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Plagiarism And Unfair Practices For International Students Education Essay

Plagiarism has been a problem for international students due to “assuming” the fact that not every international student is aware of or has the knowledge of this act (plagiarism) is seen and has been recognised as a crime globally. The rate at which plagiarism is been practiced is very alarming and has given the education sectors and the society at large great concern. This act has made the society wonder and as ask the question “is it fair or legal for another person to reap from the sweat of what another person has worked for?” and has also made the educational sectors ask the question “do students really gain knowledge from the act of plagiarism?” The fact is that no one will allow any other person to reap from the fruit of his or her labor. In all this we don’t ask the question “Does the society at large i.e. the world at large, have knowledge of what plagiarism is and the consequences for this act?”And also “Does the educational sectors globally impact the knowledge and consequences of plagiarism to students right from their elementary school day?” Plagiarism is seen as a crime all over the world and is been handled seriously. The unfair practice of plagiarism is a widely exhibited activity of students and professionals and it’s done intentionally or non-intentionally. There has been a lot of dispute on what plagiarism really is by different educational sectors and the world at large.

I will be looking at what unfair practice and plagiarism really is and ways to avoid it.

What is an Unfair Practice?

The University of Wales- Prifysgol Cymru defines unfair practices as “an offence whereby a student gains for him/herself an unpermitted advantage in an assessment or examination”.

Prifysgol Aberystwyth University defined an Unfair Practice as “to commit any act whereby a person may obtain, for himself/herself or for another, an unpermitted advantage.”

Cardiff University defined an unfair practice as “any act whereby a person might obtain for him/herself or for another, an unpermitted advantage or a higher mark or grade than his/her abilities would otherwise secure”.

An Unfair practice therefore which can also be called a “dishonest act or exercise” can be defined as when someone tries to take advantage or take credit for another person’s hard work “mostly frequently on purpose”

There are various ways to which both students commit unfair practice which includes:

Plagiarism

Collusion

Conning or making up a prejudice result

Unauthorized possession of prohibited items in an examination hall or centre.

Copying or conversing with a fellow student in an examination hall without authorization from the examination officers or supervisor.

Impersonating oneself or someone else in an examination hall or centre.

What is Plagiarism?

Random House Compact Unabridged Dictionary 1995 defined plagiarism as the "use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work."

The Oxford English Dictionary defines Plagiarism as “to take and use as one's own the thoughts, writings, or inventions of another” (Oxford English Dictionary 1987).

The University of Oxford defines plagiarism as “the copying or paraphrasing of other people’s work or ideas into your own work without full acknowledgement both published and unpublished material, whether in manuscript, printed or electronic form”. (http://www.admin.ox.ac.uk/epsc/plagiarism/)

Ronald B. Standler 2000 (Plagiarism in Colleges in USA) defined plagiarism as “In minor cases, it can be the quotation of a sentence or two, without quotation marks and without a citation (e.g., footnote) to the true author. In the most serious cases, a significant fraction of the entire work was written by someone else: the plagiarist removed the true author(s) names(s) and substituted the plagiarist's name, perhaps did some re-formatting of the text, then submits the work for credit”

Out of all this various definition of plagiarism we can now define plagiarism as “the use of research works, definitions, articles, scripts, journals, textbooks, projects etc. of another persons with little or no modification without proper reference to the original author or without proper quotation indicating it as an already existing definition or comment of someone else and concluding or submitting it as a genuine work (either intentionally or non- intentionally)”

Plagiarism can be done either be intentional or non-intentional.

Intentional Plagiarism: This is when a writer has the knowledge of what plagiarism really means but still goes ahead and commits the act with the main purpose of trying to deceive every one that his or her work is original.

Non- intentional Plagiarism: This is when the writer does not have an idea of what it means to plagiarise or how to use other peoples idea or writings without falling victim of the act.

FORMS OF PLAGIARISM

There are different concepts on the various forms of plagiarism but I will be writing on four forms of plagiarism which includes:

Direct copy: This is a form of plagiarism some people will prefer to call copy and paste. This type of plagiarism act is often committed by some international student some probably without the knowledge of this act as a crime. This form of plagiarism is when a person picks a sentence or a paragraph from a research work or from a journal and puts it on his or her work without acknowledging the author correctly or putting the copied sentence or paragraph in a quote.

Analogy: This is a way of compare something or someone in a way that gives more meaning or understanding about a sentence or actions. It’s a way of elucidating. Analogy helps in understanding difficult ideas. This type of plagiarism occurs when someone quotes an analogy from another source for his or her journal or research in order to illustrate his or her idea without acknowledging the author.

Word/sentence reciprocation: This form of plagiarism can also be referred to as word interchange or word switch. This form of plagiarism occurs when an individual/person takes a sentence or a paragraph from an already researched work or journal and edit it i.e. chip in / add some words and remove some words in order to make it to look genuine.

Concept: This form of plagiarism is also or can also be referred to as idea plagiarism. This form of plagiarism occurs when someone takes or states an already researched solution to a problem or advice on a research problem without acknowledging the original owner of the concept.

Examples of plagiarized statements and un-plagiarized statements:

Example 1

Modern communication technology is driving workers in the corporate world to distraction. They feel buried under the large number of messages they receive daily. In addition to telephone calls, office workers receive dozens of emails and voice mail messages daily. In one company, in fact, managers receive an average of 100 messages a day. Because they do not have enough time to respond to these messages during office hours, it is common for them to do so in the evenings or at weekends at home. 

Source: University of Portsmouth, 2008, Academic Writing Skills, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth – p.18) 

A paraphrased statement will be as thus:

Coping with communication technology has been a big task for the working class globally. Loads of e- mails, voice messages etc. are been left unattended to day after day and this is due to loads of responsibilities they face daily, and they have no other way of attending to them order than during the weekends or late at night in their homes”.

Sourced: University of Portsmouth, 2008, Academic Writing Skills, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth-p.18

Example 2

Mobile phones undoubtedly make it easier for people to work wherever they choose. (An American advertisement features a man with a golf bag talking on his mobile phone, telling his boss that he is working from home.) They are a great help for people on the move, and they make it easier for people to get in touch with each other whenever they need to. They are quintessentially personal devices. Japanese teenagers used to have to phone each other at home, with the attendant risk that the phone would be answered by a grown-up; now they can chat to each other at all hours without being intercepted.

Source: The Economist, 1999 in Slaght, J. 2004, English for Academic Study: Writing Source Book, Garnet Education, Reading – p. 14)

A paraphrased statement will be as thus:

Work has been made flexible with the use of mobile phones. Communication with other people at own convenience has been made easier and faster for everyone. Teenager has always had the problem of communicating with friends only when they are at home through the use of wired phones (land lines) but modern technology has change all that and communication can be done anywhere and at anytime.

Source: The Economist, 1999 in Slaght, J. 2004, English for Academic Study: Writing Source Book, Garnet Education, Reading – p. 14)

CAUSES OF PLAGIARISM

There are different reasons why students plagiarize and I will be talking on few of them

Context dilemma: Some students find hard to understand what the question, project or assignment is all about. It could be due to lack of sound knowledge or such students need extra hand to expanciate or explain more in broader terms what the question is all about. When students have such problems they find it even more difficult to come up with genuine ideas for an answer thereby leading or leaving them with the choice of copying other already researched ideas.

Negligence: This could occur due to lack of inspiration to work hard and generate ideas on the research question or such student natural is been lazy to work thereby giving an open gap to copy other peoples research and assignments.

Dialect Problems: This relates more to international students. Not every international student comes from an English speaking country and thereby find it very hard to get along with, cope with the or express their ideas or even write it down in their own personal words and thereby leave them with the choice of copying from other sources and leaving out their ideas and depending on others.

Ignorance: In this case most international students are not aware of the term called plagiarism or know what it is all about. Most of them have not had a sound teaching or lecture to caution them on the consequences of committing such crime and they are not aware it’s been recognised as crime and find it hard to cope with writing up genuine ideas.

Desire for a Better Product: The fact that international students will want to have high credit or be graded high in their researches and assignments leads them to copying other past researched works and they believe copying other past research works makes their work perfect.

Uncertainty: Some international students are not confident of themselves, their ideas, works or research. They believe they don’t have the right words to make a point so thereby they believe copying another person’s work or research will make them more confident that they have the right answers or have written the right comments on the question asked.

Assignment’s demand: sometimes students have a lot of work load of different assignments from different lecturers and researches and don’t have enough time to work on every one of them.

Discouraging Exercise: This can be because of the research or the assignment is or has nothing to motivate the students to put interest i.e. the assignment or research is boring for them to have interest in innovating or coming up with genuine ideas.

Insufficient data: Sometimes students may not be able to find the information they need to work on the research and thereby look for an already research information or research and copy from it.

HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM

To avoid plagiarism and unfair practices there are things that should be taking seriously into consideration a few of these things includes:

Always ensure that you write down Bibliographic details of every note or from any source to which you are getting details or jotting notes from.

Always use quotation marks when making a quote of someone else’s researched comment so they stand out from the rest of the text and in such act thereby indicating them as not your own words.

When paraphrasing any sentence ensure you indicate/acknowledge the source of the idea.

When jotting note, always ensure you write down and separate your own ideas

Ensure you always use words of your own in sentences and paragraphs.

Know how to reference works properly.

Ensure that your work, assignment or research is not been copied or given to another student to get information i.e. never give it to another student to copy from.

Read the examination instructions rules and avoid taking in any prohibited items into the exam hall or centre.

Never leave your assignment or researches until the last minute in order to avoid rush.

CONCLUSION

Plagiarism is an offence and many international students still fall victim of this offence. Many of these students are not aware of this offence and it is the duties of educational institution to teach them and help them in avoiding this offence in their day to day learning. It helps one to build up self confidence in his or her work and helps to be innovative and creative.

REFERENCES

Robyn Broyles and T rent Lorcher, What Every Student Should Know About Plagiarism June 2009

Mr David McParlin, Mr David McParlin, Academic Regulation on Unfair Practice, 2010

Dr Hugh s Pyper, Avoiding plagiarism, Advice for students, Glyndŵr University 2000

Nadya Yakovchuk, PLAGIARISM AND INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS: AN INVESTIGATION IN THE BRITISH HIGHER EDUCATION CONTEXT, University of Warwick

Cecilia Barnbaum, Ph.D. Plagiarism: A Student's Guide to Recognizing It and Avoiding It, May 2002

Consider the following essay question; discuss the positive and negative effects of globalisation on China.

Use Google or any other appropriate search engine to find two articles. Then complete the tables.

Article 1

Topic

Effects of globablisation on China.

Title of article

Globalization and China’s

Economic and Financial Development

Date (current?)

September 2005

Name of author or organization

Gregory C. Chow

Author’s credentials:

Qualifications, title, employer/affiliations

Professor of Economics Princeton University

Contents (brief summary)

It has been shown, that, contrary to the beliefs of the critics, globalization indeed promotes growth and development. The country with the biggest positive change in globalization from 1975 to 2000 has always been China. Countries that globalized more experiences higher growth rates. The accusation that poverty prevails because of globalization is therefore not valid.

Is the article reliable?

YES

Why?

Globalization has various aspects which affect the world in several different ways and after my research it is clear that china has had more positive effect than negative in every aspect of its economy.

Article 2

Topic

Effects of globalization on China.

Title of article

What does Globalization bring to China

Date (current?)

9th June 2009

Name of author or organization

Prof. Dr. Xuewu Gu

Author’s credentials:

Qualifications, title, employer/affiliations

Director of the Institute of East Asian Politics of Bochum University in Germany,

professor of the Shanghai Council for European Studies,

A Non-Residential Senior Research Fellow of the Center for European Integration Studies of the University of Bonn.

Contents (brief summary)

Globalization has various aspects which affect the world in several different ways. Globalization offers China opportunities as well as challenges. How should it strive to profit from the advantages and avoid the harm brought about by the disadvantages is what should be concentrated on.

Is the article reliable?

Yes

Why?

Out of my finding and researches there are clear evidence of what Globalization has brought into the investment space of China and thus boosted China's economic growth. Globalization, to a large extent has ensured that China's economy developed in a balanced way by keeping pace with the world economy.

HUAWEI

INTRODUCTION

Huawei is a private owned telecommunication company and has been a leading solution provider since 1988 and for over 100 countries. Huawei attained its first progress into the global market in 1993 and has made great impact in the telecommunication market globally.

Huawei offers services of improving data communication, core network, network transmission, value added services etc with low operating cost with high customer priority in mind. The mission statement for Huawei is “To focus on our customers' market challenges and needs by providing excellent communications network solutions and services in order to consistently create maximum value for customers”, “Huawei' s vision is to enrich people's lives through communication”. Huawei 2010

China's largest telecoms gear maker, jumped 46 percent to 23.3 billion USD. Huawei also forecast sales of more than 30 billion USD in 2009. Huawei Technologies was included in the World's Most Respected 200 Companies list compiled by Forbes magazine in May 2007 one of the six from the telecom industry. In 2008, Business Week magazine included Huawei in their inaugural list of 'The World's Most Influential Companies. In 2009 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) ranked Huawei as the largest applicant under WIPO's Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and China improved its ranking by one place, to become the sixth largest user of the PCT, with 6,089 filings. In 2010 Fast Company ranked Huawei the fifth most innovative company in the world.

RECENTLY MARKETED PRODUCT

Huawei currently started marketing their new products “Huawei CX600 Metro Services Platform V600R001” which was made available December 2009. 

Huawei CX600 Metro Services Platform (MSP) is a Metro Ethernet product base on the routing platform. It focuses on Ethernet services access, aggregation and transmission in metro area. It mainly locates at metro access and aggregation point.

STRATEGIES USED IN MARKETING THIS PRODUCT:

The marketing strategy is simple;

They avoid the high-costs of buying shelf space at the major retailers and allow them to come to us or go around them.

Their goal is to sell massive amounts of products, but without the insane up-front capital costs to develop instant brand recognition in the consumer market.

They run hard and run to win, and watch the cash flow.

The focus of Huawei service is on companies in the utility industry. This market is particularly attractive due to the large number of firms and the fact that the industry generates bills for essential services to over 100 million households on a recurring basis.

Huawei tries to provide significant costs savings and the ability to enhance its interaction and relationship with its customers.

Customer Focus Strategy

Serving their customers is the only reason Huawei exists; Customer demand is the fundamental driving force of their development.

High quality, excellent service, low operating costs, and giving top priority to meeting customer requirements to enhance their competitiveness and profitability.

Continuously performing management transformation to realize efficient process-based organization operation for ensuring high quality end-to-end delivery.

Developing with our peers in the industry as both competitors and partners to jointly create a favourable environment and share the benefits of the value chain.

Being that it is a multinational company that provides services to top companies, they maintain the standard of improving their product.

Conclusion

Huawei based in China has become a well known for its tremendous impact in the technological world. Been able to utilize and maximize resources where labour is cheap and technological knowledge is much, they constantly increase their quality and demand are going higher for this company. Huawei is now a world class telecommunication supplier with its continuous production and improvement of its products and services and its loyalty to its customers.

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