Concept of motivation and effect on behavior
Group dynamics is concerned with the interactions and forces among group members in a social situation. In my view a group can be defined as number of people who are having a common purpose of objective, interact with each other to accomplish their objective, aware of one another, perceive themselves to be part of the group. The behaviour changes when you are working with different groups. Another important is the person's behaviour or personality behaviour.
In my view a personality behaviour means how can we describe a person, how this person differs from the others behaviour, how we can measure the characteristics and differences. Psychometrics is also the most important related to the assessment and measurement of the personality, aptitude, intelligence. It is like the unique character of the individual and measure and understands the differences between the individuals. I think the term itself indicates the properties of behaviour which are both enduring and set the individual apart from others. These properties concern the individual's typical ways of coping with life.
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I am going to explain a few words about the group because it will explain the importance of individual in the group. The group may spend a lot of time on the each stage, but some groups never reaching the final stages because the personality and levels of dominance of each member may play a large part in the failure or success of the group and its ability to progress through the different stages, the time goes by changes occur, such as new members joining the group or old members leaving the group may re-enter the cycle and begin the development of the process all over again.
In my view if there is successful working relationship between group members in order for them to succeed, but as well as having people with corresponding knowledge and skills, it must be ensured by group members. If the members are too dissimilar personality wise, then some members may clash or others may feel left out.
Here I am going to explain about the concept of motivation because in my experience behaviour is the one of the most important role in any one's life that can be changed by motivation. Motivation is a physiological feature that aroses are people to action toward a decide goal that means the reason for the action. There are two types of motivation
1. Intrinsic Motivation
2. Extrinsic Motivation
According to various theories such as Maslow's theory, ERG theory and so on motivation may be rated in the basic need to minimise physical pain and maximise pleasure or it may include specific needs such as eating, resting or a desired object, goal ideal or it may be attributed to less apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality or avoid mortality.
Motivation is related to but different from emotion there are some theories proposed by different authors for motivation theories these are called theories of motivation. There are so many theories of motivation among that in the following cases I study about the content theories of motivation and process theories of motivation.
They are four types of content theories they are Mcgregor theory, ERG theory, Mcclellad's theory of needs. There are three important theories in process theories of motivation they are Expectancy theory, Equity theory, Goal setting theory.
I used Maslow's theory, Equity theory that have helped me to reflect on my behaviour in group situations, using the examples from management undertaken in serious and also in my work in a company.
This assignment explains about from the examples of management activities undertaken in the seminars and experiences of team working in the organisations by using the two key theories and concepts that have helped you to reflect on your behaviour in group situations.
In this assignment i am going to use the theories Maslow's theory and Goal setting theory. These theories are best suitable for my opinions or views that are arised in my experience and i like those theories a lot so the two theories are chosen. Let me start with those theories
MASLOW THOERY OF MOTIVATION
Motivation is a fundamental driving force behind people behaviour and performance. When the research was done to explain different aspects of motivation from an organisational behavioural perspective many theories or models used to describe the topic of motivation basically it is described as the extent to which persistent effort is directed towards a goal. It is very important to know about different types of motivation theories and their implementation in a group or organisation. These motivation theories specify the kinds of needs people has and condition in which they would want to exemplify these needs.
Why i am using this Maslow's theory to reflect on my behaviour in group situations. This theory comes under content theories of motivation. There is significant relationship between behaviour and motivation particularly between group and individuals. Motivations of group have a serious impact on individual behaviour likewise the motivation of an individual can have serious impact on group.
Maslow's theory of motivation was proposed by Dr. Abraham Maslow in 1943,developed the hierarchy of needs theory that reminds valid today for understanding human motivation, management training and personal development basis of Maslow's motivation theory is that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs and that certain lower facts needs to be satisfied. In this theory they are general types of needs like physiological needs, safety needs, security needs, social needs, law and affection, esteem needs. These needs must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. He called these needs "deficiency needs". As long as we are motivated to satisfy these craving, people are moving toward growth, self actualization, satisfying needs is healthy, which preventing gratification makes us sick or act evilly.
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According to Maslow's theory the above levels are organised hierarchically from lower order i.e. biological and safety needs to higher order i.e. self-actualization. Let me explain the steps of the theory that relates with my own experience in the group.
These are the needs that are required to be alive and these are the most important needs without which there is no survival of human beings they are as follows
When the people don't have anything then they try to achieve the physiological needs, these are the basic and fundamental needs if they are not satisfied then they will be surely be motivated to achieve them.
In those days of hunting a job even for food or expenses I used to depend on my parents and take money from them as a graduate I used to feel it shameful so first of all I searched for a job it satisfies the basic needs that is physiological needs of food, water, air ,sleep.
In university environment.......
I am relating this theory to my university environment in a group. When considered my experience in a group situation once while doing a group presentation in my university we divided the task to my group of four members .each one is assign a separate task and the task should completed before the particular schedule time, i approximately remember the date that is 20/04/2005. We have only one day left to submit the presentation or activity. In order to sleep tonight I have to complete my task of presentation before sleep. I need to satisfy my physiological need that is to sleep in time. I should complete the presentation before night.
In my work environment.......
while doing a project as a group i was assigned a task of coding and that should be submitted by afternoon before lunch. Every one completed their task two hours before the lunch time so at that time i was motivated to complete my coding quickly to have my food in lunch time. In this case in order to satisfy physiological need of having food I should execute the coding before lunch time. From this step I improved the concept of time management by biological needs.
The main needs in our life are biological needs and safety needs if those needs are not satisfied then we die. So safety need includes health insurance, personal security, financial security, health and well being against accidents.
When I was searching for a job first of all I will look at whether I can satisfy my physiological needs with the amount they are paying for my work later on the most important thing to consider is security and safety that is health insurance provided by management, pension, job security, safety net against accidents. It is also important to look at protection against any emotional harm.
After meeting the physiological and safety needs then higher level motivates are awaken. In higher level needs first comes a social need that includes attachment, friendship, affection, belongings to a group, giving and receiving love, relationship. While doing project I need to work in a group, I am interested to become a project manager, so I am very much interactive with my group members in group like sharing my views and gathering with the other groups, maintaining a very good relationships in a work or any other activities, exchanging the shift duties and also providing different ideas or enhancement steps for the improvement. So I develop myself by interaction with the other groups and managers with the concept of affiliation.
In my outside world I am very much likely to maintain a social relationship, participating in the blood donation camps as a volunteers as a groups, so that I can develop my relationship skills by the concept of affiliation.
After I feel that they belong, the urge to attain the degree of importance. Esteem is categorized in to external motivation and internal motivation. I feel this experience once, while doing my under graduation in a work group, myself motivated towards the good marks or grade. If I got the good grade so that I got good reputation or status in the whole college. There may be a chance to get good job or a post of group leader.
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I think internal motivation esteem needs are like self-esteem, accomplishment and self-respect. External esteem needs are like reputation and recognition. In my work environment, once upon a time I am the team member. I am very much interested to become team leader to achieve social status, reputation and fame by good attachment.
In my opinion it is about the hunt of reaching the full potential. Not like the low levels needs, only two percent of the people in the world achieve self-actualization. He gave examples of people who met this criteria using biographical analysis. The people who met this standard of self actualization are Abraham Lincoln, Albert Einstein etc these people were reality and problem centred and could distinguished the face and the fact or genuine. They enjoyed being by themselves and having deeper relationship with few people instead of more shallow relations with many people.
I am unable to experience this step because I have not much of experience in my life but I can distinguish the fake and correct.
Stacy Adam proposed equity theory and job motivation in the year 1963. This theory includes individualself and incorporates influence and comparing with other. People situations that is comparing with colleagues or friends in forming a comparative view and awareness of equity which commonly manifest as a sense of 'what is fair'. When working in a team environment in a job the people in that team are more likely to be motivated when they feel they are treated fairly and advantageously. If the people in that team feel that they are treated unfairly then there is a high chance of feeling of demotivation or dissatisfaction. So equity theory is all depends on the sense of fairness. This theory as a psychological perceptive, ignores the wider social and organisational context in two ways, they are the one is it concerns with the basis of our social comparisons, which can be extremely varied. I am compared my situation with the my colleagues, but while others makes comparisons with people in other organisations. In my view there is no rationale for preferring one basis of comparison with other. The other way is saying that this theory ignores social context concerns the systemic inequalities.
Adam call personal efforts and rewards at work as inputs and outputs are those we put in to our work and outputs are those we get in return. Equity theory can be calculated by using the following
When we compare with the above equity formula then one will be motivated if their ratios become equal and other hand gets de-motivated if the ratios are unfair.
Inputs include efforts, contributions, skills, hard work, flexibility, trust, support of colleagues, personal sacrifice etc.
Outputs include rewards, pay, salary, expenses, benefits, reputations, sense of achievement, promotions etc.
In our real life this equity theory can be used most in our job motivation. Here I am comparing with equity theory.
This is my first experience in my job life. After the completion of my graduation I got selected in company, it's my first job in my life and I am very new to the corporate culture and organisation. I am very much tense about the culture, the people are everything seems to be new to myself. But my weakness is less talkative and much lack of communication and understanding with the colleagues and working with managers. I am unable to satisfy the colleagues and my group members because of the lack of the tense and their behaviour, I am not much mingling about that culture at that time. I feel unsatisfied about my work and confidence because of these problems what I am facing. So my inputs are less effort, lack of communication, less talkative, fresher in the job field, not active obviously the output ratio is very very less, unfair when comparing with my colleagues they are doing good in their jobs they got the good ratio. The days are going I realised I was very de-motivated with my input effort and my bad weakness. So first I am started to talking with my colleagues in my group slowly and they are very help full, on that day I know this new thing if people are help full only with the good conversations and with sharing ideas and thoughts, my mom said once don't believe all people are smart but I am doing enough talks, i.e. not much but better than before afterwards I started talking with my group manager he is also very helpful in developing my attitude towards my goal. I am watching the CEO's interviews, reading language magazines, morals etc to develop my skills and after 8 months or so I got a good confident about myself, feeling happily and get good confident, activeness in doing my job activities etc. So I got the time to calculate the equity ratio, at present my input effort is confidence, hard working, being smart i.e. doing the hard work in a smart way, more talkative, maintaining the communication, sharing thoughts and ideas to develop the group work with managers. At present the output is very good than my colleagues. My manager is very helpful at that time he said one thing that is everybody knows how to improve, develop ourselves but they are not developed because of the implementation. So implementation is the important in life. This is one of the steps to my realisation. So the output ratio is good when comparing with my colleagues, in fact my output ratio is very near to my manager's output ratio that looks like very fair to me. Now I am able feel so comfortable and happily in my office, with my colleagues. So I felt the actual sense of equity or fairness within equity theory then I felt quite happier in my work and become highly motivated to continue the inputting at the same level.
When I am doing a job in reputed company I used to work in a team of five members. We started doing a project our team leader used to guide us for doing tasks and motivate us to complete project within time. All our team members used to work very hard that is almost equal as I am working but one member in our team used to sit back without any effort and with enjoying nature that means he is worse in an entire group. My input i.e. my effort, skills, hard work are very high when compared with the colleague who puts less effort in doing the project but the outputs, we are getting the same outputs that is same payment, same status. When calculated my input and output ratio with my colleagues input and output ratio then I feel that the inputs are not fairly rewarded by outputs. So I used to be unhappy in my work and de-motivated and reduced putting my effort in my job.
Within a few days I realised that I was de-motivated for wrong reasons and I continued inputting my effort at the same level as before and even a bit higher than before. I worked hardly than my other colleagues and my team manager made a note of me that I am hard working and skilled person than my other colleague and I got promotion and reward to higher level and increased my payment. Now I compared my inputs and outputs ratios with my colleague of input and output ratio then I felt that my effort and skills are fairly rewarded by giving higher payment and promotions then I am happy with my work and I am motivated to continue inputting at same level.
I experience another situation that is when I am doing my engineering final year recruitment was going for our class of 60 members. All the class members are attended for interviews from the top rankers to the least rankers in the class. I am the one of the top rankers in the class everyone expected that I will surely get the job but after the H.R round the results were announced and my name was not in the selected list only one of my friend was selected then I compared my input that is I used to attend regularly to classes, hard working, top ranker and intelligent but my output was not selected. The input of my friend is attend rarely to classes, not hardworking and fails regularly in many subjects but her output is she got selected when I compared the input and output ratios of mine with my friend input and output. I felt that the inputs are not fairly rewarded by outputs and I felt unhappier and de-motivated at that instant I felt inequity or unfairness and de-motivated to a large extent but after that when I think about the situation I came to a strong feeling that without any skills and ability if she got that why can't I get the job with a lot of skills and abilities than her. I worked hard and I was selected for a job in a reputed company after that I heard that my friend didn't get the offer letter and they didn't get the job. Now I compared my input and output ratios with my friends input and output ratios then I felt the actual sense of equity or fairness within equity theory then I felt happier in my work and more motivated to continue to inputting at same level.
This assignment is very useful to assess my past behaviour to the present behaviour and ways to develop the behaviour and to assess the performance by using these theories in a group. These are the two oldest theories what I used because older principles are the basic for anything i.e. the applications should follows the basic principle. Only few people are reached the self-actualization concept in the Maslow's theory and I am very much willing to taste that step. So I am going to putting my effort in this way and also looking the ways to develop. In my opinion if the group activities are conducted from the child hood they will be a very useful to the individual to improve their personality, behaviour and from that the concept of motivation skills will also improve for the betterment of the future.
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