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Education system of india


Education ... has produced a vast population able to read but unable to distinguish what is worth reading. - G. M. TrevelyanEducation is one of the most powerful instruments for reducing poverty and inequality. Education is key to enhance India's

Historical Background

The education system of India is very old. It has started from the ancient times. The Vedas, puranas, ayurveda, yoga represent some forms of education. There are evidences of imparting formal education in ancient India under the Gurukul system. Under the Gurukul system, young boys who were passing through the Brahmacharya stage of life had to stay at the Guru or the teacher's home and complete their education.

Earlier women and people of lower castes didn't have a right to educate themselves. But Jainism, Buddhism and Sufi movements had some liberating effects. The Britishers can be credited for bringing a revolution in the Indian education system because it is the English language and the reformation movements of the 19th century that had the most liberating effect in pre-independent India.

India Education Present Condition

After independence, making education available to all had become a priority for the government. As discrimination on the basis of caste and gender has been a major impediment in the healthy development of the Indian society, they have been made unlawful by the Indian constitution. The 86th constitutional amendment has also made elementary education a fundamental right for the children between the age group- 6 to 14.

According to the 2001 census,

Total literacy rate - 65.38%.

The female literacy rate - 54.16%.

Only 59.4% of rural population is literate as against 80.3% urban population according to the 2001 census.

In order to develop the higher education system, the government had established the University Grants Commission in 1953. The primary role of UGC has been to regulate the standard and spread of higher education in India.

The present education system in India mainly comprises of primary education, secondary education, senior secondary education and higher education.

  • Elementary education - eight years of education.
  • Secondary education - two years of education.
  • Senior secondary education - two years of education.

Higher education in India starts after passing the higher secondary education or the 12th standard. Depending on the stream, doing graduation in India can take three to five years. Post graduate courses are generally of two to three years of duration. After completing post graduation, scope for doing research in various educational institutes also remains open.


The main problem of Indian education system is the low quality. The difference in the quantity of the students and the teachers make the quality of Indian education poor, especially in case of government institutes. This poor quality is supported by the weak infrastructure and inadequate pedagogic attention which leaves no or very less scope for the improvement of the quality of the education. Government is not realizing that education is the source of human capital which can create wide income inequalities. If the government does not improve education systemparticularly in rural areas the rich will become richer and the poor will get poorer.

Another reason for poor quality of education is the poor quality of teachers in government schools. Government schools are unable to attract good quality teachers due to inadequate teaching facilities and low salaries.

Challenges of present educational system in India

Our education system is responsible for grooming India and creating strong pillars. We have strong minds which are blocked at young age in the name of being a girl or poor family or limited education. Let us discuss the main challenges in our education system.

Caste based education:

Earlier reservation system was there for helping the backward class to take the advantages of the facilities that are provided in India. But now-a-days, backward class certificate is proudly taken by the students to get into medical and engineering without any problem even though they scored less. As a result of this cast based education system, these people not even try hard and easily get admission but it is making other people feel that even they had scored higher but still is not able to get admission to any kind of courses so what is the purpose of studying so hard.

It is high time we make education system equal for all.

Economically backward class:

One major challenge in India is that there are so many scholar students who are not economically strong. Such students leave their studies because they can't be able to pay the fees. Despite being doctors, engineers etc. these students get into any business to support their family. There are some students who have a strong desire for studies and they work at daytime and study in the nights.

Rather giving reservations to SC, OBC and others there should be only one category for reservation and that's too economically backward class.

We should have concessions, scholarship programs and part time job programs for such deserving candidates.

Not in-tune with current market:

Today's world is a dynamic world. Everything keeps on changing. But still we are not updating our study pattern. Current market technology keeps on changing but our curriculum is still out dated. It is very difficult to change the curriculum with rapid changing technology but it is not acceptable to be outdated. It is the responsibility of the tutors to give the knowledge about the current trends.

It is clear from above stated reasons that our education system is biased and discriminated which are responsible for creating future of the generation of India. To make education system free from reservations and discriminations is the biggest challenge in front of India.



  • Privatization of schools, colleges and universities is also affecting the education system. The private institutes do not follow a constant pattern which ultimately makes education system defective.
  • Political factors affect the education system a lot. In India the government changes after every five years. Since political parties keep on changing, hence the policies also. These changing policies affect the education system.
  • One another policy change is the change in the curriculum of the studies. The change in the curriculum at a very short notice create problems for education system


  • Central or local government funding decisions may affect school/ establishment finances
  • Closure of a local industry may affect fund raising plans etc.
  • Ability of parents to raise funds for optional activities
  • The need to run breakfast/ after schools clubs
  • Ability to invest 'savings/ surpluses'
  • Cost of providing resources:
  • 1. Staff - teaching & support

    2. Basics - books/ paper

    3. Technology solutions laptops etc

  • Interest rates
  • Shortages of materials on national/ international markets
  • Over provision of school places in the area resulting in competition from neighboring schools

  • Decline in birth rate, reflecting national trends
  • Local population changes (increasing/ decreasing numbers)
  • Demographic changes may affect likely pupil rolls or the nature of pupils' needs e.g. pupils' with English as a second language etc.

  • Closure of local firms providing employment
  • Inability to attract staff
  • Social networking - blogs, facebook, twitter
  • Changes to qualifications expected
  • Integration with local community
  • Integration of students with special needs
  • parental preference - an increase in 'parent power' has allowed parents more freedom of choice over their child's school
  • the risk of highly valued, key staff moving on to more up-and-coming establishments
  • Information is accessible to staff anywhere in the world via the Internet
  • Staff were not given enough training or access to effectively

  • Changes to standards/ equipment required
  • Risk of selecting the wrong technology at times of change (i.e. windows -v- open source)
  • New computer viruses may affect school/ college operations,
  • Disturbing/ illegal images on the internet may affect ICT security measures etc.
  • Move from paper based books to e-book readers
  • Computer hardware being out of date
  • Computer software being out of date
  • Time to manage IT systems

  • new legislation may create risks of non-compliance with the law, create new administrative burdens etc
  • Changes to child protection legislation
  • Raise the age of school leaving age
  • Raise/ lower the age of starting school. Nursery/ kindergarten
  • Change to school opening hours
  • Changes to funding of charity based organizations
  • Health & safety legislation

  • A new highway layout near the school may create new dangers for pupils etc
  • Waste disposal
  • Reduction of green space available for activities
  • Changes to local bus routes
  • Using a significant amounts of paper and photocopier toner to produce printed information
  • 5 'I' FactorsAffecting Education in India

  • Internet
  • Industry changing skillset requirements
  • International and Indian academic institutions
  • Incessant demand for practical training and skill sets
  • Imperative partnership


Over production of unaware educated candidates is increasing educational unemployment ratio. As a result there is weakening of student motivation and indiscipline that can't be resisting, stagnation of innovative and deserving students. Thus it would not be wrong to say that our education system needs reforms.

Government dithering about long term policy to be adopted in regard of higher education in India is passing through stunted growth and uncertain future which results to not any kind of educational innovation, also is mounting pressure for increasing accessibility , as well as, it made the education as rigid and pronouncedly resistant to change. That is the reason why private colleges are seeking more attention, because they are innovative and creative and have updated curriculum with them, which a student demands and which is his right as well. What we can do in this regard is getting influenced by programs run in other parts of world, for an example: Educational Goals-2000 of California which is a distinct vision where preparing pre-school children with a motto of "ready to learn" and increasing national graduation rates by 90%. Also by taking such measures like faculty improvisation, semesterization of course, vocationalization of course, curriculum development, annual self-appraisal report etc. We can stop our educational reforms from being archaic. What is more inevitable is to seek the attention of the reform-makers of education.


  • Policy measures need to be taken by the government.
  • All children have access to government schools
  • Raise the quality of educationin the schools.
  • Common schooling.
  • Sharing of resources between private and public schools.
  • The quality of education is directly linked to the resources available and it is important for the government to improve resource allocation to bring about qualitative changes in the field of education. Common schooling is one of the ways in which government can use limited resources in an efficient way and thus improve resource allocation.

  • Promote 100% Literacy as soon as possible
  • Decontrol & deregulate all forms of education at the Central & State Government level. It should be easy to start or expand existing educational facilities.
  • Allow tax-breaks for the next 25 years for all investments in education
  • Do whatever is necessary to make India an International Hub for all forms of Education
  • Promote Enterprise Skills Development, all forms of Vocational Education & Training, for 5% of the population, at any given time, or 50 million people per year
  • * Allow IIT's & IIM's to open multiple campuses in India with private and/or Government partnership
  • If India has to globalize it is necessary that all students entering higher education, i.e. after 10+2, must learn another foreign language besides English. The English speaking world is hardly 35% to 40% of the world GDP!
  • Allow organizations to make education a business. Education is five times bigger than Software and Information Technology. This information needs to be carried far and wide.
  • Indian mind-set on the importance of relevant education to be changed.
  • Education to be tailor-made for employment generation for the World market place.
  • Indian education must increase emphasis on SQ and EQ development and not only on IQ development. IQ, SQ & EQ have equal importance in character building.
  • The teachings and richness of Indian culture, heritage, history, music and arts must be enlarged to increase the self esteem and confidence of the youth of our Nation



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