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Ministry Of Education Of Government Of Pakistan Education Essay

Education in Pakistan is overseen by Ministry of Education of Government of Pakistan. The academic institutions are the responsibility of the provincial governments whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and some financing of research.

The education in Pakistan is generally divided into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC); intermediate(grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary (School) Certificate or HSC); and university programs leading to graduate and advanced degrees.

The literacy rate ranges from 87% in Islamabad to 20% in the Kohlu District. Between 2000—2004, Pakistanis in the age group 55–64 had a literacy rate of almost 30%, those aged between 45–54 had a literacy rate of nearly 40%, those between 25–34 had a literacy rate of 50%, and those aged 15–24 had a literacy rate of more than 60%.These data indicate that, with every passing generation, the literacy rate in Pakistan has risen by around 10%. Literacy rates vary regionally, particularly by sex. In tribal areas female literacy is 7.5%.Moreover, English is fast spreading in Pakistan, with 18 million Pakistanis (11% of the population) having a command over the English language, which makes it the 9th Largest English Speaking Nation in the world and the 3rd largest in Asia. On top of that, Pakistan produces about 445,000 university graduates and 10,000 computer science graduates per year.

Introduction cited from:

Significance of the study:

This study is an important step in identifying the rural and urban levels of education in our country. The study is very important for students like us, who do not have a clear idea regarding this difference and the reasons behind this rural urban differential. This study will also widen the scope of a normal person who is unaware of two different phases of lives people are spending in their own country. The normal person thinks positively about the government educational reforms they see on media, but the real picture will be extracted in this study.

Purpose of Study:

The study is conducted to get a better idea about the education system in Pakistan. The major purpose to conduct this research is to differentiate the education sector on the dimensions of rural and urban sectors of Pakistan. For the research different papers have been consulted to get idea about the present education system in both urban and rural sectors of Pakistan. Many variables are extracted from the research papers to get a better idea about the topic. The variables give a clear picture of the present rural and urban education system in Pakistan.

Literature Review:

Public-private partnership; Implications for Primary schooling in Pakistan

Iffat Farah and Sadaf Rizvi

The article is taken from J-stor. The paper is taken from the social policy and administration issued in August 2007.

The basic aim of the article is to describe and discuss the policy and practice of partnership in Pakistan with a focus on the identity and the status of the partnership and the nature and outcomes of partnership arrangements. The article shows that schools established under partnership arrangements have increased access to primary education, particularly for girls, in rural contexts. In addition, partnerships are frequently conceived of as a strategy for progressively shifting the entire cost of education over the parents and communities, and for a transition to privatization .Such transitory partnerships are an in appropriate and unlikely strategy for poverty reduction or for improving the educational status of poor communities and disadvantaged groups. The article results in the fact that the involvement of more than one actor in establishing schools increases the potential to bring together resources available within the government, the local community and larger civil society. The public-private policy needs to be applied very carefully in the Pakistani context, where there is such large variation s in the local capacity. Genuine partnerships would require a change in power structure and in the relationships between government and community.

Variable in the paper:

Partnership of private and public sector for more efficiency.

Poverty rate.

Wide gender differences in rural Pakistan.

Lack of schools.

Teacher absenteeism.

Cost of schooling.

Poor quality of school.

Low child safety on the way to school.

Traditional cultural barriers.

Growing population.

Regional disparities.

International aid for education.

NGO's in Pakistan.

In this paper the private and public partnership for the development of education sector in Pakistan is discussed. The variables mentioned in this article are stated above. The partnership is usually done to achieve more efficiency in the education and to increase the quality of education. Poverty rate in Pakistan negatively affects the education sector. More the poverty rate less will be the education. This trend is majorly seen in the rural areas of Pakistan. Lack of schools, teacher absenteeism, cost of schooling, poor quality of school, low child safety, and traditional barriers are also variables that affect rural education. Growing population is an affect that is limiting the available schools with their resources. Regional disparities are prevalent of the country which also led to a poor education sector in the country. International aid from institutions like IMF and World Bank has positively affected the education sector, with the establishment of more education institutions. NGO’s in Pakistan are also taking positive steps for educating the children of Pakistan.

Pakistan: The State of Education

Salim Mansur Khalid, M. Fayyaz Khan

The paper has been taken from J-stor. The authors of the paper Salim Mansur Khalid belongs to the Government College Township, Lahore, Pakistan and M. Fayyaz Khan who belong to the Institute of Policy Studies Islamabad, Pakistan.

Comprehensive education ensures the development of the individual’s character and national values, as well as their continuity. Today, even developed countries are worried with respect to the situation of education. In addition to their students poor performance in the subject of science and mathematics, they are facing a situation of ever increasing rates of crime, waywardness, and the widespread neglect of moral values among their youth. This article throws light on many aspects of Pakistanis educational scenario and the challenges that country faced against the historical background of the system of education that is currently in place. From the time of Muhammad bin Qasim (695-717) to the Mogul Emperor Humanyun (1540-1556), educational institutions were completely free in their internal affairs and administration. Teachers were free to teach. Employing whatever methods they deemed fit and use whatever syllabus they considered appropriate. Both the state and public had so much trust in these institutions that they used to donate larger tracts of land as endowments to them.

Variables in the article:

Gender inequality.

Required teachers.

Education relevance to society.

Education quality.

Good education environment.

In this paper the state of education in Pakistan has been described linking the events from the time of the Mughals. The variables of this article describe the fact that proper teachers, education relevance to society, good education quality and good education environment can attract parents as well children towards schools and colleges and will enhance the literacy rate of Pakistan in both rural and urban sectors.

Education and Stratification in developing countries: A review of theories and research

Claudia Buchmann and Emily Hannum

The paper is cited from J-stor. The paper has been written in the context of the annual review of sociology of 2001. The authors of this paper Claudia Buchmann is from Duke University, Department of Sociology, Durham, and Emily Hannum is from Harvard University, Graduate School of Education, and Cambridge.

This review examines research on education and inequality in developing regions. In tracing the progress of this field of inquiry, it focuses on empirical studies of educational inequality in four broad areas: macro-structural forces shaping education and stratification; the relationship between family background and educational outcomes; school effects; and education's impact on economic and social mobility. It assesses the contributions of research in Africa, Asia, and Latin America to the general study of education and social stratification and the theoretical leverage gained from examining stratification processes in developing regions of the world. Finally, the re- view discusses recent developments that hold promise for addressing the knowledge gaps that remain; these include utilizing relatively new data sources and methods in comparative, cross-national studies and greater collaboration between researchers who study strikingly similar questions but remain segregated due to their focus on either industrialized or developing societies. A significant body of research has examined how macro-structural elements, including state policies and global forces, shape educational stratification through their effects on the demand for education or the structure and supply of schooling. There has also been substantial research on how aspects of family background, such as socioeconomic status, family structure, and material resources, influence children's educational outcomes in developing countries. The study of school factors and educational outcomes similarly highlights the importance of the social and economic contexts of schools. By offering counter- points to the common notions (usually based on US research) regarding how school factors affect student achievement, studies in less-developed contexts clearly demonstrate that the impacts of specific policy initiatives depend on the environment in which schools function. Finally, the mixed results of research on economic outcomes and social mobility highlight the need to revisit theories about the impact of industrialization on social inequality.

Variables in the article:

Family background.

School effects.


Social mobility.

International education.

This paper is comparative research of different developing countries. In this different countries state of education is compared. The variables of this article stated above and linked to Pakistan as well. The family background factor is a very important factor dealt differently in both rural and urban areas of Pakistan. Where in urban areas the family background supports education, there is a negative trend seen in the rural areas of Pakistan. School effect is also a variable that is affecting the student enrollment in many different fields of education. As if the effect of a certain degree is good, parents are more inclined towards that mode of education. Industrialization is also a positive factor towards education. Social mobility should exist in the society to remove the gender difference in the country and promote education. Even development of international education has promoted the idea of increasing literacy rate of all countries.

Household Schooling Decisions in Rural Pakistan

Yasuyuki Sawada and Micheal Lockshin

The article is taken from The authors of this paper belong to department of advanced social and international studies, university of Tokyo, Komaba. They both belong to the development of research group, World Bank.

Field surveys were conducted in twenty-five Pakistani villages exclusively for this paper. By integrating field observations, economic theory, and econometric analysis, this paper investigates the sequential nature of educational decisions. The full-information maximum likelihood (FIML) estimation of the sequential schooling decision model uncovers important dynamics of the gender gap in education, transitory income and wealth effects, and intra household resource allocation patterns. We find, among things, that there is a high educational retention rate, conditional on school entry, and that schooling progression rates become comparable between male and female students at a high level of education. Moreover, a household’s human and physical assets and income changes affect child education patterns significantly. These findings are consistent with the theoretical implications of optimal schooling behavior under binding credit constraints. Finally, we found serious supply-side constraints on female primary education in the villages, suggesting the importance of supply-side policy interventions in Pakistan’s primary education. This paper investigated the sequential educational investment process of Pakistani households by integrating observations from the field, economic theory, and econometric analysis. The paper makes two contributions to the literature. First, it uses the unique data set on the whole retrospective history of child education and household background, which was collected exclusively for this analysis through field surveys in rural Pakistan. Second, in addition to the data contribution, this paper employed full information maximum likelihood method to cope with the complicated estimation procedure of multiple integration of conditional schooling probability. This method, combined with the unique data set, enables to estimate the full sequential model of schooling decisions. The most striking feature revealed by the data is the high educational retention rate, conditional on school entry. Moreover, it helps to identify important dynamics of the gender gap in education, the significance of shock variables, wealth effects, and intra household resource allocation with our full sequential schooling model. These findings are consistent with a household’s optimal education investment under a binding credit constraint.


Income Shocks.

Gender differences.

Expenditure pattern.

This paper is written in the context of rural education and how can it be promoted. The variables describe the rural factors that affect the education sector. These variables include factors like income shocks, gender differences and the expenditure pattern within the households that will affect the education sector in Pakistan.

The EFA 2000 Assessment: Country Reports Pakistan

Education Secretary

Islamabad the November 5, 1999.

The paper is cited from

The subject report highlights demographic, socio-economic, administrative and educational structure of Pakistan; lime lights national and international targets and commitments for Education For All; describes major actions taken and successful innovative programs initiated; reviews achievements and effectiveness of these programs; gives an overview of Education For All development since 1990; identifies main problems and issues confronting EFA in Pakistan; and reflects future policy prospects in basic education.

The main policies and program on Education for All presently under implementation include; National Education Policy (1998-2010); Social Action Program phase-II (1997-2002) and Pakistan 2010 program. The goals and targets fixed in the area of primary education and literacy include universal enrolment of primary school age children; 80% completion rate and 70% literacy rate by the year 2002-03.

To achieve the targets of EFA a number of innovative programs and strategies have been adopted which, inter alia, are a Social Action Program was launched in 1992-93 sharply focusing on accelerated development of educational facilities for basic education to promote access, making it more egalitarian and also intending to improve its quality. Besides, a large number of foreign aided primary education development projects/ programs are under implementation. Steps have also been taken to eliminate gender and territorial disparities and promote Public Private Partnership; expand Teacher Training Network; decentralize management, introduce Legislation for Making Primary Education Compulsory; Teach English at Primary level, Develop integrated Textbooks for class’s I-III and integrate Nazira Quran, Islamiyat and Arabic emphasizing character building. Besides, focus has also been laid on community mobilization for promotion of basic education. Development of minimum learning level (MLL) and assessment of basic competencies of children in Pakistan have been initiated. Packages of incentives, both for teachers and students have been developed and are presently under implementation to increase enrolment, improve retention and upgrade quality particularly among rural females.

Female education has been assigned the top priority. A number of policy measures and programs for basic education of females have been initiated which include introduction of mixed schools; provision of basic facilities and services in female primary schools in terms of boundary walls, lavatories, stipends, free books and uniforms and food; and reservation of 60% female seats in primary schools under SAP. Besides, in order to ensure availability of female teachers, 70% positions of primary school teachers have been reserved for females.

Social and political mobilization and community involvement and participation is another priority area of EFA development programs. The steps in all the four provinces of the country; establishment and strengthening of Education Foundations at federal and provincial level; introduction of public private partnership schemes; involvement of NGOs and private sector for promotion of basic education; mobilization of communities and beneficiaries; and commitment of political parties to promote basic education followed by increased budget allocation for education.

Investment in primary education (both development and recurring) has increased from Rs.9563 million in 1990-91 to Rs 38674 million in 1998-99. It is a record increase of 304% in a short period of 9 years. Increase in development budget is 231% (Rs 1179 million to 3904 million) and recurring budget 315% (Rs 8384 million to 34770 million). However, allocations for adult literacy had been quite insufficient.

Gross intake rate in grade I is very encouraging i.e. 99.8 percent (total) and 83.3 percent (female). It indicates that if this percentage is a lit bit further improved and sustained, during next 5 years Pakistan will achieve the long cherished goal of universal access/enrolment Islamabad Capital Territory having 97% net enrolment ratio has already achieved the Universal Primary Education target. A record increase of 21% in overall gross participation rate at primary (1-V) level from 60% in 1990 to 81% in 1998 is a real achievement. Furthermore, there is no shortage of qualified and trained teachers at primary level. Almost 100 percent teachers are academically qualified and 80% professionally trained. An increase of 100% in primary schools from 81393 in 1990 to 163746 in 1998 indicates that educational facilities and services for primary education have expanded considerably.

However, in spite of these achievements net enrolment /participation rate could not exceed 60% against the Jomtein target of 100% net enrolment by the years 2000.It shows that around 8 million children of 5-9 age group are never enrolled in school and half (50%) of those (12 million enrolled) may drop out before completing primary education. At this rate total number of out of school children may reach 14 (8+6) million by the year 2002.03. Pupil teacher ratio could not be improved. It is still 48. Early childhood care and development continues to be a neglected area. Despite serious problem of high illiteracy rate, only a few projects and programs for eradication of illiteracy could be launched during nineties which do not commensurate with the great challenge and gigantic task of making literate a large number (42 million) of adult illiterates. Particularly provincial education departments could not make any breakthrough in this regard. In 1998 adult literacy rate of Pakistan was 45 percent (Male 56.5%: Female 32.6%) against the Jomtein/National Education Policy 1992 target of 70%. Literacy gender parity index is 0.48 against 0.54 in 1990 which shows that high gender disparities in adult literacy could not be eliminated

Major issues and problems confronting basic education in Pakistan which are yet to be resolved, inter alia, are; inadequate physical facilities and infrastructure in view of high population growth rate of 2.6 percent; resource constraint, low participation and high dropout rates; adult illiteracy, especially female illiteracy; disparities and imbalances in gender and area,( females, rural children and children in urban slums being the most disadvantaged segment of population); socio-cultural inhibitions and taboos (though removed considerably yet still existing) against female education; economic barriers, such as, poverty and high opportunity cost; insufficient political commitment, chronic problem of political instability; inconsistencies in education policies and programs; lack of teachers competency, low motivation and commitment; partly non-relevance of curricula to the needs of the learners and the community; over centralization and inadequate level of local capacity to program formulation, institutional management and evaluation; lack of integrated planning and coordination amongst organizations and institutions from different sectors of society; and Ineffective assessment, monitoring and evaluation system specially for quality improvement.

Despite massive expansion and growth and private sector during this decade, reliable and valid data even about the basic and core indicators are not available. Same is the case of the children with special needs/handicap children. A comprehensive school census of private schools in Pakistan is the urgent need of the country for effective educational planning and development.

Furthermore, public sector data/information on some of the EFA dimensions and indicators such as Early Childhood Care and Development, Training in Essential Skills and Education for Better Living are not available. This is because of the fact that very few formal, structured and regular programs have been launched in these areas. Secondly, data/statistics on these programs are not collected. However, informal and unstructured programs in the said dimensions may exist but again statistics/information is never reported. Special efforts in terms of sample surveys, research studies and interviews etc. are needed to obtain recent, reliable and comprehensive data especially on those indicators and dimensions of EFA for which regular and time series data are not available.


Gender and territorial disparities.

Social and political mobilization to support village education.

Public private partnership.

Efforts of NGO's.

Lack of investment.

Lack of physical facilities and infrastructure.


Lack of teachers competency

Economic barriers.

Political instability.

Inconsistency in education policies and programs.

This is a report on the education for all year’s assessment of Pakistan in 2000. This report makes visible the weak areas of Pakistani education system and how they are being catered by the new policies introduced in the country. All these variables are mentioned as the problems or opportunities that are targeted by the education policies made in Pakistan. Problems include: lack of investment, lack of physical facilities and infrastructure, poverty, lack of teachers competency, economic barriers, political instability, and inconsistency in education policies and programs while opportunities include: social and political mobilization to support village education, public private partnership, and efforts of NGO's.

The impact of Gender inequality in education on rural poverty in Pakistan; an Empirical Analysis

Imran Sharif Chaudary, Saeed ur Rehman

The paper is published in European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences ISSN 1450-2887 Issue 15 (2009). The paper has been cited from The author of this paper Imran Sharif Chaudhry is an associate professor, Department of Economics Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan, and Saeed ur Rahman is a PhD Scholar, Department of Economics Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

The status of woman in Pakistan is somehow different from that of western countries. Gender is one of the organizing principles of Pakistan’s society. Home has been defined as women legitimate ideological and physical space where she performs her proactive role as a mother and wife while a man dominates the world outside the home and performs his productive for role as a bread winner. Men and women are conceptually divided into two separate worlds. The household resources are allocated in the favor of sons due to their productive role. Male members of the family are given better education and are equipped with skills to compete for resources in public arena. While females on the other hand are imparted domestic skills to be good mothers and wives. They are given limited opportunities to create choices for themselves in order to change the realities of their lives. So the strong gender discrimination exists in educational system between rural and urban areas. Education is the most important instrument for human resource development. It has become a universal human right and an important component of opportunities and empowerment of women. large number of empirical studies find that increase in women’s education increase their wages and that returns to education for women are frequently larger then of men. There are many empirical evidences that, increase in female education improves human development outcomes such as child survival, health and schooling.

Data has different kinds. It can be primary, secondary and tertiary, but the analysis of this study is based on primary source of data collection through household survey from villages. The survey is based on simple random sampling and stratified random sampling techniques. The format of the household survey questionnaire has covered various households village specific and socio economic characteristics and information were collected through interviews of selected informants and direct questioning of household head and other members of target population. As far as methodology issues are concerned, we considered official poverty of Rs 944.447 per adult equivalent per month in 2005-06.This poverty line is updated by making CPI inflation general index for the year 2007-08 and is resulted as Rs1140.05.

Gender inequality is a universal problem but its form varies across countries. This study was based on the primary source of data. Descriptive, correlative and empirical analysis of data was carried out.

Which showed that poverty is the dependent variable, household size is significant and having positive impact on poverty. The higher the size, the higher the probability of being poor. The literate household heads also have very low probability of being poor.


Gender inequality.

Rural poverty.

This paper is linked with the education and poverty sector of the rural areas of Pakistan. The main variables in this article are gender inequality in rural society that lead to the concentration of the power of earning on one single male hand. This concentration decreases the sources of income available in the rural society and hence become of cause for rural poverty.


Muhammad Sabir

The article is cited from J-Stor. The paper is written in June 2003. The author of the paper is an economist at Social Policy and Development Centre (SPDC).

It is generally believe that education is one of the basic rights of every human being, irrespective of sex, age, creed and religion. This article reviews the benefits incidence of government education spending .It finds that government subsidies directed towards primary education system and are pro poor in all four provinces of Pakistan. Government subsidies towards higher education poorly targeted and poorest income group receives less than the riches income group and indeed favor those who are better off. Improving targeting to poor as well as better female participation involves not simply rearranging the public subsidies but also addressing the constraints that prevent the poor and females from accessing the services. Gender disaggregated benefit analysis of public spending on education can be used to describe why poorest income quartile has less access to public education specially at the higher level of education .These results powerfully shows how public spending on the education benefits the males more than females in Pakistan in 1998-99.And this in turn influences the overall inequality of education spending in the country. It does for the combination of reasons; first households choose to enroll males more than female at all level of schooling. Second is public spending is not properly targeted to the regions of higher gender disparities and as a result, public spending is not sufficiently contributing in the reduction of gender disparities. Based on the benefit analysis three sets of policies can be recommended to improve gender inequality in the society, first the poorest segment of the society receives the lowest per capita subsidy, second in the presence of higher regional gender inequality, region specific education policy may be help full for the gender equality. Finally, province wise policy related to gender equality in education at various level works well then the national policies.

Variables of the article:

Public spending.

Public policies.

Government subsidies towards schools.

Gender inequality.

Cultural, social and economic factors.

Income of households.

Enrollments in public schools, colleges and universities.

Public spending and public policies are an important variable towards education on the whole. It is because an availability of money for the government will in turn help in the creation of more public schools and more education for the public. Government subsidies towards schools are also directly linked with the education sector. If subsidies are available for schools, more schools will come in market. Gender inequality in society, cultural, social and economic factors are also some factors that halt many people of the society to gain from education, Gender inequality halts women education and factors like poverty and child labor halts education on the whole. Income of households and enrollment in schools, colleges are also linked together.


Cynthia Lloyd, Cem Mete, and Monica Grant

The article has been cited from

The literature on and concern about the determinants of girls relatively low levels of the schooling in Pakistan can be traced back many years. While girls enrollment rates have risen over time and gender gap has narrowed ,by the turn of the 21st century Pakistani girls have achieved levels of enrollment that were no better than those achieved by Indian girls in 10years earlier. Not all girls suffer the same educational disadvantages in Pakistan .Girls living in urban areas whose families come from the highest quartile of the income distribution are almost as likely as their male peers to have attended school or completed the five grades of primary schooling. By contrast, no more than a third as many girls as boys from the lowest income distribution who live in rural areas of Pakistan have ever attended school, and less than a quarter as many girls as boys in the same circumstances have completed primary schooling. Poor girls living in the rural areas thus suffer a triple disadvantages, with the poverty and rural location compounding the gender based disadvantages experienced by their better off urban peers. Though the number of schools has increased in Pakistan but still percentage of poor rural girls remained low. This finding may be partial explained by the fact that school choice has expanded most in the richer communities and in communities in which girls enrollment rates were high to begin with. As the result, many of the poorest communities and the communities with the highest gender disparities still lack a girl’s school. The search for the solution will require some program experimentation and evaluation. If a more cost effective model could be found and implemented ,we would predict that the gender gap could narrow considerably ,because the poorest communities are the least likely to have a school welcoming to girls.

Variables of the paper:

Gender gap.

Cultural constraints.

Income differentials.

In the article the rural education of girls in Pakistan are discussed. There is wide gender difference in the rural areas of Pakistan. The women are suppressed badly by the cultural constraints of the rural areas of Pakistan. Even the income differential in rural areas is very high that due to it many people are deprived of it.


Rukhsana Zia

This is report that is cited from Google scholar. The author has a Ph.D. in education from the University of Wales and is an Associate Professor at the College of Home Economics, Lahore.

This study focuses on the primary grades, essentially because of the easy availability of data, and the places the issue of EO within this level of education in Pakistan .Higher level of education are referred to where applicable. Lack of information relating to in school situation has meant limiting the enrollment and completion rate. This has meant more emphasis on out of school factor, rather than in school factor. The study will rely on the available published statistical data to describe the prevalent situation of the educational system. The above literature clearly pinpoints the vast difference in the perspective of developed countries and Pakistan, an under developed economy, both the tackling issue of EO but at different levels. Where Pakistan has yet to initiate a socio culture attitudinal change in the populace, the west is tackling the issue with in its classrooms. Pakistan clearly needs to tackle the issue of EO at the community level .Its first challenge would be to fulfills quantity requirements for education. There is a need for initiative for EO both inside and outside the schools and both need to be addressed concurrently.


Quality of education

Access and condition of schools

Poor funding by government

Poor management of the education system

Household income.

Regional disparity.

Gender disparity.

The report is written in the context of measuring education level in Pakistan. The report also identifies between the rural urban education differential. The points of differences are mentioned in form of variables listed above.

Economic Survey of Pakistan 2009-2010


The report is cited from

Education is one of the most important factors in poverty reduction. According to Pakistan’s latest social and living standards measurements survey 2008-09, the literacy rate is 57%, 69% for male and 45% for females. Public expenditure on education as percentage to GDP s lowest in Pakistan as compared to other countries. Pakistan allocated almost 2.5% of GDP during 2006-07.And 2.0% in 2009-10. The funding to higher education has immensely increased. On Development funds were curtailed during the financial year, 2007-08.For the current financial year 2009-10, with support of Rs 8.0 billion from World Bank, funding the higher education for development expenditure has been increased to Rs 22.5billion.


Public spending.

Gender inequality.

Regional disparity.

Lack of infrastructure.

Foreign assistance.

This report is from the economic survey of Pakistan 2009-2010. This tells us about the present situation of education in Pakistan. The above mentioned variables are the problems and opportunities Pakistan face nowadays in the education sector.

Theoretical framework


Ho= Quality of education will directly affect the differential of rural and urban education.

H1= Quality of education will not directly affect the differential of rural and urban education.

Ho= Poverty rates will directly affect the rural urban education differential.

H1= Poverty rates will not directly affect the rural urban education differential.

Ho= Gender difference has a positive relationship with the rural urban education differential.

H1= Gender difference has a negative relationship with the rural urban education differential.

Ho= Regional disparities positively affect the rural urban education differential.

H1= Regional disparities negatively affect the rural urban education differential.

Ho= Income of households has a positive impact on the rural urban education differential.

H1= Income of households has a negative impact on the rural urban education differential.

Ho= Family background has a positive impact on the rural urban education differential.

H1= Family background has a negative impact on the rural urban education differential.

Ho= Social mobility directly affects the rural urban education differential.

H1= Social mobility indirectly affects the rural urban education differential.

Ho= Lack of infrastructure and investment directly affects rural urban education differential.

H1= Lack of infrastructure and investment indirectly affects rural urban education differential.

Ho= Growing population directly affects the rural urban education differential.

H1= Growing population indirectly affects the rural urban education differential.

Ho= Industrialization directly affects the rural urban education differential.

H1= Industrialization indirectly affects the rural urban education differential.

Ho= cultural and traditional barriers directly affects the rural urban education differential.

H1= cultural and traditional barriers indirectly affects the rural urban education differential.

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