The MDG and Education for All in Cambodia
In this world, there are many organizations that work in different ways to develop all frameworks among organization and spread those activities to all the countries as a whole in order to help those countries to become a strong and prosperous country. Moreover, in order to accomplish its objectives, UN has made up many organizations such as UNICEF, UNESCO, MDG, and so on which have its own specific role to help poor countries like Cambodia. Therefore, every organization plays a significant role in terms of eliminate poverty, providing education, helping poor people, and so on. Every organization which occur everywhere in the world usually have their own purpose to help the country that need for help especially developing countries like Cambodia to become a prosperous country since those organizations have different functions. Actually, for these organizations do not influence in a negative point much on Cambodia since Cambodia need them to help for improving the infrastructure, education system in order to help Cambodian citizens from being out foolish because he thinks that the number of people who live in urban area mostly uneducated people. Moreover, people there live in a poor condition that has not enough money to go to school. That’s why young people know how to earn money since they were in a child in order to support living standard. Sometimes, they dare to do something illegal to earn money without thinking carefully. Hence, all organizations are usually having their own perspective since these organizations need to improve.
United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) was established on December 11, 1946. He was created in the purpose to help children and women that faced up many problems in life. He works with 190 countries through country program to overcome the obstacles such as poverty, violence, diseases, and discrimination which are affected to children in daily life. He does work very active in global governance in terms of providing educational system, helping children from hurt, violence, and promoting information by using technology. Moreover, he also works with many people hardly in order to protect children from environmental problems because he does not want the children suffer from those problems. However, he believes that children are still threatened by those problems since he cannot guarantee children from being out those problems. Meanwhile, he also works very hard to find the strategies to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people because he wants to keep them from harm and enable to defend them. Nevertheless, not only children but also women, he also promote girls’ education because he wants to encourage girls have a very deep thinking, deep understanding, better citizens in society as well as a good mother for her own children. Notwithstanding, he also tries to promote girls education for ensuring that girls can complete primary education as a minimum in order to protect themselves from violence, foolish, and so no. Hence, he plays a vital role in Cambodia in terms of helping poor and uneducated people especially people living in urban or rural area. Beside this problem, UNICEF also provides gender equality in Cambodia in order to avoid discrimination in the society. Thus, all children have an equal opportunity to obtain an education and they can expect what they will get for their future life. They have a very strong commitment for their future life. More important than this, he gives us a lot of advantages. UNICEF working with many organizations in order to deal with some issues such as poverty, violence, disease, and discrimination in a child’s path that Cambodia is facing. He works very hard in order to overcome those problems. Furthermore, he works to defend the spread of HIV/AID among young people because he thinks that it is right to keep them from harm. According to my point of view, I can say that the activities that UNICEF act is very correctly for Cambodia because after Pol Pot regime (genocide), Cambodia remains many people who burden HIV/AID virus, orphaned, poverty, and uneducated people. Thus, the way that UNICEF performs provides a lot of advantages to Cambodia to eliminate those diseases and all issues that happened in Cambodia from the past until now. Nevertheless, UNICEF does not have ability to help Cambodia what he has met nowadays but he can help Cambodia to reduce those issues at least from 0% to 50%. Actually, UNICEF started his cooperation in Cambodia in 1952 as a part of its global and Asia-wide regional program to improve child health and well-being. UNICEF was helped Cambodia a lot like what I have mention above. He helps Cambodia in the purpose of pushing Cambodia to become a strong country that full of human resources that would be helped Cambodian citizens in the next future since the country can develop or not develop based upon on human resources.
UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization) was created on November 4, 1946. He was established in order to solve problems that related to health, poverty, and education that provide facilities throughout the world. In a nut shell, he is responsible for promoting peace, social justice, human rights, and international security through international cooperation on educational science and cultural programs. He has 193 member states and 7 associate member states work with; therefore, he trusts his will success in terms of dealing with those problems that he works hand in hand together. More important than this, he plays a vital role in United Nations in terms of reducing extreme poverty in developing countries, eliminating gender inequalities in primary and secondary education, promoting sustainable development and especially he wants to achieve the goal by 2015. As a result, he also has his own purpose for future that he will try to promote education as much as possible, social justice and global peace and cooperation. Moreover, he also shares with us in term of knowledge because he thinks that knowledge can make or lead people to have a very bright future because when people have knowledge, people can protect themselves from something happen badly around them. However, UNESOC also has another purpose that wanting to interpret to Cambodia is peace and security by promoting collaboration among the nations through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, for the rule of law, and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion. These are reasonable that Cambodia need because after woke up from war, Cambodia still not remain peace. Because of these problems, UNESCO concentrates much on education since this organization wants people to become knowledgeable person that society need in order to deviate from violence, poverty, and so on. Conversely, UNESCO provides disadvantages more than advantages. In case PREAH VIHEAR TEMPLE, according to the website of one of the famous Thai English Newspaper called THE NATION REPORT which announce on Thursday 21, May 2009, said that the UNESCO is unfair because the job of UNESCO is to ensure that this heritage is well conserved. Why UNESCO has to ask for permission from Thailand if they are just visit Cambodia? Is Thailand Cambodia’s parent? Actually, for this statement, it depicts very clear that UNESCO is unfair in terms of judging the world heritage.
MDG (Millennium Development Goal) was adopted by UN Millennium Summit in September 2000. He was established for ASEAN as a whole in order to make all the countries in ASEAN obtain the goal by 2015 successfully which is ASEAN Community. Furthermore, today he not only has the financial resources to end extreme poverty but also has technological knowledge to prevent this problem in order to avoid this problem happen again and again. Thus, MDG has put eight main strategies for ASEAN countries to follow in order to develop the country such as:
1/ Eliminate extreme hunger and poverty
2/ Achieve universal primary education
3/ Promote gender equality and empower women
4/ Reduce child mortality
5/ Improve maternal health
6/ Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
7/ Ensure environmental sustainability
8/ Develop a global partnership for development.
Thus, MDG is one part of organization which has function to help Cambodia since Cambodia remains a lot of poverty after war. In the real situation that MDG was practiced in Cambodia about how to eliminate poverty. Cambodia needs to establish a mechanism for periodic reviews of progress made towards improving policy coordination at all levels. Nevertheless, it’s quite difficult for Cambodia to do so because Cambodia is considered as a developing country which has no enough raw materials, financial, human resources and so on. Nonetheless, in order to achieve MDGs, not only Cambodia but also other countries need to develop appropriate roadmaps suitable to local needs and conditions. Since MDG has eight strategies to make countries to follow, first, eradicate extreme poverty and hunger which measures by using poverty gap ratio, share of poorest quintile in national consumption, prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age, and proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment to make sure that there is lower poverty or hunger occur in the country. Second, achieve universal primary education which will be ensure that by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling for ensuring that girl can obtain knowledge equally to men without discrimination. This is a very important point that Cambodia needs. Third, promote gender equality and empower women which is the purpose of eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 by sharing the women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector. Fourth, reduce child mortality is the target to reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate to make sure that there is a low of infant mortality rate. Fifth, improve maternal health by using the maternal mortality ratio, and using contraceptive prevalence rate. Sixth, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases in order to make sure that those disease will be reduced by 2015 which using the ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance o non-orphans aged 10-14 years. Seventh, ensure environmental sustainability in the target that integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources. Eighth, develop a global partnership for development in the arm of developing further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system and address the special needs of the least developed countries. Not only about these strategies MDG also play a major role in Cambodia in terms of helping Cambodia to reduce poverty in the country mainly. A few month ago, in Phnom Penh city (in front of BO TUM VATEY pagoda), many official government ran this program for promoting by gather together many people including high school students, workers, motor taxi, and so on came to talk in order to share some information which relate to poverty to make sure that these kinds of people understand well what is poverty and where does it come from. Conversely, it is quite hard to do so since our country lack of human resources.
Education was offered by the WATS (pagoda) in Cambodia that provided only male population to learn, in the past. Female were prohibited. That’s why Cambodia remains a lot of uneducated girls that had no activities or action which involve in social work after Pot Pot regime. Furthermore, during that period, the number of qualified people such as teachers, researchers, technicians, and doctors were died. More importantly, that regime led to abolish education, systematically destroying teaching materials, and so on. Schools and universities were closed. Not for long time, this regime was collapsed. The new government came up and had duty to reconstruct the education system since these infrastructures were heavily destroyed and also many educated people were killed. However, he was quite difficult to reconstruct the education system because our government did not have ability to install all the materials immediately since we just woke up from war. Actually, he can did it unless taking for long times. Importantly, education for all is very important for Cambodia. Education is the primary vehicle by which economically and socially marginalized adults and children can lift themselves out of poverty. Also, education has a vital role in empowering women, safeguarding children from exploitative the environment, and controlling population growth. Education is the great thing that Cambodia need since Cambodia needs human resources to develop country to become prosperous country. In order to become an educated people, learning is the most powerful tool because the more we know the better we get along in the world. If we do not have knowledge, we are very difficult to live in this world since this world is going to seek modern technology, Furthermore, we have knowledge, we are surely to get a better job with a high paid. Therefore, education for All, Cambodia is increasing a lot of schools from the lower degree to the higher degree at everywhere in the country to make sure that all people can have chance to gain knowledge in order to improve themselves to support living standard. Also, I think that it is not much influence to Cambodia because now many people are educated so they understand well before they decide to do anything. We can see that most of people are tending to go to school.
In conclusion, UNICEF plays a very important role in Cambodia in terms of providing education, helping children from violence, promoting on the uses of technology. Also, UNICEF works on five issues of children such as education, safety of children and growth, training of children in their early age, mistreatment and abuse guard the children from abuse, and HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, UNICEF works very hard to find the strategies to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people since he wants to maintain children from harm and enable them to protect others. In addition, UNICEF is working with many organizations in order to deal with some issues such as poverty, violence, diseases, and discrimination. He works much on developing country. Additionally, he is also having a perspective since he works very hard for helping poor countries. The policy framework covers all those who are deemed excluded, comprising disabled children, working children, street children, those with disabilities, those with learning difficulties, the very poor, those in geographically remote areas, those from linguistic, ethnic or cultural minorities, those with parents who have stigmatized jobs, those with HIV or whose parents have HIV, those displaced by conflict or natural disaster, but not achieving in school and those that drop out of school. Integrated schooling systems comprising of all denominations, are to be considered, to foster social cohesion and better understanding among communities. Whereas, UNESCO is also play a very essential way to help Cambodia. It helps Cambodia in the purpose of pushing Cambodia to become a good country that full of human resources that would be help Cambodia in the next future. Also, it might think that country can develop based upon on human resource. Moreover, UNESCO is also help poor countries to avoid those problems, but he concentrates much on education since this organization wants people all over the world have education to deviate from violence, poverty, and so on. However, UNESCO is still weak that cannot find the right thing to the victim since the victim need for help like Cambodia. This organization has his function similar to UNICEF. Hence, I can say that since this organization takes place in Cambodia, now there are many people understood much on education especially in rural area. Also, people who live in countryside let their daughters to go to school. Of course, now it shows us very precisely that there are many women students who are studying in university and also many women working in ministries and companies. Conversely, the MDG is also plays a major role in terms of helping poor states for dealing with some issues that those countries are facing. According to my point of view, I can conclude that the MDG is very hard to achieve the goal by 2015 since the condition of MDG for poor states are quite hard for them to follow. For the real example of Cambodia, Cambodia is very hard to obtain those criteria since Cambodia lack of raw materials, human resources, so on and so forth. However, I trust that by 2020, the MDG can gain these objectives since the poor states are going to modernization states. Finally, the Education for All, I believe that it will obtain its goal since it provides lots about education system to poor countries since the poor states lack of strategy to teach to students and no standard for Cambodia students as a whole.
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