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The indian national congress

INTRODUCTION

The Indian national congress is also known as the congress party and abbreviations INC. Indian national congerss is a major political party in India.INC founded in 1885 by allan octvian hume ,dadabhai naroji ,dinshaw bacha,womesh Chandra banerjee,surendranath banerjee,manmohan ghosh and William wedderburn. The Indian national congress became the leader of india independent movement ,with over 15 million member and over 70 million participation in its struggle against british rule in india after independence in 1947. National congress became the nations dominant political party, lead by the NEHERU-GANDHI family for most of the party, challenged for leadership only in more recent decades, the party is currently the chief member of the ruling united progressive alliance coalition. It is the only party to get more than 100 million votes in three general election.

The Indian national association was the first avowed nationalist organization founded in British India by surendranath banerjee and anand mohan bose in 1876. The objectives of this association were "promoting by every legitimate means the political, intellectual and material advancement of the people". The association attracted more educated Indians and civic leaders from all parts of the country and became an important forum for Indians aspirants for independence. It later merged with Indian national congress. Its origin from the zamindari sabha (association) founded by DWARIKANATH TAGORE and his cousin PRASANNO TAGORE In 1831. In 1857 the association support the east india company in the sepoy munity, calling the stem punishment for the rebels.

In 1866 pandit navin Chandra roy was appointed asa secretary of the association a post which he held for 4 years before he finally moved to Lahore in the course of his employment. Ramnath tagore was the president from 1867 to 1877 after a stormy meeting in 1870 a resolution moved by nationalist adi dharma faction of baboo hemendra nath tagore was approved to voice the concern of educated Indians to the british authorities on issue of discrimination, participation of Indian in the Indian civil sercice and political empowerment and representation of Indian. This result in a split, whereby freemason crown loyalist formed a breakway association called the Indian reform association under keshab Chandra sen to "unlift the common people but only give them political representation when they ready for it". 1871 a branch was established by the adi dharma faction in oudh by dakshinarajan mukherjee for demanding Indian elected representation in legislatures.

The reform association faction on july 26th 1876 established a bharat sabha with Bengali leaders like surendranath banerjee sastri , anand mohan bose etc. And held its first annual conference in culcutta, from 1880 till 1890 a bitter battle for control of the reform association ensued between the prosen and anti-sen factions.

History

Nationalist on salt march

The fag adopted in 1931 and used by the provision government of free India during the second world war.

From the foundation of national congress 28 dec 1885 till the time of independence of india 15 august 1947, the national congress was the largest and most prominent india public organization, which influence of the Indian independence movement.

ALLAN OCTAVIAN HUME

Allan Octavian hume is the of Indian national congress.

Founded upon the suggestion of british civil servant named allan Octavian hume. After the first war of Indian independence and the transfer of india from the east india company to the british empire, it was the goal of the raj to support and justify its governance of india with the aid of English-educated Indians, who would be familiar and friendly to british culture and political thining. On 12 oct 1885, hume and a group of educated Indians also published " an appeal from the people of india to the electors of great Britain and Ireland" to ask british voters in 1885 british general election to help support candidates sympathetic to Indian public opinion,which included opposition to the levying of taxes on india to finance the british Indian campaigns in afganistan and support for legislative reform in india.

On 28 december 1885,the Indian national congress was founded at gokuldas tejpal Sanskrit college in Bombay, with 72 delegates in attendance. hume assumed office as the general secretary, and womesh Chandra banerjee of Calcutta was elected president besides hume two additional british members(both Scottish civil servants) were members of the founding group, William wedderburn and justice(later,sir) john jardine. The other members were mostly hindus from the Bombay and madras presidencies.

FIRST SESSION OF INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS

The first session of Indian national congress was held on 28-31 december 1885 at Bombay. Lokmanya tilak was the first to embrace swaraj as the national goal. The first spurts of nationalist sentiment that rose amongst congress members were when the desire to be represented in the bodies of government, to have a say, a vote in the law making and issues of administration of India.

ANNIE BESANT

Annie besant was by far the most prominently involved European in the Indian struggle when british entered into the british Indian army into world war I, it provoked the first definitive, nationwide political debate of its kind in india. The divided congress re- united in the pivotal lucknow session in 1916, with bal gangadhar tilak and gopal Krishna gokhle adorning the stage together once again.

MOHANDAS KARAMCHAND GANDHI

Mohandas Gandhi gave rise to a whole new generation of nationalists, and a whole new form of revolution. In the year after the world war , the membership of the congress expanded considerably, owing to public excitement after gandhi's in champaran and kheda. A whole new ganaration of leaders arose from different part of india who were commited gandhians-sardar vallabhbhai patel , jawarharlal neheru, rajendra Prasad, chakravarti Rajagopalachari, narhari parikh, mahadev desai- as well as hot -blooded nationalist aroused by gandhi's active leadership- chittaranjan das , subhas Chandra bose,srinivasa lyengar.

Gandhi transformed the congress from an elitist party based in the cities, to an organization of the people.

JAWAHARLAL NEHERU SITTING NEXT TO MAHATMA GANDHI AT THE AICC GENERAL SESSION.

PARTITION OF INDIA

Within the congress, the partition of India was opposed by khan abdul gaffar , saifuddin kitchlew , Dr. Khan sahib and congressmen from the provinces that would inevitably become part of Pakistan. Maulana azad was opposed to partition in principle, but did not wish to impede the national leadership.

LEADERSHIP CHANGES

In 1947, the congress presidency passed upon jivatram gresskripalani, a veteran gandhian and ally of both Nehru and patel. Indian's duumvirate expressed neutrality and full support to the elected winner of the 1947,1948 and 1949 presidential races.

However, a tug of war began between Nehru and his socialist wing, and patel and congress traditionalists broke out in 1950's race. Nehru lobbied intensely to oppose the candidacy purushottam das tondon , whom he perceived as a hindu-muslim relations. Nehru openly backed kripalani to oppose tondon , but neglected courtesy to patel upon the question.

MEMBERS OF INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS

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