Print Email Download Reference This Send to Kindle Reddit This
submit to reddit

Decentralization and Deconcentration has become a popular change

In Cambodia, the 1993 national election sponsored by United Nation Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTACT) not only paved the way for democratic implementation in this war-torn country but also led to the execution of Decentralization and Deconcentration. This was clearly reflected by the Law on the Elections of Commune Councils (Royal Kram ns/rkm/0301/04) promulgated in 2001, the first 2002-commune council election and the amended law on election of commune councils in 2006 (RGC 2006: Notice).

According to the Law on Administration and Management of Commune/Sangkat, “the Commune/Sangkat administration shall have duties to promote and support good governance by managing and using available resources in sustainable manner to meet the basic needs of its commune/Sangkat for serving the common interests of the residents and respect the national interests in consistence with the general policy of the State” (RGC 2001: Chapter 5 Article 41).

Based on the success of this power delegation and duties of the commune/Sangkat, the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) has gradually started to exercise decentralization and deconcentration in different sectors, for example: health, education, roads, water and sanitation, etc. (UNICEF:2010)

The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS) recognized the need to explore its options for introducing decentralization and deconcentration (D & D) into the Cambodia education system. As such, in December 2006, MoEYS organized a D & D working meeting on education together with the Ministry of Interior (MoI) (ADB and MoEYS: 2007). Though working group on D & D in Education Sector was not established then, several meetings were conducted between senior staff of MoEYS and DPs.

The MoEYS and Development Partners (DPs) consider D & D issues in education sector as increasingly more priority. It is obviously true as Decentralization is still one of the three main Educational Policies not only included in Education Strategic Plan (ESP) 2009-2013, but also in the National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP) update 2009-2013. It is worth of notice that the Educational policies in NSDP and ESP update 2009-2013 are 1) Ensuring equitable access to education service, 2) Improving quality and efficiency of education service, and 3) Institutional and capacity development of education staff for decentralization.

In 28 January 2009, MoEYS issued a Decision on Establishment of the Working Group for Democratic Development at Sub-National level of MoEYS. On the same date, a Prakas was also issued on the appointment of members of the Working Group (Reference).

Following these, in 12 May 2010, MoEYS issued a Decision on Formulation and Execution of a Sub-Technical Working Group of Decentralization and Deconcentration for Education Sector. The roles and responsibilities of the group are to implement Policy Strategy Program related to D & D for Education Sector in consistence with 10-Year National Plan and activity plan of Working Group for Democratic Development at Sub-National level of MoEYS, review and comment to Working Group for Democratic Development at Sub-National level of MoEYS in implementing D & D for education sector, draft policy guideline and legal framework for D & D for education sector, to name a few. (Reference?)

As results of the above efforts, MoEYS decided to execute the implementation of community preschools and home-based education programme under participation of commune councils. However, this is not the end desire of the MoEYS and DPs as many more other sub-sectors in education field are under reforming process, especially primary education which is the fundamental part of the education as a whole. (UNICEF:2010)

1.2 Problem Statement

According to the Law on Administration and Management of Commune/Sangkat (LAMC) (RGC 2001), the roles and responsibilities of communes are to manage local development, focusing on such area as infrastructure (such as water and road), social service (health and education) and so on. Though MoEYS increasingly considers decentralization and deconcentration as one of its main priority, there is still limited engagement of commune council in education field (ADB & MoEYS: 2007). It is obviously true because some communities and local authorities have not yet included education (school development plan) in their (communes/Sangkats) development agenda (report for education congress 2010, primary education section). According to a research done by Arnaldo Pellini, the 2004 commune investment plans for Kampong Thom related to 1,816 projects prioritized in the 81 communes in the province, only seven per cent of those focused on education, and it was not surprised that all of the project focus on construction (Pellini, 2007). In order to engage community in school development, MoEYS identifies nine points in a training manual “Relationship between School and Community” for School Directors (2002 and revised 2009); however, none of those was clearly said about the commune council engagement (MoEYS 2009). According to a study on School Improvement Planning: Improving Primary School Access in Disadvantage Communes, the commune engagement in education was little, either through the councils’ sub-committee on social services or through the Commune Education For All Commission (CEFAC), a local level of a hierarchy formed under the National Plan for Education For All (Bredenberg, Noun, Hin, & Chhuon, 2005). According the research done by Pellini (2007), the education issues has not been a particular interest of CC comparing to those of other sectors.

1.3 Research Objectives

This study is intent to examine the mandatory roles and responsibilities and actual practices of commune council as articulated in related policy documents in education sector, especially at primary level. In addition to these, the study will also look at education sectors based on the empirical studies conducted elsewhere in which commune council can further enhance its roles to better improve the education services.

1.4 Research Questions

This research aims to investigate the levels of engagement of Commune Council in the field of education. The specific questions that the study seeks to answers include:

What roles and responsibility are required by CC in dealing with education services compared with other sectors it delivers?

How are these roles and responsibilities carried out in practices by CC?

What are the challenges perceived by CC in their involvement in education compared to other sectors?

1.5 Significance

“The decentralization of education systems can be considered as one of the most important phenomenon in educational planning over the past 20 years (UNESCO 2005) (Pellini, 2007). It is one of the most crucial factors to ensure the achievement of Education For All (EFA) and quality education. Since 1980s, central governments have encountered more and more problems to direct and administer every aspect of expansion of mass education, as modern education system normally does not reach rural population (Cummings 1997, Whitacre 1997). As such, this study is very important to find out how to strengthen the role of the elected local institution, to ensure the marginalized groups of students/children have equal access to quality education.

The study will also provide a number of primary indications of how D & D in general improve schooling and quality education.

The findings may not only discover the real opportunities but also the obstacles the commune council consider prohibiting their successful engagement. The study may even comes up with suggestions and ideas from other stakeholders regarding what and how we can do more to improve the role and responsibility of CC in the D & D implementation in education.

All the findings will be given as feedback to all stakeholders, especially at national levels, especially DPs, MoEYS and other relevant policy makers, so that they can improve their future policy reform/development regarding the engagement of CC in D & D execution in the future.

The findings will actually suggest the policy makers to consider how import it is to engagement the CC, who will play crucial roles in implementation process, in their future reform/development of D & D policies in education. It will also suggest if there are any specific points of current D & D framework need to be changed and/or revised in order to improve the implementation and participation. Again, the findings will recommend to MoEYS as well if additional guideline or direction need to be issues in order to help to improve the implementation process.

1.6 Definitions

Decentralization is the process of transferring power from national to grassroots levels, in order to strengthen participatory governance, effectiveness of public service delivery, and thereby enhance equitable development and poverty reduction locally (De Grauwe, et al.). In Cambodia context, decentralization refers to “transferring functions and resource from central government to elected unit of local government, namely commune council” (Hugh E. Evans: May 2002). In carrying out this decencentralization process, the CC is expected to focus on such area as infrastructure (such as water and road), and social service (health and education).

1.7 Proposal Chapter Organization

This proposal will be organized as follows - Chapter I covers the Introduction of the study that include the background of the study, the problem statement, the objectives of the study, the research questions, the significance of the study, definitions of the key terms and the proposal chapter organization; Chapter II will report the Literature Review; Chapter III covers the Methodology of the research (research design); Chapter IV discuss and analyze Findings of the study; and finally Chapter V will cover the conclusion.

Chapter 2

Literature review

In early 1990s, Cambodia was a war town country with a deep social and political fragment, and it was badly needed to be reconstructed and rehabilitated. Poor health and lack of education, training and capital were considered one of the causes of poverty. With this regard, the Royal Government of Cambodia launched a program called Seila or “Foundation Stone” in Khmer Sanskrit, aiming at reducing poverty through supporting decentralization and deconcentration in 1996 (Henny, 2004).

The main purpose of Seila program was to improve delivery of public services, namely infrastructure (such as water and road), social service (health and education) and so on in order for reducing poverty in rural areas (Hugh E. Evans: May 2002). Improved access to education is very important because it can alleviate poverty and inequality and empower poor to engage in public decision making. Education can also strengthen capacity of demand side to claim for justice, participation, empowerment and social inclusion as parts of good governance. If good governance is improved poverty reduction would also be successful (Young, 2009).

All public school services in Cambodia are managed by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS) and organized at sub-national levels under administrative hierarchy of Provincial/Municipal Offices for Education (POE), District Offices for Education (DOE); and engagement of commune councils in the implementation of community preschools and home-based education program (UNICEF 2010).

MoEYS acknowledged the essence for introducing decentralization and deconcentration into the Cambodia education system and has already assigned and delegated some parts of the functions to the sub-national levels. MoEYS considers CCs as crucial local stakeholders in school management system. Based on Leonardo and Luc (2004), the commune councils are (1) represented in the “provincial education facilities committee” responsible for provincial school construction program; and (2) a commune councilor elected in one of the communes served by a “cluster school” is the chair of the “cluster school committee”. It is worth of notice that the “provincial education facilities committee” is chaired by Provincial Department of Education and includes also the Department of Economy and Finance, and Public Works, while the “cluster school committee”, which includes teachers and parent representatives, make most decisions on cluster school management and handle their own financial resources. The ministry has even been trying to introduce a system of reporting cards, which are to be prepared by local inspectors and submitted to commune councils (Romeo & Spyckerelle, 2003).

Yet this process still requires substantial support as it is only the least important functions or those that people have the least understanding of that are suggested for transfer to local authorities. Moreover, the lower level of education management still has limited managerial autonomy and operates under vertical controls and accountability of the central MOEYS (UNICEF 2010).

Bredenberg (2004) carried out a pilot training program for CEFAC members in two districts of Svay Rieng province. He noted that the commune council representatives knew very little about the operational process of educational system. Based on cluster school policy developed by MoEYS during 2003-2004, a representative from commune council needed to be included in the cluster school committee. However, it is not very often that the commune council representative attended the meeting of local cluster school committee because of their limited interest in local education affairs and workload on local governance affairs (Bredenberg, Noun, Hin, & Chhuon, 2005).

Deconcentration of education in Cambodia began in 1993 and continued with PAP, and then Program based Budget (PB) (Pellini 2007). In 2001, an inter-ministerial meeting was conducted and MoEYS was invited to discuss education decentralization. The Ministry then had no intention to engage the future elected commune councils in education as it felt that those councils would not be able to do better than the cluster school developed (Pellini, 2007). However, the tendency of the Ministry changed later. With reference to Pellini (2007), the Commune Investment Plan (in Kampong Thom) reflected the some aspects of education and schooling; and that community people considered that education is part of overall local development.

To see the important roles of the commune council in education sectors, MoEYS engaged commune council as part of its Education For All National Plan 2003-2015, i.e. Commune Education For All Commission (CEFAC) to monitor equity and quality of education (formal and non-formal). It is an in addition to existing role of CC in Local Cluster School committee. However, MoEYS recognized that to encourage the CC to engage in education is both a challenge and opportunity (EFA National Plan 2003-2015). According to Losert and Coren (2004), it is likely that the objectives of the two committees are similar and that cooperation is not seemingly planned. In short, it is seen that the two committees only exist in paper. Moreover, in addition to related responsibility issues, the system of public administration does not match with that of education (Pellini, 2007).

The roles and responsibilities of commune councils are typically broad: maintain security and public orders; arrange necessary public services and be responsible for the good process of those affairs; encourage the creation of contentment and well-being of the citizens; promote social and economic development and upgrade the living standards of the citizens; protect and conserve the environment, natural resources and national culture and heritage; reconcile concepts of citizens to have mutual understanding and tolerance; and perform general affairs to meet the needs of citizens (RGC 2001: Chapter 4, Article 43). Within this context, there is no clear role of commune councils on education. Based on these roles, it is clear that nothing specifically talks about education.

Each Commune/Sangkat Council shall have from five (5) to eleven (11) members, based on demography and geography (RGC 2001: Chapter 2, Article 12). Based on this article, there is no roles/responsibilities of the members of commune councils, except the first and second deputy chief: the deputy chiefs of a commune are assistants of the commune chief in implementation of duties assigned to him/her by the commune chief and to replace the commune chief, in order of hierarchy, when the commune chief is absent. The duties of the first deputy chief shall assist commune chief on financial and economic matters, while the duties of the second deputy chief shall assist commune chief on matters of administration, social affairs, public services and public orders (RGC 2001: Chapter 3, Article 40).

Elected Members Appointed Member

Commune Chief

First Deputy

Second Deputy

Commune Clerk

Other commune members

Committee B

Committee A

Women and Children Committee

Planning and Budgeting Committee

Sub-committees

However, a commune chief is authorized to form various committees to give advice and to assist various affairs as necessary (RGC 2001: Chapter 2, Article 27). Based on this article and with reference to sub-decree # 22 (Decentralization of power, Roles and Responsibilities to commune council) and guideline # 082 of National Committee for Decentralization and Deconcentration (NCDD) dated 08 August 2007, a committee responsible for women and children affairs was established. Education then became small part of responsibilities of this committee.

Based on the Law on the Election of Commune Councils, the proportional, not individual, system was introduced (RGC 2001), i.e. the political parties had to provide a list of candidates for the election. This is clear that the people have to vote for a political parties rather than individuals, and it is not clear if the parties appoint someone who have background in education (for example a teacher) to be member of the candidates. According to the Law on Administration and Management of Commune Councils (LAMC), Khmer citizens of both sexes who meet the criteria stated in the law shall have the rights to be a candidate for the election of Commune. The requirement criteria include: Khmer nationality at birth; able to read and write Khmer script; is registered in the list of voters in the commune where he/she stands as a candidate for the election; at least 25 years of age on the day of the election of Commune Council; and having sufficient qualifications as prescribed in the Amended Law on Elections of Commune Councils (RGC 2001: Chapter 2, Article 14). It is very important to note that Chapter 7, Article 45 (new) states that “Either sex of Khmer citizens who wish to run as a candidate in the CC election shall meet the following requirements: a) has a Khmer citizenship at birth, able to read and write in Khmer, c) has registered in the list of voters of the commune/Sangkat he/she wish to run for the election, and d) is at least 25 years of ages on the polling day of the CC election.” Once again, it is not clear that a person, who has background in education, shall be a candidate for the commune council election.

Chapter 3

Research Methodology

3.1 Geographical administration context

The administrative system management in Cambodia is segregated into provinces and capital city (Phnom Penh). Provinces are further subdivided into districts and municipalities. Then districts are spitted into communes and quarters (sangkat), and later broken up into villages. The municipalities are partitioned into quarters (sangkat), which are separated into villages and further broken up into groups. The capital is segregated into sections (khan), which are spited into quarters (sangkat), and further broken up into villages (, 2011). The first two administrative levels, i.e. province/capital city and districts/cities, are governed based on the Law on Administrative Management of the Capital, Provinces, Municipalities, Districts and Khans; while the lower administrative levels are governed by the Law on Administration and Management of Commune/Sangkat.

3.2 Research Design

Qualitative Research Method will be used for this research. Data will be collected using focus-group interviews with the semi-structure open-ended questions with CC members, observation the meeting conducted by CC, and reviewing report and agenda of the commune council meeting for the past 12 months, reviewing the school planning documents to see if there is a responsibility assigned to CC how it is implemented, other journal writings or practicum reflection reports on CC’s engagement in education, as well as policy, degree, sub-degree, decision and/or guideline related to execution of CC in the field of education.

3.3 Participants

Five communes will be chosen purposively for this study. However, the study will be conducted in one province only, i.e. Kampong Speu, in one district, i.e. Chbar Morn. The five communes in this district will selected for this study. According to the Law on Administration and Management of Commune/Sangkat, “the members of commune councils varied from five to eleven based on demography and geography” (RGC: 2001: Chapter 2, Article 12). I will divide my interview into two parts – individual interview and focus group discussion. For individual interview, all commune council members will be invited. For focus group discussion, three or four members of council shall be invited to participate in the focus group discussion. However, the commune chief or first or second deputy shall be invited for this discussion. In addition to the interview and group discussion, I will ask the commune council for observing the monthly meeting, in order to see if the education issues are discussed in the meeting and how.

3.4 Data Collection Procedures

As a series of interrelated activities, data collection will aim at gathering information to answer emerging research questions (Creswell, 1998). The semi-structure interview questions will be developed for using in the focus-group interview with the participants as a group discussion with a clear guideline and leading procedures. I, therefore, will ask for a permission letter before conducting a field visit from the Master of Education Program Office, Royal University of Phnom Penh to submit PoE and DoE. As mention in the sample size, consultation with PoE and DoE will be conducted to identify the fivecommunes for the study. Next, I will contact the Department of Legislation, MoEYS, especially D and D committed and NCDD to gather documents/policies, in order to deeply analyze the information, to ensure that the study is more and more comprehensive. All participants will be contacted in advance before the interview and observation of commune council meeting. In addition to the interview, I will also conduct a short survey by asking the commune council members to fill in their background, just to find out if anyone of them has background in education.

3.5 Data Analysis Plan

Data from the focus-group discussion/interview will be analyzed and transcribed immediately. Coding method will be used to look for any emerging issues. The minute of commune council meeting and other related documents and observation visit notes will also be comprehensively and repeatedly read to find out any evolving themes. A coding and analyzing will be done by using Atlas TI software.

3.6 Ethical Consideration

To ensure that the research findings will not be harmful to the participants and relevant bodies, “do no harm”, I will think carefully about the research ethic by critically writing to inform of the participants the following:

“This research project will investigate perceptions and nature of roles and responsibility of the commune councils and other relevant stakeholders, i.e. the study will carefully examine the work of institution rather than that of individuals. The participants can make decision not to participate in the study at any time without giving a reason. Confidentiality will be maintained during the study and in any report of the study. All participants will be given a code and names will not be retained with the data. Individual participants will not named or identified in any reports of the study, as only aggregated data will be reported. The storage and disposal of information is controlled by the code of ethic of researcher, (Elligate, 2007, p.229).

Moreover, permission letter will be sent/shown to the participants prior to their participation, including advice that there will be free to withdraw from the study at any time, and that the information they provided will always be kept confidential. This letter can be found in Appendix D. In addition, participants will voluntarily sign the informed consent form of their participation after they understand and agree on the informed letter. This letter can be found in Appendix E.

3.7 Limitation of the Study

This research study will examine the perceptions of commune councils toward their engagement in the field of education. The study is limited to only 10 among 1,621 communes/Sangkats throughout the country. Thus, the findings cannot be generalized for all of the communes/Sangkats due to the narrow scope of the research. “The Law on Commune Councils election indroduces a proposional system whereby votes are given to parties, and not to individual candidates” (Pellini 2007: p 79). As such, the arrangement of the candidates is done by the political parties. Though the study wishes to identified if someone have background in education, however, the study will not look or intend to interview any political parties.

APPENDIX

APPENDIX A

Guide Questions for Focused Group

(Intended members: chief, first and second chief, members in charge of social sector, member of women and children affairs)

Date of interview: ………………………….

List of participants (commune council members)

No

Name

Sex

Position

Background in education

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Background Information

Province: …………………………… District : ……………………………

Commune: …………………………. # of villages: ………………………

# of commune councilors: …………… # of women: ………………………

Distance from provincial town: ………………………………..

1.3 Total population in the commune (2011): …………… Male: …… Female: ……

1.4 Number of children of 6-11 years: ……………………………………..

Boys: …………………………… Girls: ……………………….

1.5 Number of children of 6-11 years old who are at school:

Boys: ………………………… Girls: …………………………….

1.6 Number of schools in the commune:

Primary schools : ……………………..

Lower secondary schools : ……………………..

Senior high schools : ……………………..

Roles and responsibilities of CC in dealing with education services compared with other sectors it delivers (based on documents)

2.1 In general, what roles and responsibilities do commune councils have?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2.2 What are the roles and responsibilities of CC in (primary) education?

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2.3 In addition to planning and budgeting committee, what are additional committees established in the commune?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

If there is a committee specially established for education, what are the roles of that committee? (Is it possible to share?)

………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………

2.4 What achievements have you made to this school in the name of CC?

………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………

2.5 What have you done to make to achieve these results?

How these roles and responsibilities are translated into practices

How many times has CC been invited to take part in school management/operation since January 2011? ……………………. times

How many times have you taken part? ………………… times

Normally, what issues do the schools invite you to get involved?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

3.3 In the commune development plan, are there any programs related to school development/operation? Yes  No 

If yes, what are they? ………………………………………………………………

Would you please share?

If no, why not? ……………………………………………………………………..

3.4 How many times have you organized commune councils meeting since January 2011? ………………………… times; and how many times has education been discussed in those meeting? …………………….. times

What are they?

…………………………………………………………………………………………..

3.5 Have school director(s) or representative(s) attended CC meeting for the last five – six months? Yes  No 

3.6 Through Accountable box, are there any complaints from the people regarding education?

Yes  No 

If yes, what are they? …………………………………………………………………………..

Have you already solved those concerns/issues? Yes  No 

If yes, how? ………………………………………………………………………..

If no, why not? …………………………………………………………………….

3.7 What are the main concerns/issues in your commune?

challenges perceived by CC in their involvement in education compared to other sectors

Have Commune Councils received any guidance/instruction for the implementation of Decentralization in education? Yes  No 

If yes, from whom? MoEYS 

PoE 

DoE 

MoI 

NGOs 

Others  Please specify: ……………………..

If yes, what are they?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Has the commune council ever attended training course on Decentralization in education? Yes  No 

If yes, what kinds of training provided?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Based on your experience, what challenges do you think the CC has in dealing with education sectors?

What would you do to solve those challenges?

Any other recommendations you wish to provide, so that the CC can contribute more to decentralization in education?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

APPENDIX B

Guide Questions for Interviewing Individual Commune Council Members

Date of interview: ………………………….

Personal Background

Name: ………………………………………. Sex: ………………………...

Year of Birth: .……………………………………………………………………...

Place of Birth: .……………………………………………………………………..

# of years serving as commune council member: ………………………… years

Your position in the commune: Commune chief 

First deputy 

Second deputy 

Member 

2. Educational and Work Experience Background

2.1 At what level did you finish school?

Primary 

Secondary 

High school 

University 

Other  please specify: ……………………………………...

2.2 Have you ever worked for education section? Yes  No 

If yes, please tick one below:

School Director 

Teacher 

Others  Please specify: ……………………………..

Roles and responsibilities of CC members in dealing with education services compared with other sectors it delivers (For those members who did not attend focused group discussion)

3.1 In general, what are your roles and responsibilities in the commune?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2.3 Is there any of your roles and responsibilities related to (primary) education? Yes  No 

If yes, what are they? ………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

How these roles and responsibilities are translated into practices

4.1 From January 2011 onward, have you ever proposed any topics related to education to be discussed in the CC monthly meeting? Yes  No 

If yes, what are they? …………………….

How many of those topics had been discussed? …………………

If not, why? ………………………………………………………………………...

4.2 For your own experience, what the most concerns in the commune?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

4.3 Personally, have you been ever approached by parents, school directors, and other to discuss about (primary) education? Yes  No 

If yes, what are they? ………………………………………………………………

What action do you take then? …………………………………………………….

4.4 Based on your experience, what are the main issues affecting education in your commune?

Issue related to people: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Issues related to school:

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

In the name of CC members, what will you do to solve these problems?

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

challenges perceived by CC members in their involvement in education compared to other sectors

5.1 So far, what kind of support and guidance do you have received (in the name of members of CC)?

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………

5.3 Comparing to other sectors what are the main difficulties do you have in dealing with those of education?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

5.4 Any other suggestion / recommendations you wish to provide so that the CC members can contribute more to the education section?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

APPENDIX C

Letter of Recommendation

Date:….., 2011

Dear Sir/Madam,

I, NITH Bunlay, Ph.D., Director of Master of Education Program, Royal University of Phnom Penh, would like to take this opportunity to recommend one of my students in Cohort 4, Mr. In Samrithy, a Master’s student at Royal University of Phnom Penh for his research in your institution and ask you to give him kind assistance for his research.

Mr. In Samrithy is a Master’s student of Master Program of Education, Royal University of Phnom Penh in Cambodia. Mr. In Samrithy is doing a research focusing on education field. He has already completed course work at Master of Education (Med). His research focuses on “Cambodia’s Decentralization and Decencentration: Exploring Commune Council Engagement in Primary Education”.

Based on the above statement, I would like to recommend him to conduct his research at your institution. If you have any comply, please feel free to contact me.

Sincerely yours,

NITH Bunlay, Ph.D.

Director of Master of Education Program

Royal University of Phnom Penh

Email: bunlay@yahoo.com

APPENDIX D

CONSENT FORM

I consent to participating in an interview for this research. YES  NO

I consent to having my interview recorded and a transcript made. YES  NO

Name: (printed) ……………………………..….……...

Institution: ………….…….…

Signature (or thumb print) ……..……..……………...

Date: …………..……………..

Signature of the Researcher Obtaining Consent & Date:

APPENDIX E

CONSENT FORM FOR USING THE NAME OF THE COMMUNE

After having discussed with the members of the commune councilors, I, ……………………., the commune chief/first/second deputy, of ………………… commune, agreed that the researcher can use the name of my commune in his study report.

Name (Printed): ……………………………………..

Signature:

Date:

APPENDIX F

TIME FRAME

Date 2011

Activities

Remarks

April

Find the relevant sources:

the mandatory role of CC in the Field of Education;

the background/process of decentralization in education;

the methods and elements of curriculum design;

the literature reviews of CC in education (real practice);

May

Critically read and produce the concept and paper:

Read the relevant existing documents;

Link to another relevant sources;

June

Synthesize to the topic and get discussion with supervisor:

Frequently meet the supervisor;

Get comment/feedbacks and make changes;

July

Start the background and introduction part;

Literature reviews;

August

Develop the tools, instruments;

Site visit and start data collection;

Hand the questionnaires

Clean data

September

Data entry;

Analyze and discussion;

October

Continue the data collection and analyses;

November

Finish the chapter 4 (Analyses and discussion)

December

Finish conclusion;

Overall review the research study;

January

Add and make change the necessary elements in research study.

February

Critically review the content and concept of research study and self developed questions to oppose research and recommandation;

March

Proofread and edit the grammar error;

Develop the slide presentation;

Submit the final research study paper.

Print Email Download Reference This Send to Kindle Reddit This

Share This Essay

To share this essay on Reddit, Facebook, Twitter, or Google+ just click on the buttons below:

Request Removal

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please click on the link below to request removal:

Request the removal of this essay.


More from UK Essays

Doing your resits? We can help!