The Factors Affecting L2 Acquisition English Language Essay
Last paragraph mentioned a motivation which in language learning has played a significant role. Dornyei (2000) describes the motivational influences of second language learning along a sequence of discrete actional events within the chain of initiation and enacting motivated behaviour. Gardner (1972) believes that foreign language learning motivation is to achieve the goal of learning a language desire and effort to this end to the attitudes of language learning. Dornyei (2000) divides into two main dimensions of L2 motivation: "the first dimension represents the behavioural process whereby initial wishes, hopes and desires are first transformed into goals, then into intentions, leading eventually to action and, hopefully, to the accomplishment of the goals, after which the process is submitted to final evaluation, the second dimension is motivation influences, includes the energy sources and motivational forces that underlie the fuel the behavoural process". Motivation is made up of the various motivational influences that fuel the actional sequence. Dornyei (2000) mentions "these energy sourses can be enhancing or inhibiting, depending on the goal or dampen the actor's endeavour". And the motivational influences form five clusters which they affect: on goal setting, intention formation, the initiation of intention enactment, executive motivation influences, on postactional evaluation. Dornyei as the motivation for actions caused by the incentives, and the action in the absence of external interference in the case would be sustainable until the target process. Although the definition of motivation vary, but specific to the performance of foreign language learning is the reason for learning a language, to achieve the goals and moved by the efforts put into action and the degree. Therefore, the success of learners motivation plays an important role in influencing the Learners of the most critical emotional factors. Language teaching classroom is the main place which can help the teachers create a good learning environment to stimulate and enhance students motivation to enable them to actively participate in all aspects of teaching activities and find pleasure to experience success in order to improve teaching effectiveness. At the meanwhile, the teachers also can use modern multimedia-aided like computer information technology as the core teaching of English language construction, which can expand the students' horizons activities. The teachers should rich course content to stimulate learning motivation of the learners, teachers teaching content should be added in due in teaching process and make it more timely and applicable. They should consider the needs of students and language teaching needs fully to stimulate the motivation of the learners as the basic starting point, and add the appropriate language and cultural knowledge. Overall, the motivation of learners is a key point of the success of foreign language learning. The teachers should take motivation theory as a guide and inspire students to a variety of different levels of motivation, and improve the quality of language teaching effectively.
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This section proposal emphasizes the importance of language which as involved in a sociocultural group's practices. Learning language is learning a social symbol system through which the learners make themselves and their ideas known in interaction. The opinions about language learning related to cognition draw on opinions from the sociology of thought (study guide, p.1). In the study guide topic 5 mentions that three views on language acquisition: "the behaviourist model that is linked to a structuralist view of language as sentence patterns; the innatist model that hypothesizes the existence of an innate cognitive structure enabling; and the cognitivist approaches that study the cognitive processes involved in language learning". Language is an important context which is used worldwide and learned in interaction where take place in a social context among people with particular cultural experiences. Many people decided to learn an additional language, and this needs a long process of learning in SLA. In fact, according to the study guide topic 6 learning an additional language must involve participation in socially-mediated activities. Language can make people to participate and help the learners understand the meaning from participation. Based on Gass 's (1997) the Input Interaction Output (IIO) model of second language acquisition, it was first elaborated in Gass (1988) and updated only slightly several years later, this model has developed and become prominent in second language acquisition over the past many years for two main reasons, "first is there was the obsearved need to work from Krashen's Comprehensible Input Hypothesis towards something more complete and empirically more verified and verifiable. Input is the process which is what sets the entire model in motion, like the teachers teach the target language for the learners the process of teaching is input the content to the learners. During the stage of apperception is "the priming stage during which the learner notices incoming data, relating them to past experience and then parsing them into important units for further analysis" (Gass, 1998). Next is comprehended input stage, this is comprehensibility for students, it is of critical importance in second language acquisition. And comprehensible input is a necessary condition for language acquisition to take place. Take the teachers and learners for example, the teacher can communicate with the learners and the learners can talk with the learners, the interaction between the teachers and learners can help them collecte the feedback of the lanugage learning. At the meanwhile, the learners has a process of thinking which is belongs to comprihensible content. Interactionist theorists believe that language learning happens when language in the environment interacts with the learner's internal mechanisms. "Interactionism led to studies of the input the learner receives, and thence to studies of interactions in which the input occurs" (study guide, p.2). After that in the comprehensible input, the learners can have the modified input of language learning. Long (cited in study guide, p.2) maintains that modified input in the interaction is thought to be necessary for language acquisition. Comprehended input result from apperception and represents the beginning of analysis in Gass' model. Gass mentions that "at the deeper and more elaborate level, there is comprehension of syntax for longer term learning. Input refers to the language which the learners hear or read". During the language learning in classroom it is necessary for learners to have access to comprehensible input through conversational interaction with teachers and the other students. In second language acquisition, input is provided different from the target language as normally used between native speakers (study guide, p.4). According to Long (1983a; 1983b) mentions that modifications of the interactional structure of the conversation that make unfamiliar linguistic input comprehensible. In Corder's (1967, 1978) terms 'intake', consist of basic data for second language acquisition. Intake is the processing of assimilating linguistic material (Gass, 1997). It is the important part between input and grammar, the first section is the structures internal to the learners start to be changed in some way. "It means the assimilation of new language features on the part of the learner. And if the learner begin to assimilate new language features, the process of hypothesis formation, testing, modification and confirmation will commence". And then this stage will lead to the next stage integration, which means "the development and deposit of changes that occurred in the learners' grammar as a result of accommodation or restructuring". At last, at the stage of output, "it can serve as part of a feedback loop to the intake stage. The learner tests hypothesis by producing spoken language which in turn takes the learner back to the process of assimilation changes to their grammar system, besides that output can force syntactic rather than semantic analysis" (Block, 2003). After the input of the target lanauge and comprehension of the second language, the learners will output the language. According to the study guide (2010), second language acquisition research has known in focus on the Input Interaction Output (IIO) theorists. Block advised "that a step further might be to consider the output from dialogic perspective rather than from the individualistic perspective that we take now when we look at learners' language". In the social context, the learner is considered in the role of cultural member, they can learn to use the second language to achieve social and cognitive goals in the new cultural context. "long term studies of the daily habits of a particular social group in which researchers both observe and participate in the lives of those they are studying" (Heath 1986, p.153), quoted from Wesche (1994). By using the data from observation and field notes by researchers and other participants like teachers and students, and the emphasis is on the description, process, and meaning structures in a natural setting. It is more effective for the learners of the second language acquisition. Languages are learned and used in a wider world, it is a part of real contact communities and of imagined communities.
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