an approved supplier. After that, the source of shellfish toxins is shellfish that have eaten some kinds of algae that naturally contain the toxin and the method to prevent is buy shellfish from an approved supplier. Then, the source of systematic fish toxins is naturally occurring in some types of fish and the ways to prevent is buy fish from an approved supplier. Last, the source of plant toxins is naturally occurring in some kinds of plants and the ways to prevent is cooking does not destroy all toxins.

Biological contamination is mainly in living organisms. All living things such as human being and animals on earth are constructed from and driven by complex associations of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. In the maintenance of life, the protein, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids are added a range of generally smaller chemical compounds and ions playing key roles. Life is founded on a range of complex chemical interaction occurring in a medium of liquid water or at the surface between fatty membranes and liquid water. Living things exist in a state of higher energy than the normal surroundings and the chemical processes and biological activities are geared to maintaining them in a ‘steady state’ of energy.

Physical Contamination

Foreign bodies found in food may be brought into food premises with the raw materials or introduced during preparation, display, storage, and service. It is essential that mangers are aware of the kinds of foreign bodies normally found in their particular sector of the food industry.

Reported complaints involving foreign bodies are at an unacceptable high level and may pose a threat to consumer health and leave manufactures and retailers vulnerable to prosecution.

Extraneous is a contamination of food cause consumer dissatisfaction and may result in bad publicity. Besides that, press and media coverage results, the business can be disastrous leading, to loss of product or service confidence and even company viability. It is therefore, in the interests of the manufactures to minimize the risk of foreign body contamination.

Contamination may occur at any step from storage through to service but is most likely during processing. Although in the minority, a few of foreign bodies may be considered as a serious health hazard, example like stones, wire, glass, or rodent droppings, which may result in cut mouths, dental damage, illness or choking.

Other than that, all foreign bodies are a nuisance and manufactures in particular must implement appropriate system avoid and remove such contamination. The hazard analysis and critical control point system (HACCP) supplies the most effective preventive approach, especially for manufactures.

Chemical Contamination

Unwanted chemicals can enter foodstuffs during growth, example like: veterinary drugs, pesticides, fertilizers, and environmental contaminations; processing, for example, cleaning chemicals, oil and insecticides; transport, as a result of spillage or leakage; and sale, such as cleaning chemicals and leaching of such things as plasticizers from packaging. Chemical may cause acute poisoning or cause long term illnesses such like cancer. Belgian product, which including poultry, beef, eggs, pork and other products made using these ingredients, was agitate for because of high levels of the carcinogen. In additional, it is also thought that contaminated animal fat used to make animal feedstuff was the source o the problem.

Other than that, to prevent taint, some cleaning chemicals, such like phenols and perfumed soap, must not used in food premises. All cleaning materials must be store it neatly and properly labeled containers, so that the kids would not take it and can find it easily. Moreover, the cleaning materials stored in a manner that obviates any risk of contamination.

Besides that, there are some common chemical toxins that can contaminate food such as toxic metals, chemicals, and pesticides. Firstly, toxic metal, the source of toxic metals is utensils and equipment made from potentially toxic metals, example like: lead, copper, and brass. The methods to prevent are use food-grade utensils and equipment, never use enamelware, and use a backflow-prevention device to prevent carbonated water from flowing back into the copper water lines. Next, chemical, the source of chemical is cleaning products, polishes, sanitizers, and lubricants. The ways to prevent are use and store according to manufacturer in instructions, never use tools used to dispense chemicals for use with food, and use only food-grade lubricants or oils on kitchen equipment or utensils. The last is pesticides, the source of pesticides are chemicals used in food preparation and storage areas to control pests, such as rodents and insects. The methods to prevent are get a licensed professional should only apply pesticides, and cover or store all food before pesticides are applied.

Answer of Question 1(b)

Many counties such like United Kingdom, America, and Singapore, was spent a lot of money on portable each year. The means of portable water is bottle water. Most of bottled water is come from natural and underground source. The United State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established that the drinking water normally coming from sources such as lakes, rivers, seas, and underground aquifers. Before bottled the water, the portable water from these two kinds of sources are usually receives other treatment.

Besides that, the mineral water is usually is groundwater that contains of a high natural mineral content or include of minerals added. The product of melted snow and ice such as glacier and mountain water is surface and underground water from higher elevations.

Underground water sources normally will produce of artesian aquifer water and shallow water and these two types of water is come from naturally. Spring water is underground water that naturally flows to the ground surface. Sometimes, the artesian and well water might be added treatment.

Other than that, although rich countries such like United State and United Kingdom make clean water available, purification systems do not always extend into wilderness or rural areas. Emergencies and calamity can contaminate or cut it even the best maintained water supply. In poorer countries such as India and Vietnam, clean water is frequently unavailable. All of these situations necessitate portable, or point of use and water treatment system.

There is one type of portable water system called portable water purifiers. Some portable water purifiers are designed as bottle water with dispensers that are used from colleges, offices, and so on. The filtering media is fitted into the dispenser allowing contaminants to be removed prior to water consumption.

Besides that, a portable purifier is an ideal of travel accessory whether want clear water for mixing baby formula or hiking in the wilderness. In many big cities such as London and Tokyo, might don’t have a clean and safe water to drink, it is therefore essential to have a ways for purifying the water.

In addition, why use portable water purifiers, because the source of drinking water may contain many kinds of contaminants. These include of biological contaminants, the biological contamination consists of some microorganisms such like viruses and bacteria, while the chemical contaminants are normally actual of chemicals in the water. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), boiling water can kill biological contaminants, but does not any use to chemical contaminants. On other sides, water purifier removes both kinds of contaminants in one step, creating safe and clean drinking water to all human being. The advantage of portable water purifiers is can be carried and taken anywhere such as travel, going to work or going to school, that may have a less than perfect and excellent water supply.

Moreover, portable bottle labels must list the kind of water, example like: mineral, spring and drinking water. Water bottled from public water systems might not added purification, must state on the label that it’s from the municipal water supply. The quality standards of bottled water allow the addition of fluoride within set limits.

Conclusion

A biological, chemical, physical contaminants agent in, or condition of, then the food with the potential will cause an adverse health effect. Food safety hazards include viruses, bacteria and foreign materials that can also cause an adverse health effect to a consumer. Other than that, not all microorganisms are hazardous until reach a certain level, so it is very important to understand the significance of these levels. To control any food hazards, the consumer must have a system in place that control points within the process. The consumer must also have knowledge to develop the system therefore any change can be taken into account and managed correctly.

Besides that, as we know, water is very important to human health. In this world, many people getting sick and hospitalized due to contamination in drinking water. According to a Newsweek magazine article, nearly 6000 people dies each day of water borne diseases, and estimated that around 1 billion people worldwide lack access to safe drinking water. Hence, drinking water health benefits are immense and one can reap these benefits easily. So that, all of us must drink adequate amount of water daily to have a good health

Question 2

What should the manager do about an employee who reports to work with the following symptoms: fever, coughing, and a sore throat?

Why is hand washing so important?

Introduction

Many people take their work very seriously, and they are trying to prevent being absent from work as little as possible. A good employees, they will understand how absenteeism negatively impacts their employers and put unnecessary stress on their co-workers. Because of this reason, there is many staff that will drag themselves into work no matter how they feel and weather sick or healthy. One of the best reasons that the employee is not coming to work is when they are sick. They are not any beneficial for the sick employee, because they need to spend money to see a doctor; and it’s also not any advantage to other co-workers, because the other co-workers might replace the tasks that are performed by the sick employee.

Besides that, before every staff is allowed to commerce work, they must be advised in writing and respect of hygiene. The staff should be informed of the training they will be expected to undertake, which may including attendance on courses. It should be make clear that a breach of hygiene rules could result in disciplinary action. After understanding hygiene training, food handlers must be encouraged to implement what the staff has been taught. Effective instruction will be essential to maintain high standards o hygiene. Moreover, management must lead by some example and provide a hygienic working environment together with adequate resources to facilitate the achievements og high standards with adequate cleaning time. The best way of ensuring staffs always wash their hands before handling food.

Answer of Question 2(a)

A manager is responsible for the execution of most tasks in the company and wants to delegate tasks to his or her employees. A manager is very important in the company and he or she is responsible for the overall performance in his or her department and also for many of the business goal.

The appropriate use of sick leave by the employees is the one difficult area with which managers must deal. When dealing with employees in the use of sick leave, the mangers must use discretion, common sense and judgment. There are no stability rules which allow the mangers to readily determine if sick leave is appropriate in every situation and in each. Because circumstances vary so greatly from one situation to another situation, what may be valid in one case may be inappropriate in another situation. But it is so hard to apply; the manager should be consistent in their application of sick leave policy; this may make sure that employees who are similarly situated are treated equally.

Besides that, each employee’s situation needs to be individually estimated in terms of his or her overall use of sick leave. The mangers must determine if there is a pattern of sick leave abuse example like, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, the days before and after their vacations. The employee’s medical condition is certainly a factor that must be dealing with the employee in a different manner than the employee who has a medical condition.

Other than that, the importance of taking preventative action in reducing the potential for employees misconduct cannot be stressed enough but the mangers should help to prevent the employee sick leave problem. There are some preventing sick leave problems for agency which are supportive management above them including the intestinal fortitude to back up necessary actions; good employee relations advisors that can draft good quality suggested counseling memos, discipline and restrictions; creating and supporting effective Employee Assistance Programs.

In additional, what should the manager do about an employee who reports to work with some symptoms such as fever, coughing, and a sore throat? When employee is fever, coughing or a sore throat, the manger should ensure that is it the employee is really sick. If the employee is tell the truth; after that the manager should stop the employee work immediately; then place the employee on restricted duty, that is no working; or allow the employees to return to work with written medical documentation from a health practitioner; if possible, call the employee continue working while remaining aware that the manger could consider reassignment to a position that does not include talking with the guest in front office department, if in food and beverage department then the mangers should not allow their employee handling of food, food-contact equipment, utensils or single service articles. If the employee works in a food establishment serving an HSP, example like clinic, hospital, nursing home or a day care center, the employee should stop working and go home until obtaining a clearance from a health practitioner and presenting it to the manager.

There are also other methods that the managers should to do, when the employee are on sick which are stop their work immediately, report to management and allow them go home and return after at least 24 hours have passed since the fever, coughing, and sore throat symptoms ended. If the symptoms occur before the employee arrive to work, he or she would notify the manager by telephone early and do not report to work until at least 24 hours have passed after the symptoms have ended.

Answer of Question 2(b)

The role of hands in transferring pathogens to high-risk food especially from carriers is probably underestimated in the United Kingdom. In United State, infected food handlers are much more normally implicated in outbreaks of food borne illness, especially from Shigella (94%), Staphylococcus aureus (71%), campylobacter (45%), viral gastroenteritis, and hepatitis. It is considered that up to 25% of food borne illness in the United State may be just of improper handwashing. Other than that, the United State Centre for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that handwashing is the single most important means of preventing the spread of infection. By then, there are too many misinformation and confusion regarding handwashing, that even if it is undertaken.

Besides that, before understand handwashing we should understand the physiology of the skin first. The skin consists of three layers which are the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous tissue.

Figure - The Skin of layers

The epidermis is made up of millions of microscopic cells, known as skin scales. The epidermis also contain of many crevices and cracks that provide harbourage for resident and transient microorganisms. A layer of dead skin cells is lost around every two days, although injuries and practices will result in a much more rapid loss of skin layers and bleeding. A water repellent film produced by the sebaceous glands protects the outer layer of the skin. Removal of this layer by use of alcohol disinfectants is to cause irritation, dryness and roughness and increase the risk of dermatitis.

Resident microorganisms such like Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterobacter spp, Staphulococcus epidermis and yeast are can found in the epidermal layers. The important of resident microorganisms is to preventing pathogens from colonizing the skin.

Transient microorganisms is including of viruses, bacteria, yeasts, moulds and parasites, are those organisms that ‘hitch a temporary ride’ on and in the epidermis. They do not normally live in the skin and the kinds present depend on the environment and what the human being touch. Transient microorganisms should also survive on the skin from few minutes to a few hours may can be so effective and regular handwashing is essential.

Moreover, the most important thing is to make sure that food handlers wash their hands as always as necessary. The employee should require supervision and need to be motivated to follow the procedure every time they wash their hands; even is managers, they also wash their hands for lead by example.

Handwashing should be monitored and may even be documented and verified, example like, using hand swabs, agar plates or a fluorescent dye and ultra violet light. Signage and posters will aid reinforcement. Disciplinary action may be necessary against staffs who fail to wash hands.

In additional, handwashing is the best carried out at a designated hand-wash station and normally will require of an accessible wash hand basin or trough, preferably with non hand operable taps; suitable soap, preferably liquid, non irritating in a replaceable cartridge; a foot-operated or open topped bin for used towels, which is emptied as often as necessary, and paper towels, preferably using an infrared dispenser. An effective management system should be in place to make sure the facilities are kept neatly, clean and nice maintained and soap and also paper towels are often available.

Conclusion

Sick leave by the employee is not something can plan from managers, because all human being also will be sick, that is not especially for employee. Employees have the legal right to take their sick leave and return to their job. As a manger, they just hope the employee can return fast. There are options to look at and help the company survive during the time of sick leave. Managing when the managers have employees away on sick leave does not need to be so difficult. Take some time to look and estimated all options. Stay in touch with the employee on leave and do what is best for everybody involved.

Besides that, managers must give a good example to their staff and provide a hygienic working environment together with adequate resources to facilitate the achievement of high standards, such as paper towels, suitable and sufficient protective clothing, constant replenishment of liquid soap, and cleaning material or apparatus with adequate cleaning time. Otherwise, when wash a hand, using hand disinfection although some using claim excellent results from some alcohol base gel on hand that re nor visibly soiled. Good hand washing is the first line of defense against the spread of many illness.

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