The Sniper By Liam OFlaherty
The long June twilight faded into night. Dublin lay enveloped in darkness but for the dim light of the moon that shone through fleecy clouds, casting a pale light as of approaching dawn over the streets and the dark waters of the Liffey. Around the beleaguered Four Courts the heavy guns roared. Here and there through the city, machine guns and rifles broke the silence of the night, spasmodically, like dogs barking on lone farms. Republicans and Free Starters were waging civil war.
On a rooftop near O'Connell Bridge, a Republican sniper lay watching. Beside him lay his rifle and over his shoulders was slung a pair of field glasses. His face was the face of a student, thin and ascetic, but his eyes had the cold gleam of the fanatic. They were deep and thoughtful, the eyes of a man who is used to looking at death.
He was eating a sandwich hungrily. He had eaten nothing since morning. He had been too excited to eat. He finished the sandwich, and, taking a flask of whisky from his pocket, he took a short drought. Then he returned the flask to his pocket. He paused for a moment, considering whether he should risk a smoke. It was dangerous. The flash might be seen in the darkness, and there were enemies watching. He decided to take the risk.
Placing a cigarette between his lips, he struck a match, inhaled the smoke hurriedly and put out the light. Almost immediately, a bullet flattened itself against the parapet of the roof. The sniper took another whiff an put out the cigarette. Then he swore softly and crawled away to the left.
Cautiously he raised himself and peered over the parapet. There was a flash and a bullet whizzed over his head. He dropped immediately. He had seen the flash. It came from the opposite side of the street.
He rolled over the roof to a chimney stack in the rear, and slowly drew himself up behind it, until his eyes were level with the top of the parapet. There was nothing to be seen--just the dim outline of the opposite housetop against the blue sky. His enemy was under cover.
Just then an armored car came across the bridge and advanced slowly up the street. It stopped on the opposite side of the street, fifty yards ahead. The sniper could hear the dull panting of the motor. His heart beat faster. It was an enemy car. He wanted to fire, but he knew it was useless. His bullets would never pierce the steel that covered the gray monster.
Then round the corner of a side street came an old woman, her head covered by a tattered shawl. She began to talk to the man in the turret of the car. She was pointing to the roof where the sniper lay. An informer.
The turret opened. A man's head and shoulders appeared, looking toward the sniper. The sniper raised his rifle and fired. The head fell heavily on the turret wall. The woman darted toward the side street. The sniper fired again. The woman whirled round and fell with a shriek into the gutter.
Suddenly from the opposite roof a shot rang out and the sniper dropped his rifle with a curse. The rifle clattered to the roof. The sniper thought the noise would wake the dead. He stooped to pick the rifle up. He couldn't lift it. His forearm was dead. "I'm hit," he muttered.
Dropping flat onto the roof, he crawled back to the parapet. With his left hand he felt the injured right forearm. The blood was oozing through the sleeve of his coat. There was no pain--just a deadened sensation, as if the arm had been cut off.
Quickly he drew his knife from his pocket, opened it on the breastwork of the parapet, and ripped open the sleeve. There was a small hole where the bullet had entered. On the other side there was not hole. The bullet had lodged in the bone. It must have fractured it. He bent the arm below the wound. The arm bent back easily. He ground his teeth overcome the pain.
Then taking out his field dressing, he ripped open the packet with his knife. He broke the neck of the iodine bottle and let the bitter fluid drip into the wound. A paroxysm of pain swept through him. He placed the cotton wadding over the wound and wrapped the dressing over it. He tied the ends with his teeth.
Then he lay still against the parapet, and, closing his eyes, he made an effort of will to overcome the pain.
In the street beneath all was still. The armored car had retired speedily over the bridge, with the machine gunner's head hanging lifeless over the turret. The woman's corpse lay still in the gutter.
The sniper lay still for a long time nursing his wounded arm and planning escape. Morning must not find him wounded on the roof. The enemy on the opposite roof covered his escape. He must kill that enemy and he could not use his rifle. He had only a revolver to do it. Then he thought of a plan.
Taking off his cap, he placed it over the muzzle of his rifle. Then he pushed the rifle slowly upward over the parapet, until the cap was visible from the opposite side of the street. Almost immediately there was a report, and a bullet pierced the center of the cap. The sniper slanted the rifle forward. The cap clipped down into the street. Then catching the rifle in the middle, the sniper dropped his left hand over the roof and let it hang, lifelessly. After a few moments he let the rifle drop to the street. Then he sank to the roof, dragging his hand with him.
Crawling quickly to his feet, he peered up at the corner of the roof. His ruse had succeeded. The other sniper, seeing the cap and rifle fall, thought that he had killed his man. He was now standing before a row of chimney pots, looking across, with his head clearly silhouetted against the western sky.
The Republican sniper smiled and lifted his revolver above the edge of the parapet. The distance was about fifty yards--a hard shot in the dim light, and his right arm was paining him like a thousand devils. He took a steady aim. His hand trembled with eagerness. Pressing his lips together, he took a deep breath through his nostrils and fired. He was almost deafened with the report and his arm shook with the recoil.
Then when the smoke cleared, he peered across and uttered a cry of joy. His enemy had been hit. He was reeling over the parapet in his death agony. He struggled to keep his feet, but he was slowly falling forward as if in a dream. The rifle fell from his grasp, hit the parapet, fell over, bounded off the pole of a barber's shop beneath and then clattered on the pavement.
Then the dying man on the roof crumpled up and fell forward. The body turned over and over in space and hit the ground with a dull thud. Then it lay still.
The sniper looked at his enemy falling and he shuddered. The lust of battle died in him. He became bitten by remorse. The sweat stood out in beads on his forehead. Weakened by his wound and the long summer day of fasting and watching on the roof, he revolted from the sight of the shattered mass of his dead enemy. His teeth chattered, he began to gibber to himself, cursing the war, cursing himself, cursing everybody.
He looked at the smoking revolver in his hand, and with an oath he hurled it to the roof at his feet. The revolver went off with a concussion and the bullet whizzed past the sniper's head. He was frightened back to his senses by the shock. His nerves steadied. The cloud of fear scattered from his mind and he laughed.
Taking the whiskey flask from his pocket, he emptied it a drought. He felt reckless under the influence of the spirit. He decided to leave the roof now and look for his company commander, to report. Everywhere around was quiet. There was not much danger in going through the streets. He picked up his revolver and put it in his pocket. Then he crawled down through the skylight to the house underneath.
When the sniper reached the laneway on the street level, he felt a sudden curiosity as to the identity of the enemy sniper whom he had killed. He decided that he was a good shot, whoever he was. He wondered did he know him. Perhaps he had been in his own company before the split in the army. He decided to risk going over to have a look at him. He peered around the corner into O'Connell Street. In the upper part of the street there was heavy firing, but around here all was quiet.
The sniper darted across the street. A machine gun tore up the ground around him with a hail of bullets, but he escaped. He threw himself face downward beside the corpse. The machine gun stopped.
Then the sniper turned over the dead body and looked into his brother's face.
A short story by Liam O’Flaherty
Write the prequel to the story.
Re-write the story from the brother’s point-of-view.
Re-write the story as a one act play.
Assuming the role of the central character, write a letter to your parents informing them of your brother’s death.
Eliminate the final line of the story and have students write their own alternate ending.
Write a eulogy for the dead brother. Possible extension: have a small group of students role play the eulogy and funeral of the dead brother.
Write a poem inspired by the story.
Re-write the story from the point-of-view of the female informer.
Write the dramatic monologue of the mother upon hearing news of her son’s death.
Write a journal entry from the point of view of any character or perhaps an anonymous observer who witnessed the shooting.
Write a sequel to the story.
Write the dramatic monologue of the sniper who suddenly realizes what he has done.
Assume the role of the sniper. Write a letter home to you mother explaining what you have done.
In your Response Journal react to the following: “What is one thing in your life that you feel regret about?”
Prepare an I-Search paper on the experience of veterans.
Who is Liam O’Flaherty? Research this author on the Internet and in the library. Attempt to discover his motivation for writing this story. Your final work may take the form of a timeline, PowerPoint Presentation, Bristol board project, or a written paper.
You are a journalist and have been assigned the task of reporting on a fatal incident that took place near O’Connell Bridge. Write a newspaper article from the ‘Republican’ perspective.
You are a journalist and have been assigned the task of reporting on a fatal incident that took place near O’Connell Bridge. Write a newspaper article from the ‘Free State’ perspective.
Write a ‘free verse’ or ‘concrete poem’ assuming the persona and emotions of the sniper as he suddenly comes to terms with what he has done.
Write a newspaper obituary for the dead brother.
Rewrite this short story placing it within the context of a current political conflict.
Using any medium available to you create a visual representation of one scene from the story.
Using Lego blocks recreate a three dimensional representation of the scene near O’Connell Bridge. Research this area of Dublin. Determine the position of the gunmen, the armoured car, and the informer in relation to the Liffey River and the bridge itself. Be prepared to discuss the story strategically.
Present a Readers Theatre version of The Sniper.
Create a collage of images, impressions, and words associated with your reading of the short story.
Have students role play and interact as characters from the story. Bring the brother back from the dead and have him improvise a scene with the sniper.
Create storyboards of key moments in the text.
Sketch an Illustrated Comic Strip on the central incidents and dialogue of the short story.
Using the Internet research and explore the symbolism and imagery of military uniforms. Design the sniper’s uniform based upon what you know about his struggle.
The conflict has ended and a statue is to be erected near the end of O’Connell Bridge. Its purpose is unification and peace. The story of the two brothers has become legendary and as an artist you wish to sculpt their emotions into your proposed statue design. Using any medium available to you – sculpt the statue.
Using digital video and selected music recreate the final moments of the short story capturing the desperate struggle and the final epiphany.
Using PowerPoint and digital photography restage this short story scene by scene. Layer your PowerPoint presentation with selected narration from the short story. Add music and subtitles.
Create a series of 5 tableaus to retell the central story of The Sniper. Perform it for the class.
Research various songs of conflict that share similar emotions to the short story. Burn them onto a CD. Design a CD cover and on the insert outline your method and means of selection. Choose one song, copy its lyrics onto an overhead, and share both with the class.
Research the traditional Irish Ballad. Using the incidents of the short story and the lyrical structure of the ballad itself – write The Ballad of the Sniper.
Have the students come up with a series of interview questions for the Sniper. As an extension – conduct the interview with another student role-playing the part.
Initiate a discussion about loyalty in times of war (i.e. family vs. beliefs).
Initiate a discussion about the consequences of guns.
Have students suggest and discuss alternative ways of solving conflict.
Have students participate in small group discussion examining how they believe these brothers grew apart.
Have students consider what the outcome of the sniper’s experience will be? What is in store for him socially, emotionally, and personally?
Ask students to consider what kind of things can drive families apart?
Have students consider the commandment, “Thou Shalt Not Kill.” Does such a commandment apply to war? Why or why not?
In small groups ask students if they could ever actually kill someone? Under what circumstances is killing murder – and when (if ever) is it considered a ‘duty?’
Discuss what you consider to be possible symbols within the story.
As a group discuss any evidence of ‘foreshadowing’ within the story.
Was it a good story or a bad one? Discuss using evidence and examples to back up you opinion.
Discuss the concept of ‘victims’ vs. ‘heroes’ in war. Who are terrorists and who are freedom fighters? Who is the victim in this case?
What is the purpose of war?
What does the reader see in the lifeless face of the brother?
Provide students with a preteaching list of Vocabulary and Geographical References for greater clarity of comprehension.
Provide historical ‘crib sheets’ of the Irish experience at this point in history.
Research sources and provide opportunities for students to view documentaries and/or dramatic film(s) on the Irish experience at this point in history.
Research Irish artists from this period and after who have represented their experience in visual, musical, or written format. Provide opportunities for students to experience and discuss them.
Stage a mini-lesson in context regarding ‘point-of-view’ in short stories. Discuss the author’s choice in not making this a narrative.
Have students highlight words, concepts, and place names that they are not familiar with. In whole class discussion list these on the board and have students work together with the teacher to solve the problems.
Highlight descriptive and figurative language. Discuss its affect upon the reader. Stage a mini-lesson in context to connect textual experience to definition (e.g. “machine guns and rifles broke the silence of the night, spasmodically, like dogs barking on lone farms.” – simile: comparisons using like or as).
Find another short story, play, or motion picture that could be compared with The Sniper. Share this with your class.
Write a letter from the perspective of the sniper’s mother to her son.
Examine the sentence structure, mood, tone, etc. within the context of the story. Discuss the role words play and how they structurally enhance the story’s impact.
Construct a photo narrative of the story using scanned, photocopied, or clipped visual texts.
Develop a carefully considered sound track of this story. Consider the music that would permeate the opening scenes, the tense stand off, the death of the informer, the sniper’s injury, and then his desperate ruse. What piece of music would you conclude with?
Create a collage of violent media texts.
Develop a talk show involving the sniper and his family members asking questions about the incident.
Have a small group or whole class discussion about Fanaticism and Hate.
In pairs or small groups discuss this question: Is there a moral to the story?
In small groups – or as a class debate – put the sniper on trial. Were his actions justified? Is the sniper a murderer?
In pairs or small groups discuss what it means to take another person’s life. What would it take? Who things they could do it? Why?
Discuss the business of war. Consider the type of personality a sniper would have to have. What kind of personality would be the antithesis of a sniper’s?
In small groups discuss stereotypes, clichés, and archetypal characters.
As a class, discuss masculine and feminine roles in society, and how they relate to the characters in Liam O’Flaherty’s short story.
In pairs or small groups discuss the impact that religion has had on war and those who participate in war.
Research the role of the informer in warfare. How can such dangerous roles shift the tide of military and social conflict?
Compare and contrast the conflict in O’Flaherty’s The Sniper to a current conflict in our present world.
Make connections to other war stories and poetry. Create a bibliography of possible references.
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