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Proximity sensors, reed switches, magnets, global system for mobile communication (GSM)

CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION

In today's society, theft and intrusion or normally known as burglary are common problems ranging anything from a motor vehicle to personal belongings, from an office to even a room at home. In most cases, these criminal acts go unnoticed by the owner until sometime later. Security has been a major issue where crime is increasing and everybody wants to take proper measures to prevent theft and intrusion.

The aim of this research is to develop an alert system which will enable security against intrusion in the absence of owner and give immediate notification to the owner at the moment the theft occurs. This purpose is accomplished via the use of a proximity sensor, which activates a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) module to send one or more SMS (Short Message Service) to the owner at the time of break in.

1.1 BACKGROUND

In recent years, development of GSM and SMS based systems has significantly increases. There are many related works which have been done by the others. GSM and SMS based systems have been used in different systems such as home appliance control system, field data acquisition, mobile safety monitoring system at construction sites, health monitoring system for elderly at home, etc.

1.1.1 HOME APPLIANCE CONTROL SYSTEM (HACS)

Malik Sikandar Hayat Khiyal et al (2009) have developed a system which is SMS based and uses wireless technology to revolutionize the standards of living. The system provides ideal solution to the problems faced by home owners in daily life. The system is wireless therefore more adaptable and cost-effective.

The HACS system provides security against intrusion as well as automates various home appliances using SMS. The system uses GSM technology thus providing ubiquitous access to the system for security and automated appliance control.

1.1.2 FIELD DATA ACQUISITION

Chwan-Lu et al (2006) have presented a feasibility study on GSM-SMS technology application to field data acquisition. The feasibility study is based on a field data collection prototype system that is composed of field monitoring and host control platforms. The data transmission, communication, and control of the two platforms are accomplished using GSM-SMS technology.

The correctness of field data collected using GSM-SMS was 100% based on cross checking the sent and received data, and the integrity of transmission is guaranteed. The rate of data loss achieved can be lowered to 0.66%, which mainly depends on the service quality of the commercial telecommunication company. The proposed technique is well suited for implementation in field data monitoring and acquisition for precision agriculture.

1.1.3MOBILE SAFETY MONITORING SYSTEM AT CONSTRUCTION SITES

Ung-Kyun et al (2009) have developed a safety monitoring system was established to reduce dead zones of safety management where fatal accidents, especially falls, might occur.

It consisted of an MSD based on hybrid sensors as a detector, and a transmitter, repeaters, and receiver connected to the main computer. The system was applied to successfully allow real-time monitoring performance and prompt manager responses for safety management on a real construction site.

1.1.4HEALTH MONITORING SYSTEM IN HOME

Toshiyo Tamura et al (1998) have developed a home health monitoring system that did not provide any restrictions during sleep, bathing or elimination. The system consisted of monitoring devices and a computer terminal for collecting data. Data were automatically collected from monitoring devices placed in the bed, bath, and toilet and were transferred to a data terminal in the bedroom and stored for further analysis.

The aim of their study was to provide health monitoring for elderly and disabled persons at home by using fully automated signal measurement with personal identification to support daily health care and improve quality of life.

1.2RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

The main objective of this research is to develop a SMS-based security alert system by using National Instrument LabVIEW 8.6.

1.3SCOPE OF WORK

For this research, a proximity sensor, data acquisition and GSM modem are used to develop software for SMS-based security alert system. The software is developed by using National Instrument LabVIEW 8.6. The details of the devices and software used are highlighted in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3.

After the software has been developed, several testing are to be done on the software and the results will be recorded and discussed in Chapter 4.

1.4THESIS STRUCTURE

Chapter 1 describes the introduction, objectives and scope of work of this research.

Chapter 2 contains the literature studies which have been done for this research. Some general information on proximity sensors, reed switches, magnets, global system for mobile communication (GSM) and short message service (SMS) are presented in this chapter.

Chapter 3 explains the methodology which being used in this research. This chapter is mainly divided into two parts, which are hardware configuration and software development. For the hardware, reviews of devices used in this research are presented. Furthermore, the development of the software will be discussed either. Beside of those, the work plan, conceptual design and testing on the software which have been done are also presented in this chapter.

Chapter 4 documents the results obtained in this research, which include the developed software and the testing on the software which have been done. All the results for the testing are also discussed in this chapter.

Chapter 5 concludes this research. Recommendations are suggested in this chapter to further improve the performance of the software developed.

CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEW

Literature studies which have been done for this research are presented in this chapter which include some general information on proximity sensors, reed switches, magnets, global system for mobile communication (GSM) and short message service (SMS).

2.1PROXIMITY SENSORS

A proximity sensor is a device generally containing a reed switch that is assembled in a housing to protect the switch and provide easy mounting. Proximity sensors report the relative position of moving objects that must be continuously monitored. Changing actuator positions cause sensor contacts to open or close, allowing signal currents to flow.

Proximity sensors respond to the actuator's magnetism. These sensors are used in multiple industries and applications, from implantable medical devices, to valve control and aerospace applications. (Internet Reference, 01/03/2010a) Figure 2.1 below shows a proximity sensor while Figure 2.2 and 2.3 show the magnet and the reed switch of the proximity sensor which have been assembled in a housing respectively.

2.1.1OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS

In all systems, magnet and reed switch must be brought to within a specific proximity of each other. This distance will vary in accordance with the sensitivity of the reed switch and the strength of the magnet. When the magnet is close enough, the normally open contacts will close or operate. When the magnet is taken away, the contacts will open or release. The relative distance for operate is always less than that for release. Examples of proximity motion switching are shown below: (Internet Reference, 01/03/2010c)

(a).Perpendicular motion provides only one closure with maximum magnet travel.

Figure 2.1: Proximity motion switching for perpendicular motion

(b).Parallel motion provides as many as three closures with maximum magnet travel whereas only allows one closure with minimum magnet travel.

(c).Front to back motion somewhat similar to parallel motion, except magnet motion is at right angles to switch and provides only one closure with maximum magnet travel.

(d).Pivoted motion achieves one closure with large angular magnet travel.

(e).Rotation which means by rotating the magnet or reed switch, normal to their axes, will result in reversing magnetic polarity and thus resulting in two closures per revolution. When these axes are parallel, the switch closes. When the axes are perpendicular, the switch opens. Although the poles reverse, they still induce the opposite poles that close the reed switch.

(f).Biasing effect is produced by placing a stationary magnet near the reed switch, to keep it normally closed. The approach of another magnet with reversed polarity cancels the magnetic lines of force, and the reed switch opens. Care should be taken not to bring the actuating magnet too close to the biased reed switch, as it could close again. Form A reed switches meant for this kind of application should be selected from release AT group instead of from operate AT group.

(g).Shielding which means that in this type of actuation, magnet and reed switch are permanently fixed in such a position that the reed switch contacts are closed. A piece of ferromagnetic material is passed between the magnet and the reed switch, to cause drop out. The magnetic field is shunted, eliminating the attraction between the reeds. When the shield is removed, the reed switch closes.

2.2REED SWITCHES

A reed switch consists of 2 or 3 metal reed contacts which are hermetically sealed inside a glass tube containing an inert atmosphere as shown in Figure 2.1 below. Reed switches come in various sizes, sensitivities, contact configurations and lead configurations. Depending on the original contact configuration, Normally Open (NO) or Normally Closed (NC), the contacts will either complete or interrupt a circuit when actuated by a magnetic field. (Internet Reference, 01/03/2010a)

The basic reed switch is a normally open, Form A contact. A normally closed, Form B contact is provided by biasing the form A with a permanent magnet. A Form C or a Form D contact can be made by combining a Form A contact and a Form B contact in the same operating coil. The Form B, C and D contacts made in this manner have the same characteristics as the basic Form A. (Internet Reference, 01/03/2010c)

Sensitivity is a measurement of the magnetic energy required to operate a reed switch. The unit of measurement is Ampere-Turns (AT), which is the current in a given coil multiplied by the number of turns on that coil. Most companies measure the reed switch in Ampere-Turns (AT). Universally milliTesla (mT) is a more generally accepted magnetic measurement unit. MEDER electronic is the first and only manufacturer to convert over to mT, but continues to reference AT. (Internet Reference, 01/03/2010a; Internet Reference, 01/03/2010b)

2.2.1REED CONTACTS

Reed contacts must be ferromagnetic so that the reed contacts can be affected by a magnetic field. Reed contacts are normally made up of nickel/iron (NiFe) alloy (52% nickel). The three most popular materials in nature and easy to anneal are ferromagnetic: iron, cobalt, and nickel. (Internet Reference, 01/03/2010b)

The tips of the two reed contacts are either plated or sputtered with rhodium, ruthenium or iridium, with an under layer of either gold, copper or tungsten as shown in Figure 2.2 below.

2.2.2GLASS HERMETIC SEALED

A glass tube is used for the outer packaging whose Temperature Coefficient of Expansion (TCE) exactly matches the NiFe alloy. Both ends of the glass tube are heated and the glass melts and forms the hermetic seal encompassing both ends. During the glass sealing process the glass cavity is usually filled with an inert gas (typically nitrogen) or the cavity may be evacuated creating a vacuum. This vacuum usually supports high voltage switching (in excess of 1000 Volts). (Internet Reference, 01/03/2010b)

Since the reed contacts are hermetically sealed away from the atmosphere (as shown in Figure 2.3 below), they are protected against atmospheric corrosion. The hermetic sealing of a reed switch make them free from contamination, and are safe to use in harsh industrial and explosive environments where tiny sparks from conventional switches would constitute a hazard. (Internet Reference, 01/03/2010c; Internet Reference, 01/03/2010d)

2.2.3PULL-IN AND DROP-OUT POINTS

Pull-in and Drop-out are the points referred to when the reed contacts close and open as shown in Figure 2.4. Pull-in (PI) is the point where the reed switch contacts close whereas Drop-out (DO) is the point where the reed switch contacts open. It is very convenient to specify the closure and opening points in distance for specific applications. (Internet Reference, 01/03/2010b)

2.2.4HYSTERESIS

Hysteresis is another parameter that is useful to measure particularly in liquid level measurement. It is simply the ratio of the drop out and the pull in, and is measured as a percent (%) or decimal. (Internet Reference, 01/03/2010b)

If the liquid being measured is in any type of moving vehicle or a vibrating environment, the hysteresis can play an important role in a successful application. Once the sensing takes place the hysteresis will keep it in that state even after a considerable movement of the liquid level. An example on how to calculate the percentage of hysteresis is shown below.

2.2.4OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS

Generally, when a reed switch is actuated by a permanent magnet, the ON-OFF regions differs depending on the type and operate AT of the switch, and size and power of the permanent magnet. These characteristics will vary if there is any other ferromagnetic material nearby. Each characteristic curve will be enlarged as a whole if a stronger magnet is used for actuation, or if a lower operate AT reed switch is used. (Internet Reference, 01/03/2010c) The following examples show typical operating characteristics of a reed switch.

2.3MAGNETS

Magnets are reed switches' actuators which are placed in a housing to match the proximity sensors. Actuators are often paired with proximity sensors for a matching, magnetic sensor package. Many of the actuator housings provide a way to mount the magnet onto a surface. In applications where the reed switch signals relative motion, permanent magnets are used to provide the operating magnetic field. (Internet Reference, 01/03/2010a)

Using permanent magnets with a reed switch in a sensing application is not always straight forward so it is helpful to review various types of rare earth magnets and their magnetic properties to gain the full understanding the reed switch and magnet relationship.

All magnets have different properties. The properties of each magnet allow us to selectively use them in different applications. There are some key magnet properties to carefully consider when using a permanent magnet with a reed switch in proximity sensors which will be discussed in the sections below. (Internet Reference, 01/03/2010b)

2.3.1ABILITY TO MAGNETIZE AND DEMAGNETIZE EASILY

For a Form B (Normally Closed) or latching reed relay it is very helpful to be able to magnetize and demagnetize a given magnet to adjust the precise activate and deactivate points. To obtain the most stable results, the magnet should be fully magnetized and then demagnetized to the best operating point. The AlNiCo series magnets usually provides the best results for this so as the sintered magnets.

2.3.2HIGH AND LOW TEMPARATURE STABILITY

When magnets are used above 150 oC, care should be taken to select magnets that are more stable at high temperatures. The AlNiCo series magnets and for the rare earth samarium cobalt (SmCo) magnets are probably the most stable and best magnets at high temperatures. Most magnets are relatively stable at temperatures 0 oC and below. Table 2.1 below shows the stability of different types of magnets in high and low temperature.

Table 2.1: Stability of different types of magnet at high and low temperature

Magnet Type

Low Temperature

High Temperature

SmCo Magnets

Stable to 4 K

Stable to 250 oC

NdFeB Magnets

Stable to 15 K

Stable to 160 oC

AlNiCo Magnets

Stable to near 0 K

Stable to 550 oC

Ferrite Magnets

Stable to -10 oC

Stable to 250 oC

Note that absolute zero = 0 K = -273.15 oC. (Internet Reference, 01/03/2010e)

2.3.3MAGNETIC STRENGTH

Magnetic strength is often an important selection that determines the distance in which a sensor will open and close. If there are other magnetic fields or ferromagnetic materials in the area, they will have to be taken into consideration as well. By referring to Table 2.1 above, it clearly shows that AlNiCo series magnets are the most stable magnetic materials compared to the others.

Table 2.2: Magnetic strength of different types of magnet

Magnet Type

Magnetic Strength

SmCo Magnets

Below 20 oC magnetic strength will rise slightly

NdFeB Magnets

Below 20 oC magnetic strength will rise slightly

AlNiCo Magnets

Most stable of all magnetic materials

Ferrite Magnets

At -20 oC they suffer a permanent loss of magnetism

2.3.4MAGNET SIZE

The size of a magnet determines the operate points of a reed sensor. Potentially the greatest sensing distance is achieved when matching up size and strength of the magnet.

2.3.5STABILITY

Depending upon the application, stability can be an important parameter in a permanent magnet if the sensing distances for a given sensor need to be very accurate. Careful evaluation of the magnet specification needs to be considered.

2.3.6SHOCK

Strong shock can change the magnetic strength for a given magnet. If an application calls for an environment involving shock, care must be taken in selecting the correct magnet. Shock can become a factor in a Form B or latching relay where improper relay handling by a customer can cause enough shock to alter the operate points of the reed switch.

2.3.7CURIE TEMPARATURE

Curie temperature of a magnet is the temperature when the magnetic properties of a magnet are lost. The temperatures are usually quite high; however they can and are reached in several sensor applications.

Combining different elements and bringing them to the liquid state; then rapidly cooling them produce a large assortment of magnets, all of which will have a varied set of properties and Curie temperatures as shown in Table 2.3 below.

Table 2.3: Curie temperature of different types of magnets

Material

Curie Temp. (K)

Curie Temp. (oC)

Curie Temp. (F)

Co

1388

1115

2039

Fe

1043

770

1418

FeOFe2O3

858

858

1085

NiOFe2O3

858

585

1085

CuOFe2O3

728

455

851

MgOFe2O3

713

440

824

MnBi

630

357

674

Ni

627

354

669

MnSb

567

314

597

MnOFe2O3

573

300

571

Y3Fe5O12

560

287

548

CrO2

386

113

235

MnAs

318

45

113

Gd

292

19

18

Dy

88

-185

-301

EuO

69

-204

-335

Note that absolute zero = 0 K = -273.15 oC.

2.4GSM (GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION)

GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is an evolving set of protocols that control the operation of most mobile phones (Redl et al 1998). The GSM logo (shown in Figure 2.12) is used to identify compatible handsets and equipment. GSM is an open, digital cellular technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services. GSM supports voice calls and data transfer speeds of up to 9.6 kbit/s, together with the transmission of SMS (Short Message Service). (Internet Reference, 03/03/2010a) GSM utilizes 900MHz and 1.8GHz frequencies and time division multiple access (TDMA) technology to send and receive mobile data. GSM also converts system analog data into digital data. Texts and pictures can also be sent over GSM. (Chwan-Lu et al, 2006)

The GSM Association, its promoting industry trade organization of mobile phone carriers and manufacturers, estimates that 80% of the global mobile market uses the standard. GSM is used by over 3 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. Its ubiquity enables international roaming arrangements between mobile phone operators, providing subscribers the use of their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs from its predecessor technologies in that both signaling and speech channels are digital, and thus GSM is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. This also facilitates the wide-spread implementation of data communication applications into the system. (Internet Reference, 03/03/2010b)

GSM operates in the 900MHz and 1.8GHz bands in Europe and the 1.9GHz and 850MHz bands in the US. The 850MHz band is also used for GSM and 3G in Australia, Canada and many South American countries. By having harmonized spectrum across most of the globe, GSM's international roaming capability allows users to access the same services when travelling abroad as at home. This gives consumers seamless and same number connectivity in more than 218 countries. (Internet Reference, 03/03/2010a)

The ubiquity of implementation of the GSM standard has been an advantage to both consumers, who may benefit from the ability to roam and switch carriers without replacing phones, and also to network operators, who can choose equipment from many GSM equipment vendors. GSM also pioneered low-cost implementation of the short message service (SMS), also called text messaging, which has since been supported on other mobile phone standards as well. The standard includes a worldwide emergency telephone number feature (112). (Internet Reference, 03/03/2010b)

Terrestrial GSM networks now cover more than 80% of the world's population. GSM satellite roaming has also extended service access to areas where terrestrial coverage is not available. (Internet Reference, 03/03/2010a) Newer versions of the standard were backward-compatible with the original GSM system. For example, Release '97 of the standard added packet data capabilities by means of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Release '99 introduced higher speed data transmission using Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE). (Internet Reference, 03/03/2010b)

2.5SMS (SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE)

Short Message Service (SMS) is a communication service component of the GSM mobile communication system, using standardized communications protocols that allow the exchange of short text messages between mobile phone devices. SMS is the most widely used data application in the world, with 2.4 billion active users, or 74% of all mobile phone subscribers. The term SMS is used as a synonym for all types of short text messaging, as well as the user activity itself, in many parts of the world. (Internet Reference, 03/03/2010c)

SMS is an improved paging service using the GSM capability to send alphabetic/numeric data. GSM leverages the control channel to send out SMS data while allowing users to continue their voice conversations. If the user is talking, slow associated control channel (SACCH) will be used to achieve SMS sending. If the user is not talking, then the user can receive the SMS data using standalone dedicated control channel (SDCCH). (Chwan-Lu et al 2006) With both scenarios, the SMS is always using a low power transmission channel. (Peersman et al, 2000) Figure 2.17 below illustrates the SMS network architecture (Peersman et al, 2000).

When a handset sends out an SMS, the short message service center (SMSC) will relay this data to the SMS-gateway mobile switching center (SMS-GMSC). The SMS-GMSC will then access the home location register (HLR), search to locate the cellular phone address at the end point, and send route information to the mobile switching center (MSC). After receiving this data, the MSC will determine which SMSC to contact for this end point. If the caller is on roaming mode, SMS-interworking mobile switching center (SMS-IWMSC) will be the message's next stop.

Chwan-Lu et al (2006) have conducted an on-site SMS text length measurement to track access time and delay. If the SMS message is sent through the SDCCH channel for 60-byte SMS data, the average wait time is about 3.2 s for data to arrive at GSM-SMSC and then to the MSC. A faster 2.9 s can sometimes be achieved. (Collesei et al, 1994)

SMS as used on modern handsets was originally defined as part of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) series of standards in 1985 as a means of sending messages of up to 160 characters, to and from GSM mobile handsets. Since then, support for the service has expanded to include other mobile technologies such as ANSI (American National Standards Institute) CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) networks and Digital AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System), as well as satellite and landline networks. Most SMS messages are mobile-to-mobile text messages, though the standard supports other types of broadcast messaging as well. (Internet Reference, 03/03/2010c) Figure 2.18 below shows SMS received by a mobile phone and Figure 2.19 shows the common mobile keypad layout for typing a message.

2.6SIM (SUBSCRIBER IDENTITY MODULE) CARD

A subscriber identity module (SIM) on a removable SIM card securely stores the service-subscriber key (IMSI) used to identify a subscriber on mobile telephony devices (such as mobile phones and computers). The SIM card allows users to change phones by simply removing the SIM card from one mobile phone and inserting it into another mobile phone or broadband telephony device. (Internet Reference, 03/03/2010d) The SIM provides the user with the ability to access their subscribed services regardless of the location and the terminal used. The insertion of the SIM card in any GSM cellular phone allows the user to access a network, make and receive phone calls and use all the subscribed services. (Peersman et al, 2000)

A SIM card contains its unique serial number, internationally unique number of the mobile user (IMSI), security authentication and ciphering information, temporary information related to the local network, a list of the services the user has access to and two passwords (PIN for usual use and PUK for unlocking).

SIM cards are available in three standard sizes. The first is the size of a credit card (85.60mm × 53.98mm x 0.76mm). The newer, most popular miniature version has the same thickness, but a length of 25mm and a width of 15mm, and has one of its corners truncated (chamfered) to prevent mistake in insertion. The newest incarnation known as the 3FF or Micro SIM has dimensions of 15mm × 12mm. (Internet Reference, 03/03/2010d) Figure 2.20 below shows the Mini and Micro SIM card. Most cards of the two smaller sizes are supplied as a full-sized card with the smaller card held in place by a few plastic links; it can easily be broken off to be used in a device that uses the smaller SIM as shown in Figure 2.21 below. Figure 2.22 shows the front view while Figure 2.23 shows the rear view of a SIM card.

CHAPTER 3METHODOLOGY

This chapter explains the methodology which being used in this research. The methodologies are mainly divided into two parts, which are hardware configuration and software development. Reviews of the devices used in this research are presented in hardware configuration such as NI (National Instrument) USB-6008 which acts as data acquisition hardware, Siemens TC35 modem and proximity sensor which has been discussed earlier in Chapter 2, Section 2.1. For software development, NI (National Instrument) LabVIEW 8.6 and the development of algorithm will be reviewed either. Beside of those, conceptual design and testing on the software which have been done are also presented in this chapter.

3.1CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

A schematic diagram of the SMS-based door security alert system is shown in Figure 3.1. The laptop contains the software components such as the SMS-based door security alert system which has been developed using NI LabVIEW 8.6. The system is based on the GSM network technology for transmission of SMS.

The central GSM phone component is a dual frequency (900/1800 MHz) Siemens TC35 GSM modem with SIM card inserted. Its RF output is connected to a GSM antenna. The communication of the Siemens TC35 GSM modem with the security alert system takes place via RS232 serial port. Since there is no any RS232 serial port in the laptop, a USB to RS232 serial port convertor is used.

The proximity sensor which has been attached to the door prototype is connected to the laptop using NI USB-6008 which acts as a data acquisition hardware. When the door is opened which in this system means the detection of intrusion, the system will initiate the GSM modem to send SMS to the user.

Last but not least, a mobile phone containing SIM card with a specific number is needed so that SMS can be sent alerting the user against security risk.

3.2HARDWARE CONFIGURATION

The hardware configuration of the SMS-based door security alert system is shown in Figure 3.2 below. The components of the system are shown in the following sections.

3.2.1PROXIMITY SENSOR

As discussed in Chapter 2, Section 2.1, a proximity sensor is a device generally containing a reed switch that is assembled in a housing to protect the switch and provide easy mounting. Figure 3.3 below shows the proximity sensor which has been attached to the door prototype.

In this system, the proximity sensor will detect the movement of the door as when the door is opened, the system will initiate the GSM modem to send SMS to the user and thus, providing a security alert for theft and intrusion.

3.2.2SIEMEN TC35 GSM MODEM

GSM modem is a plug and play device and is attached to the computer which then communicates with the computer via RS232 port. GSM modem is a bridge responsible for enabling/disabling of SMS capability. (Malik Sikandar Hayat Khiyal et al 2009)

In this research, Siemens TC35 GSM modem is used (shown in Figure 3.4 below). The GSM modem communicates with the SMS-based door security alert system via RS232 serial port. A USB to RS232 serial port convertor is used in this system since the laptop used does not contain any RS232 serial port. The USB to RS232 serial port convertor is shown in Figure 3.5 below.

The TC35 GSM Engine (shown in Figure 3.6 below) is a major functional component of the Siemens TC35 GSM modem that handles all the processing for audio, signal and data within a GSM cellular device. Internal software runs the application interface and the whole GSM protocol stack. A UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter) forms the interface to the Terminal Circuit. (Internet Reference, 10/03/2010)

A GSM baseband processor contains all analog and digital functionality of a cellular radio. Designed to meet the increasing demands of the GSM/PCS (Personal Communication System) cellular subscriber market, it supports FR (Full rate), HR (Half rate) and EFR (Enhanced Full Rate) speech and channel coding without the need for external hardware.

The RF (Radio frequency) part of the GSM Engine TC35 is based on the Transceiver Chip SMARTi. The transceiver consists of a heterodyne receiver part, an up conversion modulation loop transmitter, a RF PLL (Phase Locked Loop) and a fully integrated IF (Intermediate Frequency) synthesizer.

3.2.3NI (NATIONAL INSTRUMENT) USB-6008

The NI USB-6008 (shown in Figure 3.7 below) provides connection to 8 analog input (AI) channels, 2 analog output (AO) channels, 12 digital input/output (DIO) channels, and a 32-bit counter with a full-speed USB interface. (Internet Reference, 10/03/2010b) The key functional components of NI USB-6008 are shown in the block diagram in Figure 3.8 below.

In this research, NI USB-6008 is used as a data acquisition hardware which connecting the proximity sensor to the SMS-based door security alert system. Since digital signal is produced by the proximity sensor, thus the sensor is connected to the digital input of NI USB-6008.

3.4SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT

NI LabVIEW 8.6 is the software which is used to develop the SMS-based door security alert system. The software will be reviewed in the section below. Before developing the security alert system, algorithm of the system is being developed and is also shown in the section below.

3.4.1NI (NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS) LABVIEW 8.6

LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench) is a platform and development environment for a visual programming language produced by National Instrument. LabVIEW offers unrivaled integration with thousands of hardware devices and provides hundreds of built-in libraries for advanced analysis and data visualization.

Although it is originally released for the Apple Macintosh in 1986, LabVIEW is now commonly used for data acquisition, instrument control and industrial automation on a variety of platforms such as Microsoft Windows, various flavors of UNIX, Linux and Mac OS. The programming language used in LabVIEW, named 'G', is a dataflow programming language. Execution is determined by the structure of a graphical block diagram on which the programmer connects different function-nodes by drawing wires. (Internet Reference, 10/03/2010b)

3.4.2DEVELOPMENT OF ALGORITHM

Before the SMS-based door security alert system is developed, the algorithm of the system has to be developed first so as to ease the process of developing the system. Based on the conceptual design which has been discussed in Chapter 3, Section 3.1, the algorithm of the system is developed as shown in the Figure 3.9 below.

Figure 3.9: Flow chart for SMS-based door security alert system algorithm

3.5TESTING

After the SMS-based door security alert system has been fully developed, testing needed to be done to check whether the software fulfill the system requirement. These testing will be described in the following section. They can verify the performance and the reliability of the software.

3.5.1ACCURACY TESTING

This test is conducted to verify the accuracy of the data sent when the proximity sensor is triggered. The accuracy of the system is very important to make sure that it responses to the sensor accurately.

The accuracy testing is done over 3 commercial telecommunication systems which are Hotlink, Digi and Celcom. The procedures of the accuracy testing are listed below:-

1. The door prototype is checked so that it is close.

2. The door prototype is then opened so as to trigger the proximity sensor.

3. After some time, mobile phone is checked whether SMS is received.

4. Step 1 to 3 is repeated for 5 times for each commercial telecommunication systems.

5. Data is tabulated and is shown in Chapter 4.

3.5.2TIME RESPONSE TESTING

This test is used to determine the time duration for the mobile phone to receive SMS after the proximity sensor is triggered. The test is very important as when the SMS-based door security alert system is used in real time, the time delay of SMS received will result in losing of valuable items.

The time response testing is done over 3 commercial telecommunication systems which are Hotlink, Digi and Celcom. A stop watch (shown in Figure 3.10 below) is used to record the time duration in this testing. The procedures of the time response testing are listed below:-

1. The door prototype is checked so that it is close.

2. The door prototype is then opened so as to trigger the proximity sensor.

3. Stop watch is started once the door prototype is opened.

4. After some time, mobile phone is checked whether SMS is received.

5. Stop watch is then stopped and the time duration for the mobile phone to receive the SMS is recorded.

6. Step 1 to 5 is repeated for 5 times for each commercial telecommunication systems.

7. Data is tabulated and is shown in Chapter 4.

3.5.3RELIABILITY TESTING

This test is used to determine the reliability of the SMS-based door security alert system. The test is very important as to determine whether the system is sufficient reliable. However, this testing is not done with a certain method but done by summarizing all the testing done before. The procedures of the robustness testing are listed below:-

1. All the results from the previous testing were summarized.

2. Discussions are made to determine whether the system is robust and is shown in Chapter 4.

CHAPTER 4RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter documents all the results obtained in this research. The developed system which is SMS-Based Door Security Alert System and the results of the testing that have been done for the system such as accuracy testing, time response testing and robustness testing are included in this chapter. Last but not least, all the discussion for the results of the testing are also included.

4.1SMS-BASED DOOR SECURITY ALERT SYSTEM

After some hard works that have been done for the past few months, SMS-Based Door Security Alert System has been successfully developed. The system has met all the requirements which stated in the conceptual design which is in Chapter 3, Section 3.1.

The system is used as a security alert system when someone sneaks into the user's house or office. When the proximity sensor which is attached to the door is triggered, a SMS will be sent to the user, alerting he/she that the door of his/her house or office has been open. Thus, actions such as calling the police or the security can be taken to avoid any losses.

SMS-Based Door Security System can be used not only at the door as mentioned in the system, window which acts as the alternative entrance for the theft can also be utilized the system. The system is developed using NI LabVIEW 8.6 and the front panel of the system is shown in Figure 4.1 below.

As shown in Figure 4.1, the mobile phone number of the SMS receiver which refers to the user is typed at the space below the "Phone Number". When the door is closed, the LED is in black color whereas when the door is opened, the LED turns green. Besides, when the door is opened, the details such as the date, time and status of the door is recorded in the table and thus giving the user an ideal of when the door is opened.

Last but not least, when the door is opened, SMS will be sent to the mobile phone number inserted in the system in within a few seconds. The SMS received is shown in Figure 4.2 below. The SMS contains the status of the door which is door open, the date and time the door is opened. When the user receives the SMS, actions to prevent losses can be done immediately.

Figure 4.2: SMS received after the door is opened

4.2TESTING

Several testing have been done on the SMS-Based Door Security Alert System which are accuracy testing, time response testing and robustness testing. The results of the testing which have been tabulated are shown in the sections below. Results for each of the testing are discussed.

4.2.1ACCURACY TESTING

The result of the accuracy testing for the SMS-Based Door Security Alert System is shown in Table 4.1 below. The testing is done over 3 commercial telecommunication systems which are Hotlink, Digi and Celcom.

Table 4.1: Result of the accuracy testing for the SMS-Based Door Security Alert System

Detection of door open

Transmission of SMS

Maxis

Digi

Celcom

1

Received

Received

Received

2

Received

Received

Received

3

Received

Received

Received

4

Received

Received

Received

5

Received

Received

Received

Percentage of accuracy

100%

100%

100%

From Table 4.1, the SMS-Based Door Security Alert System obtains 100% accuracy for the 3 different commercial telecommunication systems which are Hotlink, Digi and Celcom. A total of 15 detections of door open were done and thus a total of 15 SMS were sent for this accuracy testing to the 3 commercial telecommunication systems. The accuracy of the system is up to 15/15 = 100% and the total data loss rate is 0/15 = 0%. Data loss rate is defined as the lost SMS data that cannot be received after 24 h in terms of the total sent data count during the considered time period. (Chwan-Lu et al 2006)

In conclusion, from this accuracy testing, the SMS-Based Door Security Alert System can be utilized for security alert propose with the testing record of 100% accuracy rating.

4.2.2TIME RESPONSE TESTING

The result of the time response testing for the SMS-Based Door Security Alert System is shown in Table 4.2 below. The testing is done over 3 commercial telecommunication systems which are Hotlink, Digi and Celcom.

Table 4.2: Result of the time response testing for the SMS-Based Door Security Alert System

Detection of door open

Time duration for receiving SMS (s)

Maxis

Digi

Celcom

1

11.28

12.58

11.64

2

10.56

13.95

12.43

3

12.77

12.54

13.28

4

11.35

11.67

14.32

5

13.88

12.78

13.56

Average time duration

11.97

12.70

13.05

From Table 4.2, the time duration for receiving SMS for the 3 commercial telecommunication systems after the detection of door open ranges from 10s to 15s which is in an acceptable time range for the user to take actions to prevent further intrusion.

In conclusion, for a normal one-way SMS transmission, a reasonable value is 15s. The 15s delay is longer than that reported in Collesei et al (1994), which was about 2.9s to 3.2s. The delay time increased because the time response test was performed on the real commercial system and the actual transmission time will be affected by the GSM-SMS system operation status. (Chwan-Lu et al 2006)

4.2.3RELIABILITY TESTING

The result of the reliability testing for the SMS-Based Door Security Alert System which summarized all the testing done before is shown in Table 4.3 below.

Table 4.3: Result of the reliability testing for the SMS-Based Door Security Alert System

Types of testing

Maxis

Digi

Celcom

Accuracy testing

100% accuracy

100% accuracy

100% accuracy

Time response testing

Acceptable

Acceptable

Acceptable

Reliability of the system

Reliable

Reliable

Reliable

From Table 4.3, the SMS-Based Door Security Alert System obtains 100% accuracy in the accuracy testing and acceptable time range which is from 10s to 15 s in the time response testing. Thus, in conclusion, from all the testing that have been done, the SMS-Based Door Security Alert System is reliable to be utilized for security alert propose with the testing record of 100% accuracy rating and time response of 10s to 15s.

CHAPTER 5CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter concludes the research and some recommendations are suggested to further improve the performance of the SMS-Based Door Security Alert System developed.

5.1CONCLUSION

In this research project, a SMS-Based Door Security Alert System is developed by using NI Lab VIEW 8.6. First of all, the conceptual design of the system is drafted. The system is based on the GSM network technology for transmission of SMS. The proximity sensor which has been attached to the door prototype is used to initiate the GSM modem to send SMS to the user.

The concept is when the door is opened, the proximity sensor is triggered and thus giving a signal to the system to initiate the GSM modem for transmission of SMS. The door opened in this system means that there is an intrusion. The hardware configuration is done depending on the conceptual design so as the software development.

After the development, several testing have been done to study the performance and the reliability of the system. The SMS-Based Door Security Alert System obtains 100% accuracy in the accuracy testing and acceptable time range which is from 10s to 15 s in the time response testing. Thus, the system is reliable to be utilized in the real world to prevent theft and intrusion as nowadays, theft and intrusion increase dramatically and everybody wants to take proper measures to prevent the worst.

Comprehensively, the primary objectives of this research project are achieved with the development of the SMS-Based Door Security Alert System which is able to detect an intrusion and thus sends SMS to alert the user for further actions to be taken.

5.2RECOMMENDATIONS

In the view of the potential of this research, the following recommendations are highlighted:

1. Modifying the system so that it is able to control the appliances in the house or office.

2. Adding a CCTV (closed-circuit television) so that when the door is opened, the system is able to make a video call to the user so as to confirm whether it is an intrusion or the door is opened by the user's relatives.

3. As mention above, the system is able to make a video call, thus, the system has to be modified so that it is able to make a call since in this research, the system is just able to send SMS to the user.

4. Adding more users' mobile phone number so that when there is a data loss, the other users are able to be alert by the system.

5. Develop a way to handle power failure as this system is installed in a PC (personal computer) or a laptop.

CHAPTER 6REFERENCES

Chwan-Lu, T., Joe-Air, J., Ren-Guey, L., Fu-Ming, L., Cheng-Shiou, O., Yih-Shaing, C. & Chih-Hsiang, C. (2006). Feasibility Study on Application of GSM-SMS Technology to Field Data Acquisition. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 53. 45-59.

Collesei, S., Tria, P. & Morena, G. (1994). Short Message Service Based Applications In The GSM Network. In: Proceedings of Fifth IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, vol. 3. 939-943.

Malik Sikandar Hayat Khiyal, Aihab Khan & Erum Shehzadi (2009). SMS Based Wireless Home Appliance Control System (HACS) for Automating Appliances and Security. Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology. 6.

Peersman, C., Cvethovic, S., Griffiths, P. & Spear, H. (2000). The global system for mobile communication short message service. IEEE Personal Communication Magazine. 7. 15-23.

Redl, S. M., Weber, M. K. & Oliphant, M. W. (1998). GSM and Personal Communications Handbook. Artech House, Boston, MA.

Toshiyo Tamura, Tatsuo Togawa, Mitsuhiro Ogawa & Mikiko Yoda. (1998). Fully Automated Health Monitoring System in The Home. Medical Engineering & Physics. 20. 573-579.

Ung-Kyun, L., Joo-Heon, K., Hunhee, C. & Kyung-In, K. (2009). Development of A Mobile Safety Monitoring System for Construction Sites. Automation in Construction. 8. 258-264.

Internet References:

(URL-http://www.hermeticswitch.com), 01/03/2010a

(URL-http://reed-switch-info.com), 01/03/2010b

(URL-http://www.reed-sensor.com), 01/03/2010c

(URL-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reed_switch), 01/03/2010d

(URL- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature), 01/03/2010e

(URL-http://www.gsmworld.com), 03/03/2010a

(URL-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gsm), 03/03/2010b

(URL-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sms), 03/03/2010c

(URL-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sim_card), 03/03/2010d

(URL-http://www.siemens.com), 10/03/2010a

(URL-http://www.ni.com), 10/03/2010b

CHAPTER 7APPENDICES