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Occupational Therapy Aiding Down Syndrome English Language Essay

Specific Purpose: Inform the audience about what Occupational therapy is, related to its use with those who suffer from Down syndrome and to explain to the audience how it is used to aid in the life long development and quality of life of those with Down syndrome.

Thesis Statement: Occupational therapy has been found to aid in the development and quality of living for those with Down syndrome.

Introduction

I. Attention-getter: “According to one estimate, a 20 year old woman has about a 1 in 800 chance of carrying a fetus with Down syndrome & a 44 year woman 1 in 16. A few decades ago, almost all infants with Down syndrome died in early childhood but advances in treatment now means that most now survive into adulthood.” states Berger’s 2006 “The Developing Person” published in New York.

II. Establishment of ethos: In my studies of development and disorders as a Psychology major I have come to research ways in which those suffering from certain disorders can be aided. Occupational therapy is a way in which those with Down syndrome can be assisted to live a better quality life.

III. Thematic statement: With the advent of Occupational Therapy and research into ways that those with Down Syndrome can be assisted in their development it has been found that Occupational therapy is an effective tool to use early on and throughout life to aid in the development of fine and gross motor skills as well as increase longevity.

IV. Preview (each main point):

First . . . I will begin with a brief overview of what Down syndrome is as well as what Occupational therapy is.

Next . . . I will describe how occupational therapy has been incorporated into the lives of those who suffer from Down syndrome.

Finally . . . I will provide information on how occupational therapy has made an impact on the lives of those who have Down Syndrome and has increased their sense of independence, mobility, and overall life expectancy.

(Transition) To begin to grasp DS I will define some of its’ general definitions.

Body

I. Main idea 1 (History/Background influencing your Informative Topic)

A. Subpoint and/or supporting material:

-According to the site for the National Down Syndrome Congress the occurrence of Down syndrome is about 1 in every 800-1000 live births. That’s a staggering statistic that I am sure we would probably never have guessed to be as high. Though many of us may know some of the physical characteristics of DS, we do not understand what it is.

1. Sub-subpoint– Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder. While most people are born with 23 chromosome pairs totaling 46 chromosomes, those with DS on the other hand have an additional chromosome on the 21st position as described in Understanding Down Syndrome, Cunningham’s 1996 book published in Cambridge.

2. Sub-subpoint – Siegfried Pueschel’s 2001 book published in Baltimore, A Parent’s Guide to Down Syndrome states, “It is widely known, the occurrence of Down syndrome is associated with advanced age of the mother… physicians generally recommend mothers older than 35 undergo prenatal testing to determine whether the fetus is affected.” Of course this doesn’t mean everyone who is 35+ who has a child will have DS but it does mean that the risk becomes much greater with age, which is something that should be taken into consideration when planning to have a child.

B. Subpoint and/or supporting material –What occupational therapy is…

-According to Occupational therapist Jeanette Curry on the site for the Kennedy Krieger Institute, “An occupational therapist specializes in the development of fine-motor and self-care skills. Examples include: manipulating toys, using a pencil, & drinking from a cup. Children with Down syndrome are typically delayed in developing these skills and having characteristics which affect their fine motor development.”

1. Sub-subpoint– OT aides those with Down syndrome cope with some of the physical limitations common in DS and helps them avoid the use of compensatory movements that are taken on because of low muscle tone and flexibility.

(Transition) –Knowing what Down syndrome and Occupational therapy are we can now examine how Occupational therapy is incorporated into the lives of those with DS.

II. Main idea 2 (Applications/how it works)

A. Subpoint and/or supporting material

- Gaining knowledge of what Occupational therapy is and how it is implemented into people’s lives can help us provide them with optimal developmental opportunities. Early Occupational therapy is recommended to achieve the most optimal results in the child. 1. Sub-subpoint– The National Down Syndrome Society states the first three years of life are key in the incorporation of occupational therapy. The accomplishments are measured in terms of “milestones” and skills that have been accomplished in that period. The importance of reaching each milestone is that it is a gateway to the next skill to be acquired.

2. Sub-subpoint- Therapy is not to meant to try to make them catch up to the average child. The focus of therapy is to avoid and lessen the abnormalities that make it difficult for them to move with ease and cause less strain on their already fragile muscles.

B. Subpoint and/or supporting material

-There are many different exercises that are used from practice playing with toys and holding small objects to aid in dexterity to playing with mobile type toys to practice large gross motor skills such and kicking and coordination.

1. Sub-subpoint –Occupational therapy at it’s core breaks down skills so they are easier to grasp and so that parents will have proper expectations of their child.

2. Sub-subpoint- As renowned Occupational therapist Maryanne Bruni outlines in her 1998 book Fine Motor Skills in Children with Down Syndrome published in Bethesda, skills are also developing during the early years of schooling, “Kids with Down syndrome vary in personality, temperament, and motivation to be independent. Some have a desire to do things themselves… and learn these skills by participating with others. Other children may be happy letting others do things for them, resisting attempts to learn these skills. An OT may be able to help parents work out these challenges, while helping children develop better motor skills to be successful in self- help skills.”

(Internal summary) As we can see from this information OT can be implemented into many aspects of the growing child’s life to assist them. It is not something that is overly pushed on the child and is no way considered a race to catch up to other children but over the years aid in progressive milestones reached.

(Transition) – From understanding how OT works we can now look at its implications.

III. Main idea 3 (Implications/the potential to change or how we have changed)

A. Subpoint and/or supporting material

-Decades ago children born with Down syndrome would only live to early childhood. Fortunately with the incorporation of Occupational therapy and a better understanding of what Down syndrome is and its implications we have been able to teach those with DS skills to help them be more independent and increase their life span.

1. Sub-subpoint – With the growing number of families taking care of children w DS in home instead of institutions they are able to thrive in nurturing environments that let them establish a sense of independence.

B. Subpoint and/or supporting material

-Siegfried Pueschel writes in his 2001 Parent’s guide to Down Syndrome published in Baltimore, “Overall life expectancy for individuals with Down syndrome has improved significantly over past decades… The average life expectancy is estimated in the mid-50’s and there are numerous people with DS who live into the 7th & 8th decades of life.”

1. Sub-subpoint –Knowing that numerous decades have been added to the life span of those with DS makes it quite apparent these changes in the way we think about those with Down syndrome and the ways we teach them has had a tremendous impact on the longevity of their lives.

(Internal summary) As can be seen from the fact that people with Down syndrome are living longer, healthier, more productive lives we can see that Occupational therapy has benefited those with Down syndrome.

Conclusion

I. Summarize (overall theme): Occupational Therapy has been a key component in the increased development of those with Down syndrome.

II. Review (each main point): In sum we overviewed what DS and OT are. I then explained how OT is incorporated into the lives of those with DS to assist in their development of motor skills to move with ease and be independent. Lastly I outlined how longevity and quality of life has increased in those with DS due to the use of OT.

III. Tie to the introduction: Living with DS is in no way easy but life for those who have it and their families can be assisted through teaching methods such as OT.

IV. Creative concluding thought: -Unfortunately there is no miracle drug or cure for Down syndrome. I do not think it is beneficial to anyone to assume that these children will not be able to function in any capacity throughout their lives. Of course the severity will differ from child to child but for many of them I believe that the use of OT is essential so that society can assist in aiding them to develop to their full potential and live happy fulfilled lives.

Works Cited

Berger, K. (2006). The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence.

New York: Worth Publishers.

Bruni, M. (1998). Fine Motor Skills in Children with Down Syndrome: A Guide

For Parents and Professionals. Bethesda: Woodbine House Inc.

Cunningham, C. (1996). Understanding Down Syndrome: An Introduction for Parents.

Cambridge: Brookline Books.

Curry, J. Kennedy Krieger Institute. 2005. Occupational Therapy Services for Infants and

Children. July 12 2007, http://www.kennedykrieger.org/kki_misc.jsp?pid=2138

National Down Syndrome Congress. (June 2006). Facts About Down Syndrome.

July 9 2007, http://www.ndsccenter.org/resources/package3.php

National Down Syndrome Society. (March 2005). Occupational Therapy Guide.

July 12 2007, http://www.ndss.org/ index.php?option=com_content&task=section&id=13&Itemid=235.

Pueschel, S. (2001). A Parent’s Guide to Down Syndrome: Toward a Brighter

Future. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing Co. Inc.

1Informative Speech Outline

Speaker: Brandon Wong

Thesis Statement: Avian influenza is an emerging and threatening disease.

Introduction

Attention getter: According to Molly Billings who authored a website at www.Stanford.edu last updated February, 2005, 20-40 million people world-wide died of what has now been considered a mostly benign disease.

Establishment of ethos: This is a topic I have learned about in my microbiology class and one which I have researched more extensively since this speech.

Thematic statement: Avian influenza, which is a subtype of the common seasonal influenza, is an emerging and threatening disease.

Preview (of each main point)

First, we’ll delve into a little history of avian influenza.

Next, I’ll discuss how influenza viruses in general work, which is the same way avian influenza viruses work.

Finally, I will elucidate some of the repercussions of avian influenza.

Body

Main idea 1: Avian influenza is an emerging disease.

Internal summary: Avian influenza is a recent disease that started small and has since grown in number of cases.

According to page 915 of Willey, Sherwood, and Wolverton’s book Prescott, Harley, and Klein’s Microbiology published in 2007, avian influenza “appears to be the most likely candidate to initiate another influenza pandemic,” or global disease. Furthermore, this source states that “the virus was responsible for six deaths in 1997, but caused a substantial number of infections in 2003-2006 among poultry."

According to Scientific American published in June 5th, 2007 as well as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s website last updated July 11th, 2007, avian influenza has already infected 313 people, killing 191 since 2003. Scientific American further reports that “in an effort to destroy suspected infected birds before they spread the disease to other people led to the destruction of 200 million domestic fowl.”

Transition: Thus, we have seen how this version of flu is both recent and dangerous. To get a better idea of what this means to us, let us now examine briefly how influenza viruses work.

Avian influenza is a subtype of the seasonal flu. What is the flu and how does this disease spread?

Willey, Sherwood, and Woolverton’s Microbiology states on page 915 that the name “Influenza [derives from] Italian to be influenced by the stars and is a respiratory disease caused by negative-strand RNA viruses that belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae.”

What this means is that influenza, more commonly called “the flu,” is caused by viruses and not bacteria.

Different strains of flu viruses are named based on their different proteins, hence the names HANB where A and B are numbers, that commonly appear in scientific literature. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention governmental website last updated May 7th, 2007, avian influenza is identified as H5N1.

According to page 917 of the Microbiology textbook written by Willey, Sherwood, and Woolverton, the virus changes rapidly as well as mixes proteins with other circulating strains to change significantly enough from year to year which causes us to become sick again the following year.

Influenza viruses are spread by respiratory means- avian ones by contact with respiratory secretions.

Willey, Sherwood, and Woolverton report on page 892 that flu viruses are shed in what are called respiratory droplets, which are tiny moisture droplets spread by “coughing, sneezing, or vocalization,” or speaking.

The World Health Organization reported May 7th, 2007 that “avian influenza is transmitted through direct contact with infected birds, their excretions, surfaces contaminated by their excretions, and their saliva. Avian influenza has also been transmitted through very close contact with infected individuals.”

Internal Summary: Thus, we have seen that influenza is caused by a virus which mutates rapidly and returns each year. Both regular and avian flu viruses are spread by airborne means as well as through the consumption of particles orally and in the case of avian influenza, by direct contact with infected birds and people.

Transition: Knowing how the virus works allows us to delve into the implications of a future influenza pandemic.

The implications for the future in regards to avian influenza are grim.

The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention’s “current situation” website last updated June 15th, 2007 documents that “the human population has little immunity against the H5N1 influenza subtype, meaning that in the event that the virus gains the ability to transmit easily between people, then the result could be high rates of illness and death worldwide.”

This lack of immunity also occurred with the 1918 flu, which provides an idea of what could result.

According to author J. R. Minkel in Scientific American, published April 3rd, 2007, we might possibly be forced into closing down public places such as schools, theaters, and churches to limit viral spread amongst people not yet infected- a protocol that proved effective in the 1918 pandemic when vaccines and other antiviral medications were not yet discovered.

Internal summary: The implications of a pandemic form of avian influenza could cause closure of public areas such as schools and churches as well as stall economies and fill hospitals. In a worst case scenario, we might be looking at a similar situation to that of the disaster that was 1918.

Conclusion

Summarize overall theme: In conclusion, avian influenza, a cousin of the seasonal flu, is an emerging and threatening disease.

Review each main point: As I have just discussed today, avian influenza is a recent disease. I have also told you some of the basics about how influenza viruses that cause the flu are transmitted. Finally, I have explored some of the implications of a worldwide avian influenza outbreak around the world.

Tie to the introduction: Hopefully, you can now appreciate what was once considered a severe common cold to be something potentially much more sinister.

Creative concluding thought (tie to intro): Influenza pandemics, like the flu of 1918 are a real threat to the world and will not simply go away- within the next couple decades, we could be experiencing another influenza pandemic.

Literature cited

http://www.stanford.eduBillings, Molly. “The Influenza Pandemic of 1918.” Human Virology at Stanford. Feb. 2005. Stanford University. 5 July 2007 <http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/udahttp://www.stanford.edu>.

“Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza A/(H5N1) Reported to WHO.” Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response. 11 July 2007. World Health Organization. 11 July 2007 <http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/country/ cases_table_2007_07_11/en/index.html>.

Minkel, J. R. “Quick Action Slowed 1918 Flu” Scientific American 3 April, 2007. No pages given. <http://www.sciam.com/articl.cgm?articleID=B8358A18-E7F2-99DF-3899ED30E8ECD6CD&SC=I100322>.

“U.S. leads bird flu preparation efforts.” Report. Scientific American 5 June 2007. <http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?alias=us-leads-bird-flu-prepara>.

Willey, Joanne, Linda Herwood, and Christopher Woolverton. Prescott, Harley, and Klein’s Microbiology. 7th ed. Boston:McGraw-Hill, 2007.

“Key Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 7 May 2007. Department of Health and Human Services. 11 July 2007 <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/facts.htm>.

“Avian Influenza: Current Situation” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 15 June 2007. Department of Health and Human Services. 11 July 2007 <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/ avian/outbreaks/current.htm>.

Shirley (Wei Yang) Guan

0087-2958

SPCOM 100 8-12:15PM

Informative Speech

Introduction

I. Attention-getter:

What if I handed you this container with a pill inside that can dramatically improve your memory and thereby making you smarter? The only obstacle that prevents you from happily gulping it down is that you must listen to my speech.

II. Establishment of ethos:

I am currently a senior with biology major at the University of California, Irvine and planning to attend pharmacy school in the fall of 2008. My specific field of interest is drug interactions as I’m here today to inform you about “nootropic” drugs.

III. Thematic statement: relating to or constituting a topic of discourse

The usage and effectiveness of “nootropic drugs” also known as “smart drugs” or “memory enhancers” to improve your memory are currently under debate, but are available and have been shown to be very effective for patients who have brain impairments such as Alzheimers disease.

IV. Preview (each main point):

First, I will give you a little background of how these drugs came about.

Next, we will look at the functions of nootropic drugs and how they can possibly increase your memory.

Finally, we will consider the negative implications for utilizing these drugs to enhance cognition.

(Transition)

How were nootropic drugs discovered?

Body

I. Main idea 1 (History/Background influencing your Informative Topic)

According to the original inventor of the term “nootropic” drugs in 1982, Dr. Giurgea from the University of Louvain, Belgium and UCB Department of Neuropharmacology states that the idea of these memory drugs first emerged around early 1970s.

A. Subpoint and/or supporting material (such as a statistic or a quotation)

The actual concept of using drugs to boost memory was unintentionally brought to awareness.

1. Sub-subpoint (optional)

Giurgea states that scientists were first searching for drugs (like Piracetam) to help patients sleep by inhibiting brain activity.

2. Sub-subpoint (optional)

However, when this didn’t work, Giurgea reported that Piracetam was next used to test if it would help treat other disorders like motion-sickness, and finally cognitive improvements.

B. Subpoint and/or supporting material

Surprisingly not, clinical reports later showed that drugs like Piracetam were seen to have activity in increasing memory.

1. Sub-subpoint (optional)

Patients who suffered postconcussion disorders studied under this treatment were able to “think better” says Giurgea.

2. Sub-subpoint (optional)

Currently, a 2005 BioPharm article reported that nootropic drugs are like “Viagra for the Brain” and has definitely showed signs of improvement in memory for patients with Alzheimers, Multiple Sclerosis and even normal people like us.

3. Sub-subpoint (optional)

Another article from BBC News on April, 16th 2007 asserts that when 60 healthy volunteers were given Modafinil, not only their memory improved but also their performance increased.

(Internal summary)

Thus, the concept of memory drugs took place due to its potential success in research studies.

(Transition)

So how does the drug actually work?

II. Main idea 2 (Applications/how it works)

Memory enhancement drugs work in different ways to help increase mental activity and there are two main methods according to BusinessWeek in September of 2003.

A. Subpoint and/or supporting material

Some nootropic drugs fit in the category of “offensive drugs”.

1. Sub-subpoint (optional)

Offensive drugs work by increasing the action of other specific chemicals in your brain to increase mental activity. For example, let’s say the living room lamp was your brain. If you click one, the lamp will turn on. This is analogous to normal chemicals in your brain that turns on mental activity. If you click twice, the lamp gets brighter; three times, the lamp gets even brighter. This is how nootropic drugs enhance your ability to think better by increasing brain signals.

B. Subpoint and/or supporting material

The other type of nootropic drug fits in the category of “defensive drugs”.

1. Sub-subpoint (optional)

Defensive drugs work by physically blocking the action of chemicals factors in your brain that stop any sort of mental activity. An example is during a soccer game, the goalie is analogous to the nootropic drug and the soccer ball is the chemicals in your brain that reduces mental activity. The goalie’s objective is to block the soccer ball from going into the goal allowing the other team to score just like the drug’s objective is to block chemicals to stop brain activity.

(Internal summary)

Both defensive and offensive drugs work to strengthen memory.

(Transition)

Could it be possible that these drugs are going to be put over-the-counter and help normal healthy students increase their SAT scores or even simply help people remember names?

III. Main idea 3 (Implications/the potential to change or how we have changed)

There are obviously many implications and ethical questions pertaining to the usage of nootropic drugs before it can be placed “over the counter”.

A. Subpoint and/or supporting material

Researchers are still not absolutely sure how the drugs interact specifically in the human brain.

1. Sub-subpoint (optional)

An article on Slate.com, March 11th, 2003 about Total Recall and “the future of memory” indicates that no one has yet shown what damage memory drugs can do over the long term effect.

2. Sub-subpoint (optional)

Also, it states that not all drugs tested on animals will have the same affect on human subjects.

B. Subpoint and/or supporting material

The major issue is the ethical use of the drug to become more intelligent.

1. Sub-subpoint (optional)

For instance, after giving your grandmother some pills to help her cope with memory loss from Alzheimers, you decide to try some yourself and see if its going to help you ace the exam for the next day.

2. Sub-subpoint (optional)

Although these drugs are only prescribed to those who have mental disabilities, some are now illegally being sold in the black market as much as 4 pounds for a bottle of Modafinil stated in The Times article on May 14th, 2007.

3. Sub-subpoint (optional)

A popular British newspaper article, Telegraph on April 19th, 2007 signifies that even though pharmaceutical companies created nootropic drugs to aid mental health patients, its target has began to shift towards healthy people; a fact, that we should put into consideration of how it might impact our society.

4. Sub-Subpoint (optional)

In 1993, Dr. McGaugh from the Food and Drug Administration article says that when it comes to the point that people are using drugs to enhance their memory “People are buying hope".

(Internal summary)

These are just a few negative implications for using nootropic drugs based on the uncertainty level of the drug and potential abuse and dependence to it.

(Transition to conclusion)

Therefore, the matter of using nootropic drugs becomes a very complicated issue.

Conclusion

I. Summarize (overall theme):

In sum, we can see that these drugs have a bright future in the assistance of brain degenerative disorders, but also may have limitations when it comes to using it for other purposes.

II. Review (each main point):

First, we have seen how these drugs were accidentally discovered. Secondly, nootropic drugs interact in two different fashions: defensive and offensive. And third, there are many ethical issues when we use these drugs to increase our own mental capabilities.

III. Tie to the introduction:

Perhaps, you should reconsider before swallowing that pill.

IV. Creative concluding thought (end with impact):

We were taught that hard work and trying our best is what counts the most. On July 10th, 2007, Dr. Joe Tsien quotes in New York Times “If you look at how people improve their brain power, it’s through education… that has proven to have 100% efficiency with minimal side effects”.

Bibliography/References

1. Arnst, Catherine. “I Can’t Remember: Drugs to stave off age-induced memory impairment

may be on the horizon”. 1 Sept. 2003. BusinessWeek.com. 10 July 2007 <http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/aug2003/nf20030821_4244_db016.htm>

2. Ghosh, Pallab. “Drugs May Boost Your Brain Power”. 16 Apr. 2007. News.BBC.co.uk. 14

July 2007. < http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/6558871.stm>

3. Girugea, C.E. “The Nootropic Concept and Its Prospective Implications”. Drug Development

Research. 2 (1982): 441-446 < http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110480119/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0>

4. Lambert, Victor. “Using Smart Drugs and Drinks May Not Be Smart”. Apr. 2003. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 10 July 2007. <http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/CONSUMER/CON00207.html>

5. Martin, Nicole. “Intelligence Drugs Could Be “Common as Coffee”. Telegraph. 19 Apr.

2007. Telgraph.co.uk. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/04/18/ndrugs18.xml>

6. O’Connell, Brian. “StreetTalk: Memory Drugs: “Viagra for the Brain”. 1 Nov. 2005.

BioPharmInternational.com. 14 July 2007. <http://www.biopharminternational.com/biopharm/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=197388&sk=&date=&%0A%09%09%09&pageID=2>

7. Plotz, David. “Total Recall: The future of memory”. 11 Mar. 2003. Slate.com. 12 July 2007

<http://www.slate.com/id/2079202/>

8. Pollack, Andrew. “Can Drugs Make Us Happier? Smarter?”. 10, July 2007. The New York

Times. 11 Nov. 2003: NYTimes.com. 10 July 2007 <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9F02E0DD1239F932A25752C1A9659C8B63>

9. “Smart Drugs for Straight As”. Times Online 14 May 2007. TimesOnline.com. 13 July 2007.

< http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/health/features/article1780141.ece>

Informative Speech Outline

Title/Speaker: “Two is Always Better than One” – Anoushah Rasta

Specific Purpose: To educate my audience about how bilingualism or multilingualism can be beneficial to all people.

Thesis Statement: Learning to speak more than one language has been proven to not only help but to be extremely beneficial to people of all ages with several aspects of their lives.

Introduction

I. Bonjour mes amis (es)! Aujourd'hui je vous parlerai des avantages de pouvoir parler plus qu’une langue!

II. Today, I will be discussing the benefits of being able to speak more than one language, which I myself have personally experienced throughout my life, being able to speak three.

III. Learning to speak more than one language has been proven to not only help but to be extremely beneficial to people of all ages with several aspects of their lives.

IV. Preview (each main point):

First, I will be pointing out some of the general benefits of bi or multilingualism,

Then, I will be explaining how one may raise children to become bilingual,

Finally I will be discussing the effects that bi or multilingualism has on one’s brain.

Let’s begin with some of the general benefits that bi or multilingualism brings to our lives.

Body

I. There are many benefits to speaking more than one language.

A. Learning a foreign language gives one the ability to communicate with and understand people of other cultures.

1. According to the Nanduti website, noted on December 28th, of 2006, learning a second language opens the door to other cultures and helps even a child understand and appreciate people from other countries

B. You may not have considered that being able to speak a second language could also potentially help others.

1. According to the Washington Post, a law was passed in Washington D.C. that required city agencies to plan to hire bilingual employees. Audrey Singer tells this Washington Post of July 22nd, 2004 that “By making this a law, it's a very big gesture of outreach to the immigrant communities.”

C. Learning a second language early in life, before High School for example, can also prepare students for foreign language requirements in both High School and College.

1. A national survey of foreign language education done by Nanduti shows that 22% more schools are teaching foreign languages today than they were in 1987.

D. Speaking another language can also increase job opportunities.

1. According to Jet Magazine of September 5th, 2005, many businesses are looking for bilingual employees.

Now that we have covered some of the general benefits of bi and multilingualism, let us proceed with how we can raise our children to be bilingual.

II. There are several methods that we can use to raise bilingual children.

A. When teaching a child verbal skills, one can start before the baby is even born.

1. Dr. Carolyn R. Durham emphasizes this when telling Jet Magazine of September 5, 2005, that “…it is extremely important that your children learn a foreign language, as early as possible…”

2. Children are more receptive during the first three years of their lives, according to a 2004 article by the Multilingual Children’s Association.

B. Like most skills, practice makes perfect.

1. The Multilingual Children’s Association declares that researchers argue that a child needs to be exposed to a language 30% of their waking time to actively speak it.

C. Human interaction is the best method for fostering language learning.

1. According to Kendall King and Lyn Fogle of Georgetown University in a 2006 Center of Applied Linguistics digest.

Beginning to expose your children to a foreign language as soon as possible through mostly human interaction and doing so frequently are methods in which one can use when raising a child to be bilingual which brings me to my next point; the positive changes that occur within the brain when learning an extra language.

III. With the benefit of speaking more than one language, our brains have the potential to positively change.

A. Learning a second language aids with the development of the brain.

1. According to the Nanduti website, learning a second language enhances mental development.

2. The October 13th, 2004 issue of WebMD Medical Journal states that children develop a greater proficiency in reading, writing, talking, and understanding different languages learned at a young age. The word proficiency is a skill, ability or talent.

B. Bi or multilingualism can help improve SAT scores and other academic classes.

1. Jet Magazine mentions that speaking more than one language helps with cognitive development, which is the ability to understand abstract concepts; therefore helping a student increase his/her SAT scores.

2. According to Dr. Suzanne Flynn in a lecture given May 4th, 2006, bilingual children have an enhanced ability to deal with mathematical concepts, as well as in the comprehension of metaphor and figurative speech.

C. Being bilingual can also slow down the process of aging in the brain.

1. According to the 2005 issue of the Current Opinion in Neurobiology journal, bilingual older adults, having developed the skill of flexibly negotiating two language systems across their lifetime, show smaller age-related performance declines compared with those in monolinguals.

Bi or multilingualism certainly allows the human brain to grow and change positively.

Conclusion

I. Learning more than one language can certainly help individuals of all ages, young or old, in numerous aspects of their lives.

II. Now that we have explored some of the common benefits of bi or multilingualism, how one can effectively raise bilingual children and the positive changes that are brought forth to the human brain with the ability to learn more than one language, you can all go home knowing that taking an extra year of that French class in High School was much to your benefit than you thought.

III. So the next time someone says to you, “Voulez-vous couches avec moi ce soir?” you will know what they’re getting at.

IV. Remember, learning a new language is like transforming your mind from being a one dimensional figure to becoming a three dimensional one!

Outline for Informative Speech on Tissue Scaffolds

Speaker: Tiffany Mitori

Introduction

Attention-getter: We’ve all see one of these before. That’s right. Just your typical household sponge. But what if each pore in this sponge had a specifically designed shape? What if each layer was oriented perfectly to optimize the interconnectivity between these pores? What if each pore’s diameter was on the nanometer scale instead of the millimeter scale? Well, you’d have a very high-tech sponge. In the biomedical engineering field, this “sponge” would be referred as a tissue scaffold, or a temporary supporting structure for growing cells into tissue.

Establishment of ethos: I first heard about this new technology last quarter from my biomedical engineering professor, Dr. Crockett, who holds Ph.D.s in Materials Science and Engineering and has worked on developing tissue scaffolds with graduate students at Cal Poly.

Thematic statement: Once properly designed and constructed, these tissue scaffolds can be used to grow customized organs for patients.

Preview: Today, I’ll explain the dire need for tissue scaffolds, how they work, and, finally, how they can affect the medical world.

(Transition: First and foremost, why do we even need an alternative to the traditional organ transplantation process?)

Body

Society needs an alternative to the current organ transplantation process.

The waitlist and wait time for a donor organ is far too long.

The OPTN, as it is referred to, stated a staggering 96,862 Americans were waiting for organ donations just this morning.

And every ten minutes another name is added to this list, according to Lifeline of Ohio, a non-profit organization dedicated to coordinating organ donation and transplantation.

Lifeline of Ohio has also calculated that about 18 Americans die each day waiting for an organ transplant.

Furthermore, recipients must wait in line not only for a donor organ, but a compatible donor organ.

The OPTN matches a recipient with a donor based on blood type and tissue type to prevent an immediate reaction from the recipient’s immune system.

And even after a transplant with a compatible organ, the recipient must remain on immunosuppressive drugs the rest of his or her life because the donor organ is still a foreign part.

(Internal Summary: Clearly, the current organ transplantation process leaves much to be desired.)

(Transition: But tissue scaffolds, with their ability to create healthy copies of a patient’s own organs, have the power to change all that. So, how do these scaffolds produce fully-functioning, customized organs?)

Tissue scaffolds can produce fully-functioning, customized organs for patients.

There is a specific process to grow organs from scaffolds.

According to Peter Ma, who holds a Ph.D. in Polymer Science and Engineering, the process begins by collecting data from the patient, such as 3-D images of the body, adult stem cells, and regular cells from the organ itself.

With this information, a scaffold can be specifically designed for the patient’s organ.

Then, the adult stem cells and regular cells from the existing organ are placed inside the scaffold.

From this point, the scaffold is placed in a bioreactor, which provides the right environment for the growing cells. It provides adequate nutrients, waste removal, growth hormones, physical stimuli, temperature, and pressure. The bioreactor helps the stem cells differentiate into specific cells needed for the organ and helps all cells to grow and develop into tissue.

The scaffold is often made of a degradable plastic, which means that while the cells are growing, the scaffold is dissolving, and, eventually, all that is left is the organ itself.

Dr. Anthony Atala has already had success with this process.

The New York Times reported in 2006 that 7 bladders created by Dr. Anthony Atala through this process “have achieved good long-term results as implants”.

Dr. Atala and his research team at Wake Forest Medical Center have also created urethras, skeletal muscles, blood vessels, and cartilage.

They are currently developing windpipes, esophagi, and uteruses.

(Internal Summary: Dr. Atala and many others are very optimistic about the future of tissue scaffolds and their ability to create organs.)

(Transition: Such advances would have a drastic effect on the future of medicine.)

Tissue scaffolds will have a drastic effect on the future of medicine.

If hearts, lungs, livers, kidneys, and pancreases can be created through tissue scaffolds, there would be no need to determine a transplant candidate’s position in line; there would be no need for an organ transplant waitlist at all.

All 96,862 Americans could receive organ transplants.

Furthermore, all transplanted organs would contain cells identical to the patient’s cells.

Therefore, they would pose no threat to the patient’s immune system, thereby eliminating the need for immunosuppressive drugs.

(Internal Summary: With the development of tissue scaffold technology, no one would die simply because of a lack of organ donations.)

(Transition: To conclude, tissue scaffolds hold great promise for the future of organ transplants.)

Conclusion

Summarize: To conclude, tissue scaffolds hold great promise for the future of organ transplants.

Review: We’ve seen how our society desperately needs help fulfilling the seemingly endless demand for donor organs, how tissue scaffolds can be used to create customized organs for patients, and how tissue scaffolds could revolutionize the world of medicine.

Tie to the introduction: Wow, whoever came up with the idea of a sponge must have been a genius.

Creative concluding thought: Who knew such a seemingly simple and ordinary structure could have such huge implications?

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