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Research and ideas on Conceptual literature

This chapter presents the review of related literature both of a conceptual and research that are related to the present study. Conceptual literature gives the ideas, principles and objectives on activities of daily living in relation to implication to their relationship and academic performance that provide on the actual implementation to the fourth year nursing students.

Local literature

According to Maraya de Jesus Chebat stress is here to stay. What people must do is to learn more about its nature, sources and alternatives so that people used the energy positively and work in the best possible way.

Orlandi stated, “Your ability to tolerate stressors depends on the number of stressors in your life”. People who can handle stress use their coping mechanism, which is powerful tool to use, to analyze events objectively and observe calmly. Gather information at the state of equilibrium, understanding of what to produce the tension that helps you feel that the stress is alleviated.

Miranda specified that the most effective way of managing stress

are through relation and exercise which ironically are extremely aesthetical acts which involved dynamics of the mind and body. People who are always stress survivors stay healthy throughout their lives. They consider stressful situation opportunist for growth.

According to Taras H., health-related factors such as hunger, physical and emotional abuse, and chronic illness can lead to poor school performance. Health-risk behaviors such as substance use, violence, and physical inactivity are consistently linked to academic failure and often affect students' school attendance, grades, test scores, and ability to pay attention in class.

In turn, academic success is an excellent indicator for the overall well-being of youth and a primary predictor and determinant of adult health outcomes. Leading national education organizations recognize the close relationship between health and education, as well as the need to embed health into the educational environment for all students.

There is a negative association between health-risk behaviors and academic achievement among high school students after controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade level. This means that students with higher grades are less likely to engage in health-risk behaviors than their classmates with lower grades, and students who do not engage in health-risk behaviors receive higher grades than their classmates who do engage in health-risk behaviors. These associations do not prove causation. Further research is needed to determine whether low grades lead to health-risk behaviors, health-risk behaviors lead to low grades, or some other factors lead to both of these problems.

Promoting academic achievement is one of the four fundamental outcomes of modern school health programs. Scientific reviews have documented that school health programs can have positive impacts on educational outcomes, as well as health-risk behaviors and health outcomes. Programs that are primarily designed to improve academic performance are increasingly being recognized as important public health interventions. Educational interventions, such as reduced class size, are associated with improved health outcomes, as well as improved educational outcomes.30

According to Andrew Frankel, MSc, BA, PGCMS, RNM, DipN , a hospital director in Churchill Gisburn Clinic, Lancashire, senior nurses also have a leadership role in facilitating their organization’s staff support and development program, which should aim to reduce stress, burnout, sickness and absenteeism among colleagues. Supervisors have a significant influence on employees’ personal and professional outcomes. Bakker et al (2000) reported that senior nurses can buffer the effects of a demanding work environment on staff nurses by thoughtfully maintaining a leadership style that supports staff needs.

The role of senior nurses is dynamic and multifaceted. Nurse leaders in practice settings have unique opportunities to influence and even create the environment in which professional nursing practice can flourish. Marriner-Tomey (1993) suggested that, in this highly influential role, nurse leaders have a major responsibility to change behaviour to provide an environment that supports the preparation of competent and expert practitioners. It is part of nurse leaders’ role to serve as a model in providing effective socialisation experiences that impart the appropriate values, beliefs, behaviours and skills to staff.

According to Richard Y,Love them or hate them, they are still your parents. When you are young, you love them to be around and to be pampered by them. When you become a teen, you want to be independent and free from their meddling. Here is a relationship advice for teens on how to manage your parents.

Parents will always be parents. Parents love their children although some may not expressed it openly and parents will always be protective of their children. Parents see the world as a place with lots of harmful elements that can cause harm to their children. Adults, biologically have a more developed sense for fear where else teens has a less developed sense for fear and tend to do things without giving much thought about adverse outcome from the action.

Understanding the fear that your parents have would be a good start on how to manage your parents in relationship advice for teens. The keyword to free your parents from such fear is “responsibility.” You need to demonstrate to your parents that you are a responsible person.

The first thing on responsibility is to discuss the important rules of the house as set by your parents. If the rules are not written, have one written. Discuss and negotiate on what and where the boundaries for the rules are. How well it is done will depend on your negotiation skills and how receptive your parents are.

Once the rules and boundaries have been set, responsibility means commitment to comply. Responsibility is not easy as there is sacrifice to be made just like your parents. They don’t have the luxury to go on holidays as and when they like as they need to save for your education. This is one example of being a responsible parents who have make a commitment that they need to save for their children education and having to sacrifice a certain amount of luxuries in order to make sure they can fulfill their commitment.

Once you can show this kind of responsibility, you will gain the trust of your parents and you will likely be given more slacks for your activities. We are not talking about manipulation when we talk about managing. Manipulation is for a negative outcome while managing is for a positive outcome. Manipulation has a hidden agenda while managing has a known objective. Relationship advice for teens on how to manage your parents has a known objective in that you have the freedom do what you like within the boundaries of the rules.

As parents, relationship advice for teens is a good start for you to take note of the changes and that your children are now teenagers and will require different ways of handling them.

According to Tudor-locke C, males expended 378.0+/-164.5 kcal and females 271.0+/-105.4 kcal. The measurement approaches employed agreed in expected ways, given the limitations of each. Together the approaches used indicated that the primary sources of PA for this population are chores and active commuting. In all, 40% of the sample walked to school, less than 1% rode a bicycle, 22% rode in/on motorized transport, and 37% used some combination of walking and motorized transport. Further, gender differences exist for type, frequency, and duration of physical activities performed by Filipino youth. Specifically, females report engaging in few leisure-time physical activities and more household chores. In total, 48% of Filipino youth report watching > or =2 h/day of television; relatively few youth (7%) report watching >4 h/day at this time. An 18% of males report no vigorous activities compared to 87% of females.

CONCLUSION: Clear gender differences in PA patterns and levels exist in Filipino adolescents. Nonsport/exercise type activities (eg chores and active commuting) currently provide a large proportion of daily activity for both males and females, however. It is anticipated that as modernization and technological advancement continue in this developing country, these primary sources of PA will decrease.

Foreign literature

According to Marjorie Sczekan of Department of Nursing in Atlantic Union College as a means of determining whether students actually perceived their academic program as stressful and, if so what actions they took as a result, a six item, self-rating survey was done at a small, liberal arts college. The survey instrument consisted of a two-page, self-administered questionnaire asking students to rank a series of factors according to the amount of stress they felt from these items. Following response to the stress-focused questions, subjects were then asked to rank order a list of activities which they would use to relieve their tension. The only instructions given to students participating in the project was that they should consider their over-all college experience when responding to the items. Twenty-one nursing students completed the survey. Because of the small sample size and the brevity of the survey instrument, no generalizations or conclusions can be drawn. However, trends were apparent even in this "mini"-pilot study. Students clearly rated the clinical practicum as most stressful of all academic factors. In the non-academic area, getting adequate rest and exercise and meeting financial obligations were rated highest. The highest ranked factor producing social/personal stress was finding adequate time to be alone. This item was rated by students as more stressful than other factors in both first and second level rankings. When asked to sequentially order the actions they would take to reduce pressure in the academic area, meeting with an instructor was marked fifth (relatively last) choice by the majority of the students. In responding to a question asking how helpful the campus religious activities/emphasis were in reducing pressures of being a student, one student said never, five said seldom, and seven said sometimes. Only six students reported that the spiritual emphasis was usually or always helpful.

The study reported here is obviously too small and imprecise to be taken at face value however, the responses indicate that students do not see faculty as first-level resource persons when they are having difficulty with their course work.(The survey was conducted during the closing weeks of the semester, rating of items might have been different if done early in an academic term). Finally, the fact that many students do not view that religious features of the college as helping them with the problems they are experiencing points out a need for careful attention by the faculty. These indications are especially significant for instructors in nursing. Arnold writes:

Since nursing practice is a relational, mutually interactive process in which the nurse and client are engaged as whole persons, the spiritual life and well-being of the nurse are pivotal considerations in helping assigned clients achieve optimal physical, spiritual, and psychological well-being and self-care capacity. Without a consideration of the spiritual nature of the nurse and its relational impact on the client, the subject of spirituality in nursing practice is one-sided and incomplete, (1989:321).

According to Admi H. , The purpose of this exploratory longitudinal study was to identify nursing students' perceptions of stress in their initial clinical experiences in a hospital setting. Guided by the relational view of stress, a Nursing Student's Stress Scale (NSSS) was developed to include six subscales: adequate knowledge, close supervision, averse sights, causing pain, insufficient resources, and reality conflict. The NSSS was administered three times during the clinical experience to 46 nursing students. Results showed significant differences between the students' preclinical expected stress levels and the actual levels of stress in the clinical setting. Theoretical, methodological, and practical implications of the findings are discussed. Nurse educators are encouraged to acknowledge students' perceptions of stressful situations as a basis for stress reduction intervention. Students must first cope with their own stress in the clinical reality before being expected to deal with patients' stress.

According to Nancy Haverford, There should never be a “tug and pull” in love and academics. Relationships ought to serve as an inspirational tool for one to excel in academics and therefore, eventually, succeed in life. A relationship must have the power to motivate a person or partner to persist, achieve, and succeed. Because only by doing so can relationships truly flourish.

Sometimes, we get too focused on getting the best grades; we forget our relationships with our loved ones. We unconsciously neglect them, forgetting that getting good grades should also be fun. On the other hand, some of us do not even care about what marks or grades we get in high school or college, because we think our interaction with others is what’s more important. If you truly want to succeed in life, you need to find a balance between your academics and social life.

If you want to be happy, you ought to be balanced in everything that you do and want; that’s why it’s important to know some strategies for a balanced relationship and academics; and therefore, achieve a happier and more fulfilled life. Read below the two tips that can help you have a balanced life:

Healthy communication - Yes, it’s challenging to balance the demands of school with the commitments of being in an intimate relationship. The secret is finding some quality time together such as planning a great menu or scheduling quality time. Make time for your partner and make him or her feel you’re really there. Share your lives with each other and talk about the most important things in your lives. This way, you will never drift away from each other, making the relationship stronger. Then you can freely focus on your academics.

Time organization – Organize your study time and quality time you spend your family, loved ones, and friends. Have an agenda and make sure you communicate your schedule to your partner after finishing your prioritized school work. These two always go together. School can be overwhelming most of the time and can put pressure on your daily life. Sometimes, it even ends up harming your relationship with a loved one. So, use your time wisely and accept that you have limited time to be together, and that you’ll just have to make the most out of it.

According to Annemien Haveman-Nies ,The relation between lifestyle and health status was investigated for the 3 modifiable factors—physical activity, smoking, and dietary quality—in a group of older survivors of a 10-year follow-up period. In our study, physical activity and nonsmoking were related to better functioning and overall health status compared with inactivity and smoking. In a subsample of participants with a good baseline health status, these healthy lifestyle behaviors delayed deterioration in health status. In some cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, physical activity and nonsmoking delayed the deterioration in health status or were related to a better health status compared with unhealthy behaviors. The relation between these 2 lifestyle factors and indicators of health status was more pronounced for men than for women. In women, only physical activity was related to a delay in onset of functional dependence. The low number of smokers, but also a different process by which women incorporate information into their self-ratings of health, seems to be responsible for this. The finding that self-rated health is less strongly related to mortality in women than in men affirms this and indicates that women are more likely to take subjective health aspects into account, whereas men are more likely to consider physical functioning.

According to Robert Wood Johnson ,In schools across the United States, physical education has been substantially reduced—and in some cases completely eliminated—in response to budget concerns and pressures to improve academic test scores. Yet the available evidence shows that children who are physically active and fit tend to perform better in the classroom, and that daily physical education does not adversely affect academic performance. Schools can provide outstanding learning environments while improving health through physical education.

Journal Studies

According to Leslee J. Scheuer, A positive relationship of physical activity and academic performance has been explored through several studies conducted in the USA by the California Department of Education; Dwyer, Sallis, Blizzard, Lazarus, & Dean (2001); Dwyer et al. (1983); Linder (1999); Linder (2002); Shephard (1997); Tremblay et al. (2000); and others. These studies support one another in suggesting that when a substantial amount of school time is dedicated to physical activity, academic performance meets and may even exceed that of students not receiving additional physical activity (Shephard, 1997).

Co-author, Debby Mitchell became interested in the link between physical activity and cognitive ability after attending two summer workshops with Phyllis Weikart, Professor Emeritus at the University of Michigan. Weikart's concern was that children are having less opportunities to be physically active and develop basic motor skills that will enhance children acadmically.

Due to Weikart's influence, Mitchell performed a research study, "The relationship between rhythmic competency and academic performance in first grade children" (1994). The findings supported a link between academic achievement and the motor skills of maintaining a steady beat. Also motivated by Phyllis Weikart are Kuhlman & Schweinhart, who report in their discussions that children's timing has been found to be positively related to children's overall school achievement, as well as mathematics and reading achievement (1999).

According to Shephard ,Youth receiving additional physical activity tend to show improved attributes such as increased brain function and nourishment, higher energy/concentration levels, changes in body build affecting self esteem, increased self-esteem and better behavior which may all support cognitive learning .

Improved brain attributes associated with regular physical activity consist of increased cerebral blood flow, changes in hormone levels, enhanced nutrient intake, and greater arousal (Shephard, 1997). Cocke (2002) states "a trio of studies presented at the 2001 Society for Neuroscience Conference suggest that regular exercise can improve cognitive function and increase levels of substances in the brain responsible for maintaining the health of neurons." Brain function may also indirectly benefit from physical activity due to increased energy generation as well as from time outside of the classroom/away from studying; The increased energy levels and time outside of the classroom may give relief from boredom resulting in higher attention levels during classroom instruction (Linder 1999).

According to Hsieh, Peggy , Given that student retention is now one of the leading challenges faced by colleges and universities, research seeking to understand students' reasons for attrition is of critical importance. Two factors influence students' underachievement and subsequent dropping-out of college: self-efficacy and goal orientation. Self-efficacy refers to peoples' judgments about their abilities to complete a task. Goal orientations refer to the motives that students have for completing tasks, which may include developing and improving ability (mastery goals), demonstrating ability (performance-approach goals), and hiding lack of ability (performance-avoidance goals). This study examined differences among goal orientations and self-efficacy using two distinct student groups: college students in good academic standing (GPA of 2.0 or higher) and college students on academic probation (GPA of less than 2.0). Results indicated that self-efficacy and mastery goals were positively related to academic standing whereas performance-avoidance goals were negatively related to academic standing. Students in good academic standing reported having higher self-efficacy and adopted significantly more mastery goals toward learning than students on academic probation. Among students who reported having high self-efficacy, those on academic probation reported adopting significantly more performance-avoidance goals than those in good academic standing. These findings suggest that teachers should identify those students with not only low self-efficacy, but those also adopting performance-avoidance goals. Teachers and administrators may be able to provide guidance to students who have beliefs and goals that contain maladaptive patterns of learning that sabotage their ability to succeed in school.

According chau-kiu cheung, the activities of studying and using learning strategies, which reflect self-regulated learning, promote academic achievement. In contrast, a student's participation in other activities may not produce positive effects. In the present study, structural equation modeling was used to test these hypotheses in a sample of 593 full-time, 1st-year undergraduates in Hong Kong. The results indicated that studying and using elaborative learning strategy were positively related to the student's self-assessed learning. Studying was also related positively to the expected grade point average. These results provide some support for self-regulated learning theory. Relationships between other activities and self-assessed learning were negative and non significant; relationships between other activities and expected GPA were mixed.

STUDENTS ARE HIGHLY RESPONSIBLE for their own academic gain in college ( Davis & Murrell, 1993). A student's activities can create environments conducive to or detrimental to learning. Previous studies, however, have reported mixed effects of the student's activities on his or her achievement or grades. Rabow, Radcliffe-Vasile, Newcomb, and Hernandez ( 1992) found that on-cam- pus extracurricular activity was negatively related to the student's grade point average (GPA); yet Camp ( 1990) reported no significant relationship between activities and a composite measure of achievement in college.

According to peter kooreman ,University of Groningen; institute for the study of labor (IZA) In the first part of the paper I analyze a data set on teenage behavior. The data is a sample of college students in the Netherlands, and contains information on teenage time use, income, expenditures, and subjective measures of well-being and self-esteem. As all students in a sampled class are interviewed in principle, the data set has rich information on the behavior of potentially important peers of each respondent. I estimate models to assess the magnitude of endogenous social interactions. For some types of behavior (e.g. truancy, smoking, pocket money, alcohol expenditures) endogenous social interactions within school classes are strong , for other behavior they are moderate or unimportant. Within-gender interactions are generally stronger than interactions between boys and girls, with some intriguing exceptions. In the second part of the paper I discuss a number of theories that might help to understand the empirical patterns. Key concepts in the discussion are interdependent preferences, endogenous social norms, identity, and intergenerational interaction.

According to Reyna L. Amba ,The study investigated the school activities that motivate students to learn among the third and fourth year students of the Bukidnon State College-Secondary School Laboratory during the S.Y. 2005-2006. It examined the important goals that motivate the students to learn and also their level of motivation to learn. The research questions addressed in the study are: (1) What are the school activities that motivate students to learn when categorized as classroom and non-classroom activities? (2)What kind of goals is salient in motivating the students to engage in the school activities when classified according to success, curiosity, originality and relationship? (3)What is the level of students’ motivation to learn as viewed by the students and teachers? The data were gathered through checklist and questionnaires, focus group interview and classroom observations. The findings of the study reveal that debate was the classroom learning activity that motivated majority of the students while field trip, recollection and mass/service for non-classroom activity. Success was the salient goal that motivated students to learn. Students were highly motivated in both classroom and non-classroom learning activities.

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